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........................ SCIENCE FORM 3 SUMMARY


MR CHIA CHOON SENG Form 3 B 09 5/3/10 FRI 8.10AM


Human breathing mechanism Structure of human respiratory system

-Ribcage ( ribs ) -Thoracic cavity -Diaphragm -Trachea

-Intercostal muscles

-Bronchus / bronchi

-Bronchioles -Alveolus /alveoli

Passage of air

nostrils nasal cavitytrachea bonchusbronchiolesalveolus

*Trachea is in front of oesophagus. Air enters into trachea while food and drinks enter into the oesophagus. It is controlled by epiglottis. 1. Inhalation/inspiration 1. Intercostal muscles 2. ribcage 3. diaphragm 4. volume of thoracic cavity 5. air pressure in thoracic cavity 6. movement of air 1. Intercostal muscles 2. ribcage 3. diaphragm 4. volume of thoracic cavity 5. air pressure in thoracic cavity 6. movement of air Bell jar ribcage Y-glasstube bronchus Balloons lungs Rubbersheet diaphragm Contract Moves upwards & outwards Contracts and flattens Increases Decreases Air enters into the lungs Relax Moves downwards & inwards Curves upwards Decreases Increases Air is forced out

2. Exhalation /expiration

3. Bell jar model

Transport of oxygen in the human body

Diffusion / gas exchange

Inhalation Exhalation

Oxygen moves into the nasal cavity Oxygen dissolves into the mucus lining Oxygen diffuses into the blood capillaries Carbon dioxide diffuses into alveolar cavity and moves out

Adaptation of alveoli for efficient gas exchange

1. large surface area 2. very thin wall: one cell thick 3. moist inner surface 4. surrounded by blood capillaries

The importance of a healthy respiratory system

Purpose of experiment Function Cigarette of Cotton wool

Lime water Universal indicator Harmful Tar substances Nicotine in smoke Sulphur dioxide Carbon monoxide Haze Diseases Asthma Heart disease Lung cancer Bronchitis Emphysema

Determine the effects of smoking in the lungs To produce cigarette smoke To show the presence of tar change to brown To show the presence of carbon dioxide change cloudy To shows the acidity green changes into yellow/orange Smokers cough , Cause lung cancer Addiction, rapid heart beating, high blood pressure Acidic, lung diseases Dizziness, suffocation , fatal Asthma, pneumonia ( inflammation of lungs ) Sensitivity to air pollutant, narrowing of air way Caused by nicotine Caused by tar, asbestos, coal ash Inflammation of lining of bronchioles Alveoli fused, cannot take in enough oxygen

Human blood transport system consists of heart, blood vessels and blood.
1 Heart
-Made up of -Centre of the heart -Wall of left heart is thicker -Valve

Chapter 2 Blood circulation and transport

Muscles Septum Pump blood to the whole body Prevent backflow of blood

2 Blood vessels


1 Send blood from the heart 2 Small lumen, thick wall 3 High blood pressure 4 Fast blood flowing 5 It has no valve 6 oxygenated blood except Pulmonary artery 1. Send blood to the heart 2 Big lumen, thin wall 3 Low blood pressure 4 Slow blood flowing 5 It has valve 6 Deoxygenated blood except Pulmonary vein 1 In between artery and vein 2 One cell thick 3 Gas exchanges Oxygen: to body cells Carbon dioxide: from body cells





Liquid: plasma ( 55%) Solid: cells ( 45%)

1. Red blood cells

Water 90% Dissolved minerals 10 % 1. red blood cells 2. white blood cells 3. platelets 1 Produced in bone marrow 2 transport oxygen and carbon dioxide 3 no nuclei ( nucleus ) 4 contains haemoglobin 5 oxyhaemoglobins -carries oxygen 6. 120 days lifespan 7. destroyed in liver and spleen 8. lack of RBC: anaemia 1. produced in liver and lymph 2 irregular shape 3 has nuclei ( large!) 4 less than red blood cells 5 protect body against diseases, infection 6 Days to months lifespan 7 destroyed during circulation of blood 8 excessive WBC: leukemia ( blood cancer ) 1 produced in bone marrow 2. blood clotting 3. lifespan 5-10 days 4. destroyed during circulation of blood 5. lack of platelets : haemophilia (non stop bleeding)

2. White blood cells

3. Platelets

Blood groups

ABO system


Universal recipient ( receive all blood groups) Universal donor ( donate to all blood groups ) Receive O and A only, donate to A and AB only Receive O and B only, donate to B and AB only

Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood

Oxygenated blood

Deoxygenated blood

1. high content of oxygen 2. carbon dioxide content of carbon dioxide 3 high blood pressure 4. high speed 5. fresh red 6. usually in artery ( except pulmonary artery) 7. transport oxygen from heart to body parts 1. low content of oxygen 2. high content of carbon dioxide 3. low blood pressure 4. low speed 5. bluish red 6. usually in veins ( except pulmonary vein ) 7. transport carbon dioxide from body parts to heart and pump to lungs -Xylem and phloem -Transport water and dissolved minerals -Consists of dead cells -One way long tube ( not separated by cells ) -Experiment: Balsam immerse into red ink Transport food( glucose ) In all directions! Experiment: cut phloem and it swells one month after Stem not turgid, water loss Through stoma / stomata ( plural ) Loss of water ( excessive ) Through stoma/stomata Function: to absorb minerals from the soil a. light: light stimulates the stomata to open, transpiration increases b. temperature: air is warmer, transpiration increases c. relative humidity: concentration of water in leaves and in the atmosphere d. wind speed: speed of wind increases, transpiration increases e. water availability: short of water, plant wilts, stomata close, transpiration decreases f. altitude: higher, air pressure is lower, transpiration increases

Plant transport system

Two parts : 1. Xylem

2. Phloem

Wilting Transpiration

Factors of rate of transpiration

Chapter 3 excretion
Human excretion
Excretory organs Skin Lungs Kidneys Metabolic wastes Water , urea, mineral salts Water, carbon dioxide Water, urea, mineral salts

Defecation is not under excretion, but digestion! Importance of excretion

Maintain health Regulate blood concentration Regulate body temperature Kidneys Functions Excretory wastes may turns toxic !so.. Salt concentration too high lead to high blood pressure ! Evaporation of sweat cools down the body temperature. 1.Filter the wastes from the blood 2. Regulate water and chemical balance 3. Maintain pH of the blood and tissue fluid 4. Control the amount of mineral salts Carry blood from the kidneys to the heart Carry blood from the heart to the kidneys

Renal vein Renal artery

*sphincter muscle-opening of the urethra to control the releasing of urine

Discharge of urine Filtration of blood Reabsorption of water

Kidney ureter urinary bladder urethra Blood flows through tubules under high pressure -Too much water -Need more water More urine, more dilute Less urine, more concentrated

Kidney structures and functions

1Cortex 2Medulla 3Pyramid 4Pelvis 5Ureter 1 Artery

Outer region of kidney:dark red Inner region of kidney Formed by medulla, cone-shaped Sac-like cavity after pyramid Urine from pelvis enters into ureter

Kidney problems

1.Kidney stone 2. Kidney failure Treatment for kidney failure

Unfiltered, oxygenated blood that contain urine flows from heart to the kidney 2 Vein Filtered, deoxygenated blood that has no more urine flows out from the kidney to the heart High intake of salts 1Bacterial infection 2Injury 3High blood pressure Dialysis Transplantation

Dialysis (haemodialysis)

Artery blood to the machine Dissolved sugar, salt blood to the heart Vein Urea and excess salts enter into the dialysate Dialysate Contains Dissolved sugar, salt Diffusion Urea and excess salts enter into the dialysate Side effect anaemia Excretion in plants Carbon dioxide Oxygen Mineral salts Nitrogenous wastes Water

Chapter 4 Reproduction

Sexual & asexual

Sexual Two Two types, male and female gametes Variation, different from parents Few Less rapid Types 1.Binary fission

Differences Number of parents Gametes Genetic make up Offspring Rate

Asexual One No Identical ( same ) Many Rapid


e.g. paramecium, amoeba


e.g. Hydra, yeast

3.Spore formation

e.g. Bacteria, fungi, moss, ferns

4.Regeneration /rejuvenation

e.g. Sponges, flatworms (planaria), starfish,

5 Vegetative reproduction


e.g. strawberry, grass

Slender shoots Grow horizontally Bears roots


e.g. onion

Short stem Fleshy leaves New shoots arises

3 Rhizome

e.g. ginger

Horizontally growing underground swollen stem Lateral buds

4 Corm

e.g. cocoyam

Short, vertical underground stem

5 Stem tuber

e.g. potato

Swollen ends of underground stems

6 leaves

e.g. Bryophyllum

Young shoot grows from the leaves

7. Sucker

e.g. Banana tree

New plant grows from the stem

8. Stem cuttings

e.g. Tapioca

Bud grows from the stem

Male reproductive system

Structure 1. testis 2. scrotum 3. penis 4. epididymis 5. sperm duct 6. urethra 7. seminal vesicle 8. prostate gland

Function Produce sperms Protects the testes Places sperms in the vagina during intercourse Stores sperms Carries sperms from testes to the urethra Carries sperms and urine out of the body Secretes fluid that provides nourishment to the sperms Secretes fluid that neutralise the acidity of urine and the female vagina

Sperms Male gamete Nucleus contains genetic materials of male

Male sex hormone Changes in male during puberty

Testosterone Growth of hair on the face, chest, pubic region, armpits Voice box enlarges-voice becomes deep More muscular Chest becomes broader Penis, scrotum and prostate enlarge Production of sperms Mental and emotional changes Structure 1. Ovary Function Produce ovum

