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Ball Clay is a highly plastic variety of clay of Kaolinite group like China clay and fire clay, but

has less refractoriness. The chemical composition of ball clay is similar to that of China clay, except that the ball clay contains a large proportion of silica. The main utility of ball clay lies in the plasticity, high bonding qualities and tensile strength. It is therefore, used in bled with non- - plastic to semi - plastics clays for obtaining requisite plasticity. It is added in various proportions for the preparation of body composition of various sanitary wares, bathtub tiles, porcelain, etc. The BIS has prescribed the following specification (IS: 4589 - 1968) for ball clay for use in the ceramic industry: The material shall be in the form of lumps or power, free from any foreign matter and shall be highly plastic when wet. The lumps shall slake in water and from a smooth suspension when dispersed. The color of the material when fired at o 1350 C shall be light gray or light cream and free from any specks or patches. Chemical Analysis: Fe2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 + TiO2 by weight Al2O3 by weight L. O. I. 1.5% max. 1.5% max. 2.75% max. 25% min. 10.5% min.

Separate reserves estimates of ball clay are not available and this mineral is not included in the list of minerals for the preparation of mineral inventory. The group recommends the following grade for ceramic industry for estimation of reserves of ball clay. Chemical Fe2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 + TiO2 by weight Al2O3 L. O. I. 1.5% max. 1.5% max. 2.75% max. 25% min. 10.5% min. Physical Fired color: Light gray or light cream Free from any foreign matter. Plasticity lightly plastic When wet.

China Clay China clay, also called kaolin, falls under kaolinite group of clay minerals. It results from the alterations of feldspars, granite, gneiss and pegmatite rocks by hydrothermal action of aqueous solution. China clay usually carries some impurities in a small quantity such as silica, iron, magnesium, titanium, calcium, potassium, sodium oxides, mica, tourmaline, etc., which may be inherent in the parent rocks. The quality of china clay depends much upon the impurities present. China clay in mainly used in ceramics, textiles, Paper, rubber, paints, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries. It is also used in insecticides, white cement manufacturing. The uses and specifications of china clay in different industries are discussed below: (A) Ceramics: The BIS has not standardized any specification for use of china clay in ceramic industry. However, for the manufacture of ceramic products, good quality china clay is required which should have water elasticity of 32%, o shrinkage after drying should not be more than 7%, and total shrinkage after firing at a temperature of 1300 C not more than 10-14%, Grit should be low. For the manufacture of ordinary crockery and ceramic wares, presence of grit up to 2% is tolerated. But for the manufacture of high-class crockery, grit below 1% is generally preferred. In the manufacture of high-class ceramic products, the presence of lime, magnesia, iron oxides, alkalies and other impurities up to 2% is not harmful. Excess of iron, however, may color the products. Also for the manufacture of

electrical switches, the iron content should be as low as possible. (B) Textile and Paper coasting: China clay is utilized in textile industry and as a sizing and packing material. For this purpose, the clay should be white in color without tinting. Grit is the most objectionable ingredient. Oxides of magnesium and iron should be as low as possible. Dull white clay is utilized in making colored and khaki cloth. China lay is used for paper coating purpose in order to provide a smooth, even surface and to impart a glaze. Various grades of paper quality china clay of fine mash are used depending up on the quality of paper required to be manufacture. The whiteness, ink absorption, chemical inertness, uniformity of particle size and retentive properties determine the suitability of china clay for use in paper coating. BIS (IS: 505 - 1978) has standardized specifications for china clay for use in textile and paper coating industry as follows : S. No. Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Textile & Paper 0.1% (max.) 5.0% (max.) 62.0% (max.) 2.5 to 2.9 6.00% (max.) 14.00% (max.) 2.5% (max.) 0.7% (max.)

Residue on 53 micron IS Sieve Particles larger than 10 micron in diameter. Particles smaller than 2 micron in diameter. Relative density at 27 C Loss on drying. Loss on ignition Matter soluble in HCL Fe2O3
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Color reflectance to blue light of water, length 3040Ao 80 85 %