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TEACHERS PERCEPTION OF THE CAUSES OF INDISCIPLINE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE

Abstract This study will investigate the teachers perception of the causes of indiscipline in among secondary school Students in Lagos State. A well structured questionnaire will be designed to carry out this research. Data collected will be analysed using the T-test.

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 1.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND The Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary, defines indiscipline as lack of control in the behaviour of a group of people. In other words, it is the inability of a person to live in accordance with rules. Tuluhi and Bello (991980) assert that indiscipline is the breaking of rules and regulations of institutions. To this end, indiscipline can simply be seen as mode of life not in conformity with rules and non-subjection to control. By extension, the term connotes the violations of school rules and regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly, functioning of the school system Adeyemo (1985). School rules and regulations in most cases do affect students more than any other thing because they are made by the school authorities in order to guide and protect the students while in school. The problem of indiscipline is more apparent among secondary school student. Indiscipline among them has attracted serious attention of scholars and administrators. These scholars and administrators attributed indiscipline among secondary school students to their state of

development. They opine that when students notice certain biological changes signalling maturity in the course of their growth and development, they tend to misbehave by faulting school rules and regulations. (Mukharjee; 1985). Students growing into adolescents crave for freedom and they find rules and regulations of the school too strict. They have their opinion of the way to go about their academics and that certain attitudes and behaviours which the school frowns at has no bearing on their academic performance. Teachers are vested with responsibility of imparting knowledge to the students. In the course of discharging this duty, they are bound to also
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ensure their students not only excel in their academic but also exhibit good moral conduct. The teachers have passed the transitory stage of adolescence and their see demonstration of attitude on the part of students as constituting barriers to their academic success. Giving the foregoing, there is bound to be variation in the perception of the teachers and students towards the causes of indiscipline.

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PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to find teachers perception of the causes

of indiscipline among secondary school students in Lagos State.. The study also hopes to offer suggestions and recommendations that are considered necessary to reinforce discipline in schools. 1.4 HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis would be raised and tested during the course of this study. 1. Students indiscipline could be traced to home bringing of the students 2. Students indiscipline is as a result of management style of school administrators. 3. Indiscipline among students is as a result of teachers failure to understand their students. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of this study is to find a means of creating a conducive atmosphere where teachers would be able to discharge their duties properly without fear of embarrassment or harassment. A situation where teachers would spend more time on teaching rather than wasting time on complaining and punishing students and also an atmosphere
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where students would learn without interruption. Findings of this study would shed light on the causes of breakdown of law and order in school. It would also give hints on the best possible way principals can maintain law and order in schools. The suggestions and recommendations of this research would be useful for all stakeholders in the educational system: the government, school policy makers, school owners, school administrators, teachers, students and parents. 1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the course of investigating the students and teachers perception of the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students in Lagos State the following questions would be treated. 1. What is indiscipline? 2. What home influence could constitute indiscipline of students in schools? 3. Are school administrators responsible for indiscipline in schools? 1.7 SCOPE AND THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research would be conducted in Lagos State. Senior secondary schools only would be the focus and for this study only five schools would be sampled. The five schools would be chosen randomly from senior secondary schools in Lagos State. The time constraint for this research and the cost implications has necessitated the limiting of this study to only five schools. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Indiscipline: indiscipline is the breaking of rules and regulations of institutions.


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Perception: an attitude or understanding based on what is observed or thought.

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE School indiscipline has been, over time, an issue of concern for educators and we can even state that it has become a huge concern among educators, policy-makers and the public opinion in general, owing to the outbreak of aggressiveness among peers, violence within teacherstudent relationship and vandalism, as well. Indiscipline is a multifaceted phenomenon, regarding its displays and causes, as well as its meanings and functions in the social, psychosocial and pedagogical fields. Concerning the displays, we believe that major situations are framed in what Amado and Freire (2009) points out as the first level of indiscipline: those incidents of disruptive nature whose disturbance affects the good classroom functioning. The incidents that might be framed in the second and third levels, are conflicts among peers and conflicts within teacher-student relationship, which might be taken on proportions of violence and even delinquency, the latter presents a minor frequency than the former (Amado, 2005). Concerning the causes, we can distinguish, among others, those related to students idiosyncrasies, his/her social and family context, external influences and of social, economic, cultural, generational nature, etc., those related to the personality and professionalism of the teacher, and those associated with school as an organisation or the educational system as a whole. The social, psychosocial and pedagogical meanings and functions of these actions should take, primarily; in account the level within their displays are situated. The contextual analysis of the actions of indiscipline, in a broader meaning, conferred herein, reveals that such behaviours are not always offensive (as general opinion does believe), but also
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defensive as a students shield to protect his/her image and dignity, or as a strategy of maintenance and survival towards physical, psychic and moral rhythms and constraints of school and of the classroom (Amado, 2001). There are already many national and international scientific studies about this issue, approaching the pedagogical dimension and considering variables attached to the classroom; in Portugal, empirical researches considering school as whole are lacking. Since the pioneer study of Rutter et al. (1979), a lot of authors have emphasised the link between the display of disciplinary problems (including violence) and the ethos which is being lived inside schools. This ethos or school environment (Blaya, 2002) linked to cumulative effects of a set of variables is translated into attitudes, values, behaviours and practices that become a distinctive mark of the school as a whole and is closely rooted in interpersonal relationships that are made between the various protagonists of a school, individually and collectively is (Freire, 2001). 2.2 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK The problem of indiscipline is more apparent among secondary school student. Indiscipline among them has attracted serious attention of scholars and administrators. These scholars and administrators attributed indiscipline among secondary school students to their state of

development. They opine that when students notice certain biological changes signaling maturity in the course of their growth and development, they tend to misbehave by faulting school rules and regulations. (Mukharjee; 1985). The lack of clarity surrounding the defining of indiscipline perpetuates the inconsistency of response to incidents by teaching staff.

