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Heinz Tschaetsch

Metal Forming Practise


Processes - Machines - Tools

Translated by Anne Koth

Springer

Contents
Preface Terms, symbols and units Part I Metal forming and shearing processes 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Types of production processes Terms and parameters of metal forming Plastic (permanent) deformation Flow stress Deformation resistance Deformability Degree of deformation and principal strain Strain rate Exercise Surface treatment Cold bulk forming Cold sheet forming Hot forming Exercise Upset forging Definition Application Starting stock Permissible deformations Upsetting force Upsetting work Upsetting tooling Achievable precision Defects in upset forging Example calculations Exercise V 1 3 5 7 7 8 10 11 11 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 23 23 24 26 27 27 32 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 38 39 42 43

5 Extrusion 5.1 Definition 5.2 Application of the process 5.3 Types of extrusion process 5.4 Starting stock 5.5 Principal strain 5.6 Calculation of force and mechanical work 5.7 Extrusion tooling 5.8 Reinforcement calculation for single-reinforced dies 5.9 Achievable precision 5.10 Defects during extrusion

VIII 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 Sequence of operations diagram Example calculations Shape classification Exercise

Contents 43 44 49 55 56 56 58 59 60 61 61 63 64 68 69 77 77 77 78 78 79 80 80 80 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 86 86 87 88 89 89 90 91 91 91 91 91 93 93 94

6 Thread and gear rolling 6.1 Types of process 6.2 Application of 6.3 Advantages of thread rolling 6.4 Establishing the initial diameter 6.5 Rolling speeds with cylindrical dies 6.6 Rolling dies 6.7 Example 6.8 Thread rolling machines 6.9 Exercise 6.10 Processes and machines for rolling gears 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Cold hubbing Definition Application of the process Permissible deformations Calculation of force and mechanical work Materials which can be hubbed Hubbing speed Lubrication during hubbing Characteristics of the workpieces to be hubbed Hubbing tooling Advantages of cold hubbing Defects during cold hubbing Machines for cold hubbing Example calculations Exercise Coining (stamping) Definition Types and applications of coining processes Calculation of force and mechanical work Tooling Defects during coining Example Exercise

the

processes

9 Ironing (wall ironing) 9.1 Definition 9.2 Application of the process 9.3 Starting stock 9.4 Principal strain 9.5 Calculation of force and mechanical work 9.6 Example 9.7 Exercise

Contents 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 14 14.1 14.2 Wire drawing Definition Application Starting stock Principal strain Permissible deformations Drawing force Drawing speeds Drive power Drawing tooling Example Exercise Tube drawing Definition Tube drawing processes Principal strain and drawing force Drawing tooling Example Exercise Extrusion Definition Application Starting stock The extrusion process Principal strain Strain rates during extrusion Extrusion force Mechanical work Tooling Extrusion presses Example Exercise Impression-die forging (closed-die forging) Definition Starting stock Types and application of the process Processes in the forging die Calculation of force and mechanical work Tooling Design of impression-die forgings Achievable precision Example Exercise Deep drawing Definition Application of the process

IX 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 99 100 102 104 105 105 105 106 107 108 108 109 109 109 110 110 113 113 114 116 118 120 121 122 123 123 123 124 126 127 132 136 137 137 139 141 141 141

Contents Forming process and stress distribution Starting stock Permissible deformation Deep drawing steps Calculating the drawing force Blank holder force Drawing work Drawing tooling Achievable precision Defects during deep drawing Example Hydromechanical deep drawing Sheet hydroforming Tube hydroforming Exercise Deep drawing without a blank holder; metal spinning Deep drawing without a blank holder Metal spinning Exercise Incremental sheet forming 142 143 150 152 154 155 156 158 166 167 169 172 174 179 184 185 185 186 192 193 194 194 194 194 195 197 198 199 201 203 204 204 205 211 212 212 212 213 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219

14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4

16 Bending 16.1 Definition 16.2 Application of the process 16.3 The bending process 16.4 Limits of bending deformation 16.5 Spring-back 16.6 Determining the blank length 16.7 Bending force 16.8 Bending work 16.9 Bending tooling 16.10 Bending defects 16.11 Example 16.12 Bending machines 16.13 Exercise 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 Embossing Definition Application of the process Calculation of force and mechanical work Embossing tooling Embossing defects Example Exercise Shearing Definition Shearing process flow Types of shearing process

Contents 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 18.10 18.11 18.12 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 Permissible deformation Calculation of force and mechanical work Resultant line of action Break clearance Web and rim thickness Achievable precision Shearing tooling Example Exercise Fine blanking (precision blanking) Definition Fields of application Shearing process flow Fine blanking tooling design Break clearance Forces during fine blanking Fine blanking presses Exercise Laser cutters Joining by forming Clinching Punch riveting Self-piercing riveting with semi-tubular rivets

XI 220 220 222 225 227 228 229 238 240 241 241 241 241 242 242 243 244 246 247 249 250 254 257

Part II Presses 21 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 22 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 23 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 Types of press Presses controlled by work Presses controlled by the ram path Presses controlled by force Exercise Hammers Columns and frames Types of hammer Constructional design and calculation of impact energy Fields of application for hammers Example Exercise Screw presses Forms of structural design Functions of the individual Calculating the parameters for screw presses Advantages of screw presses Typical fields of application of screw presses Examples Exercise 262 262 262 263 263 264 264 264 266 273 274 274 275 275 276 287 291 291 292 294

styles

of

construction

XII 24 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 25 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 26 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 27 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 28 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 29 29.1 29.2 Eccentric and crank presses Types of these presses Press frame materials Frame deflection and deflection energy Eccentric and crank press drives Calculating the parameters Example Application of eccentric and crank presses Exercise Knuckle-joint and toggle presses Single-point knuckle-joint presses Toggle presses - modified knuckle-joint presses Horizontal knuckle-joint and toggle presses Exercise Hydraulic presses Hydraulic press drives Example Advantages of hydraulic presses Practical application of hydraulic presses Exercise Special-purpose presses Deep drawing transfer presses Transfer presses for bulk forming Automatic punching presses Exercise Workpiece and stock feed systems Feed devices for piercing or blanking operations Transport devices in deep drawing transfer presses Transport devices for transfer presses for bulk forming Feed devices to supply round blanks Feed devices to convey single workpieces in steps Feed devices to supply forging presses Exercise Future developments in metal forming presses and tool changing systems Flexible manufacturing systems Automatic tool change systems

Contents 295 295 298 299 300 306 310 312 312 313 313 314 317 317 318 318 320 321 321 324 325 325 331 339 344 345 345 346 347 348 348 349 349 351 351 362 367 401 403

Part HI Tables Bibliography Index