Female reproductive system

2.Fallopian Carries ovum from the ovary to the uterus tube 3. Uterus Place where the embryo develops 4. Cervix Secretes mucus that enhances sperm movement into the uterus Prevents foreign bodies from entering the uterus 5. Vagina Place where sperms are deposited Birth canal Estrogen and progesterone Growth of hair in the pubic region and armpits Menstruation begins Growth of breast , pelvis Growth of hips and thighs Production of ovaries by ova Mental and emotional changes 8

Female sex hormones Changes in female during puberty

Sperm Small Testis Motile A lot

Characteristics of gametes 1. size 2. site of production 4. mobility 5. number produced

Ovum Big Ovary Non-motile Few

Menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle Start at puberty( about 12 years old ) and stop at menopause ( 28 days )

Discharged of -uterus lining -blood vessels -unfertilised ovum Premenstrual syndrome

Uterus lining becomes thicker and rich with blood vessels

Uterus wall and blood vessels continue to develop

Uterus wall continue to be thicker Ready for fertilisation

Abdominal pain, emotional changes, headache

Fertilisation and pregnancy

1. Ovulation 2. Fertilisation

Explanation Production of ovum, In menstrual cycle day 14th Sperm fuses into ovum to form zygote

Pathway of sperm enters into the vagina before entering the ovum : 3. Implantation Vagina cervix uterus Fallopian tube ovum When zygote changes to foetus, it travels to uterus and stick to the uterus wall

4. Development of a. Zygote Fertilised ovum b. Embryo Cell division after six days

Amniotic fluid Blood vessels Placenta

protects embryo provide oxygen and nutrient Projection from the embryo Join the foetus to placenta Carry oxygen and nutrient Carry waste product, urea, carbon dioxide

c. Foetus

Embryo after two months

Umbilical cord Vein Artery

d. baby

Foetus after 9 months

Importance of prenatal care:

Protein Calcium/ phosphorus Iron Fibre Carbohydrate Vitamin C Folic acid tissues Tooth and bone Haemoglobin Prevent constipation Energy Healthy skin Nervous system

Harmful substances
medicine Cigarette Alcohol Drugs

Bad effects to
Development of brain, physical growth Small size, low body weight Mentally and physically stunted Miscarriage, premature birth 10

Sterility 1. Females problem Inability to produce baby 1. defective reproductive organs 2. abnormal ovulation 3. blocked oviduct ( Fallopian tube ) 4. zygote cannot implant into uterus wall 5. health problem 1. defective reproductive organs 2. low sperm count 3. inactive sperms 4. blocked sperm ducts 1. surgery to remove blockages 2. drug treatment: hormone injection 3. in vitro fertilisation ( IVF) To prevent pregnancy 1. Wearing condom 2. vasectomy Sperm ducts are cut and tied 1. contraceptive pills To stop ovulation Has side effects 2. use IUCD ( intrauterine contraceptive device )

2. Males problem

Ways to overcome

Birth control
Birth control Males control methods Females control methods

3. spermicides 4. ligation

To kill sperms Foams, jellies, creams that put in the vagina Cut and tie the Fallopian tube

Sexual reproductive system of flowering plants

Petal Attract animal pollinator Sepal Protect young flowers Receptacle Support the flower Pistil 1. Stigma Receive pollen grains (female ) 2. Style Connect the stigma to the ovary 3. Ovary Protect the ovule 4. Ovule Contains the female gametes Stamen 1Anther Produce male gametes ( male ) 2. Filament Support the anther


Types of flowers
1. Unisexual Male flower Female flower

2. Bisexual

Two types



Different flowers, Same tree

Different flowers, Different tree Advantages : 1. better quality 2. short ripening period of fruit 3. quantity of fruit increases 4. quality of plant is better 5. more variety of plants

Same flower, Same tree


Agents of pollination
Types of agents 1. water 2. wind 3. animal 4. human 5. insects 1. big and colourful 2. short stalk 3. nectar and scented 4. anthers and stigma in the flower 5. short filament 6. small anther 7. short style and stigma with sticky surface 8. small quantities of pollen grains 9. large, sticky and rough surface 1. small, not brightly coloured 2. long stalk 3. no nectar, no scent 4. anthers and stigma hang outside the flowers, expose to wind 5. long filament 6. large anther hangs outside the flower 7. large quantity of pollen 8. small, light, smooth pollen grain 9. long stigma and style 10. stigma is long and feathery to trap the pollen grains 1. large amount of pollen 2. light pollen 3. can float on water, do not rot easily