Teachers feel that Policies deployed by schools surrounding pupil behaviour are felt by teaching staff to be insufficient in meeting both staff and pupil needs. This is exacerbated further by a lack of training and continuing professional development for teaching/non teaching staff on behaviour management. An effective training programme for teaching/non teaching staff is paramount to providing an appropriate practical response to policies and guidelines on behaviour management Teaching staff feel they address issues of indiscipline in a reactive manner. In general, teaching staff had little, if any awareness of preventative measures used within schools to tackle pupil behaviour Teaching staff consider lack of parenting skills, dysfunctional families, and television/media as the three most significant factors impacting upon the decline of pupil behaviour in schools According to teaching staff, issues perpetuating incidents of indiscipline and violence include; an inappropriate curriculum, lack of flexibility to address pupil needs, lack of appropriate support structures for young people in transition between primary and secondary school establishments. Teaching staff therefore feel they contain, rather than prevent behaviour. The greatest impact upon pupil behaviour, identified by Students themselves, was the amount of quality time teaching staff spend knowing and valuing pupils as individuals. Individuality is felt to be ignored, which they feel facilitates disruptive behaviour to occur. Pupils feel that punitive measures, although often appropriate, are used inconsistently by teaching staff, hence blurring the boundaries of what individual teachers consider to be appropriate, or inappropriate behaviour. This, combined with larger class sizes, acts in a way that encourages, rather than prevents incidents of indiscipline occurring during

lessons.Pupils feel that reducing class sizes, and the adoption of an adult
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version of circle time before lessons commence, would in turn prevent many forms of disruption from occurring in the first place.

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CHAPTER THREE 3.0 3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN The research study will examine the teachers perception on the causes of indiscipline among secondary Students in Lagos State. This discusses the method used in gathering necessary information, research instrument, procedure for the data collection and analysis of the data collected. 3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

For the purpose of this study, the population would be the entire Secondary Schools teachers in Epe. Five schools however would be sampled for this study. The schools are: 1. Epe Senior Grammar School, Epe 2. Ogunmodede Senior College 3. Alaro Community Senior High School 4. Odo Obara Senior High School 5. Odomola Senior Secondary School 3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A technical self designed documentation/instrument (questionnaire) will be used for this research work to gather necessary information about the study. 3.4 CONSTRUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENT The teachers questionnaire will consist of background information such as Name of school, Sex, Age, Qualifications and Years of Experience of teachers. Section B consists of questions made up of ten items of information about their perception of students indiscipline. It is a 5 point
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scaled questionnaire ranging from Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. 3.5 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT The validity and reliability of the instruments will be ensured by presenting it to experts in the field of educational psychology. 3.6 PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DATA The researcher will disseminate the instrument randomly in all the involved Senior Secondary Schools 3.7 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis of the data will be carried out using statistical methods, T-test and Questionnaire.

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REFERENCES Amado, J. (2005). Contextos e Formas da Violncia Escolar. Revista Portuguesa de Histria, Separata, pp. 299-325. Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, Tomo XXXVII. Amado, J. E FREIRE, I. (2009). Indisciplina(s) na escola. Compreender paraprevenir. Coimbra: Almedina. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1993). The Ecology of Cognitive Development: Research Models and Fugitive Findings, in R..H WOZNIAK & K.W. Fischer. (Eds). Development in Context. Acting and Thinking in Specific Environments. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Brophy, J., & GOOD, T. (1986). Teacher behaviour and student achievement, in M. WITTROCK (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3 edio). New York: Macmillan. Ferreira, E. (2007). Contextos, Pretextos e Protagonistas da (In)disciplina na Escola. Um estudo de caso numa Escola de 2 e 3 ciclo. Dissertao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao da Universidade de Lisboa (xeroxed text). Freire, I. (2001). Percursos disciplinares e contextos escolares Dois estudosde caso. Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao da Universidade de Lisboa. Henriques, S. (2007). Indisciplina e Clima de escola. Estudo de caso n uma escola EB2,3/S. Dissertao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao da Universidade de Lisboa. Luciano, A. (2007). (In)disciplina em Contexto Escolar. Estudo de caso numa escola do 1 ciclo. Dissertao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao da Universidade de Lisboa.

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Prata, C. (2006). O Fenmeno da Indisciplina numa Escola do 1 Ciclo do Ensino Bsico. Dissertao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao da Universidade de Lisboa.

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