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Researched by: TAMEISHA BLAKE

MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING REVIEW Topic: MS REVIEW

Anemia:
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues

NEED TO KNOW The main function of red blood cells is to produce oxygenation. Anemia results in tissue hypoxia Anemia may be Acute or Chronic TYPES OF ANEMIA: Polychythemia Vera Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Prenicious Anemia (Vitamin B12) Sickle Anemia APLASTIC ANEMIA Results from complete failure of the bone marrow You will notice extreamly low RBC, WBC and Platelet count. Treatment: focuses on identifying and treating the cause. Transfusions are given. Antibiotics given to prevent/treat infection. And also Corticosteriods IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Results from a diet low in iron or from the body not absorbing enough iron form the GI tract. S/S: fatigue and pallor. With severe cases pts. may have orthostatic changes. Treatment: Iron supplements such as Ferrous Sulfate and Iron dextran are given. Older adults with poor eating habits suffer form Iron-deficiency anemia

The body compensates in three ways with either Acute or Chronic Anemia: 1. Increase heart rate and respiratory rate in order to circulate existing blood cells more quickly 2. Redistribute blood away from the skin, GI tract and kidneys back to the brain and the heart. 3. Increasing the production of erythropoietin (hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs) POLYCHYTHEMIA VERA Increase in red blood cells The increased red blood cells make blood more viscous(thicker) Treatment: have the patient blood phelobotomized(taken off), to keep he pts. hematocrit levels normal

AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA The bone marrow makes enough blood cells but they are destroyed once they are released into circulation. S/S: pallor, extreme fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath and hypotension. Pts. usually have high bilirubin levels. Treatment: Indentifying and treating the cause. Blood transfusion, Corticosteriods. Pt. usually recovers in a few days

PRENICIOUS ANEMIA (VITAMIN B12) Occurs when a person does not absorb vitamin B12 from the stomach. S/S: Weakness, Sore throat and numbness of the hands and feet. Pallor and fatigue are common with all anemias. Treatment: prescribing a monthly IM injection of Vitamin B12(cyanocobalamin) Pt. may also lack intrinsic factor

SICKLE ANEMIA A disease I which the normally disk-shaped RBC become sickle-shape. This is a genetic disease Mostly found in African Americans (8% carry) S/S: low RBC count, fatigue and jaundice. low RBC count can cause enlarged heart,

Researched by: TAMEISHA BLAKE

MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING REVIEW Topic: MS REVIEW

HERPES SIMPLEX Virus that cause infection there are two types of herpes virus HSV type 1 (herpes febrilis) and HSV type 2(genital Herpes) NEED TO KNOW Microscope and cultured examination may be done. Antibody test (Herp-Check) can test active herpes

HERPES SIMPLEX Type 1 To prevent herpes avoid direct contact (kissing) and use good hand washing techniques. HERPES SIMPLEX Type 2 Transmitted sexually and by hand contact

NEED TO KNOW Type 1 and 2 are similar. Type 1 is usually non genital, with lesions above the waist. Type 2 is considered an STI because it is most often below the waist There is no cure for this disease Increased risk for cervical cancer(women) Annual Pap smear should be done HERPES SIMPLEX drugs Acyclovir (Zovirax) antiviral drug Valacylovir (Valtrex) Famciclovir(Famvir)

HERPES SIMPLEX S/S Painful itching sores around genitals(occurs 220 days after infection) and last about 2-3 wks Rash, small blisters Flu-like symptoms Burning during urination

TRICHOMONIASIS caused by protozaon parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. S/S: frothy, yellowish vaginal discharge that has a foul odor. Itching, urinary frequency and burning. Treatment: Metronidazole (Flagy) CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATA Also know as venereal warts are caused by HPV S/S: Males: warts on glans, foreskin, urethral opening, penile shaft and scrotum. Females: Warts around the vulva, vagina, cervix, perineum, anal canal and urethra. Treatment: cryotherapy (use of liquid nitrogen or solid carbon dioxide to freeze the warts), topical trichloroacetic acid or podoyhyllin resin, surgical removal and the injection of interferon into lesion

NEED TO KNOW (trichomoniasis) Parasite may survive for hours on damp cloths and clothings Sexually transmitted Detected by microscope Culture is down NEED TO KNOW (condylomata acuminate) Incubation period of 3-8 weeks Warts are pink or red and soft (cauliflowerlike appearance) There is no cure but warts my be removed

Researched by: TAMEISHA BLAKE

MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING REVIEW Topic: MS REVIEW

BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS Caused by Gardnerella vaginais and other anaerobic bacteria, S/S: itching, thin gray discharge, and fishy odor Treatment: treated with Metronidazole (Flagy), Clindamycin Vaginal cream (can weaken latex condoms and diaphragms) HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) (HIV) can be spread by the following: Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex Through blood -- through blood transfusions, accidental needlesticks, or needle sharing From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby in her breast milk

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) Disease that gradually destroys T4 lymphocytes which are essential for resisting pathogens. This is an opportunistic infection (thrives when the immune system is impaired. When the immune system stops functioning effectively that pt. is said to have AIDS HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) S/S: may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others

Diarrhea Fatigue Fever Frequent vaginal yeast infections Headache Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush) Muscle stiffness or aching Rashes of different types, including seborrheic dermatitis Sore throat Swollen lymph glands

VENOUS STATOUS ULCERS

Researched by: TAMEISHA BLAKE

MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING REVIEW Topic: MS REVIEW