Characteristics of flowers pollinated by

insects and animals

Characteristics of flowers pollinated by


Characteristics of flowers pollinated by


Fertilisation and development of fruit and seeds

1. Pollination 2. Germination of pollen grain 3. Fertilisation 4. Germination of seeds 5. Ovary becomes 6. Ovule becomes

Pollen grain sticks to the stigma Pollen tube grows, male gametes are travelled to the ovule Male and female gametes are fused to form zygote Zygote will form seeds, and seeds are germinated with the presence of oxygen, water and suitable temperature Fruit Seed 13

Structure of seed

Micropyle Hilum Testa Radicle Plumule Cotyledon

Allow water and air enter Mark where the seed attach to fruit wall Protect the seed Grow to form root Grow to form shoot Store food hypogeal germination of broad bean seed germinates and grows in the ground

Two types of germination of seeds

Epigeal germination of long bean seed germinates and grows on the surface

Conditions of germination of seeds

Germination of seeds need 1. Suitable temperature ( not the sunlight ) 2. Oxygen 3. Water Experiment : Oil is to prevent oxygen to dissolve in water Boiled water has no oxygen End of the experiment, only seed in test tube A germinates. Seed in test tube C increases in size and testa burst but no germination.

Chapter 5 Growth
Growth is the changes of 1. body size 2. Number of cells 3. Weight 4. shape ( bone ) 5. functions ( organs and system ) 6. emotional development 7. social development Growth is Permanent Zygote embryo foetus baby child adolescent adult old person



Infancy rapid growth Childhood Slow growth Adolescence Rapid growth Adulthood Minimal growth Old age Negative growth *negative growth is due to tissues breakdown faster than they can be repaired *Puberty age of female is faster than male. P: growth rate of female is higher than female due to earlier puberty of about two years. Changes during puberty : Beard and moustache No beard and moustache Voice changes deeper Breast grow larger Hair grows under armpit and pubic region Testes produce sperms Ovaries produce egg, menstruation begins Muscle develops Rips get more rounded



Chapter 6 land and its resources

Four main elements Four main compounds Carbon, sulphur, oxygen, silicon Oxides Metal + oxygen Sulphides Metal + sulphur carbonates Metal + carbon + oxygen Silicate Metal + silicon + oxygen

Properties of minerals Determine by 1. Hardness 2. Solubility in water 3. Effects of heat

Stretched by nail, coin, fingernail Most of the compounds cannot dissolve in water except sodium and potassium compounds Oxides Metal oxide Metal + oxygen e.g. mercury oxide mercury + oxygen All oxides are stable *except mercury oxide, gold oxide, silver oxide Carbonates Metal carbonate Metal oxide + carbon dioxide All carbonates are not stable *except sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sulphides Metal sulphide Metal oxide + sulphur dioxide All sulphides are not stable.


Reaction between metals and oxygen Metals used to compare their reactivity with oxygen : magnesium, zinc, aluminium, iron 1. potassium manganate : produce oxygen when heated 2. glass wool : prevent mixing of chemicals 3. heat the metal first Result: reactivity in ascending order : Iron zinc aluminium magnesium

Reaction between metals and sulphur Metals used to compare their reactivity with sulphur : magnesium, zinc, aluminium, iron Result: reactivity in ascending order: Iron zinc aluminium magnesium

Silicon compounds Two silicon compounds : silica and silicate Characteristics 1. insoluble 2. do not react with acid 3. can withstand heat Silica Consists of silicon and oxygen ( known as silicon dioxide ) e.g.: Sand Quartz Flints Gemstones ( jasper, onyx ) Silicate Consists of metal, silicon and oxygen e.g.: Asbestos Insulator, toxic and carcinogenic Mica Talc Clay


Calcium compounds Calcium is a reactive metal Calcium is in the form of compound Calcium Consists of calcium, carbon, oxygen carbonate e.g. limestone Marble Stalagmites and stalactite Seashell, eggshell Coral reef bone Properties Stable Does not dissolve in water Dissolve in water if the water is acidic Calcium carbonate+ acid salt + carbon dioxide + water

Natural fuel resources

Fossil fuels Petroleum Natural gas Coal Sea creatures Plant materials

Fractional distillation
Petroleum Fractional distillation is a hydrocarbon, it is a mixture Dark and sticky To separate petroleum mixture

The higher the fractionating column, the lower the boiling point

The higher the column, the clearer the colour of fractions The higher the column, the less viscous of the fractions


Chapter 7 Electricity
Electrostatics Charges Positive charge Negative charge Like charges Positive charge and positive charge , negative charge and negative charge Unlike charges Negative charge and positive charge Unlike charges attract Like charges repel Negative charged objects gain electrons Positive charged objects loses electrons Electroscope to detect electric charge

Electric current, voltage, resistance

Electric current (I) A flow of electrons Ampere( A) Ammeter Van de Graff generator is used to produce electricity Volt ( V ) Voltmeter It is the electrical energy needed to push the electron to flow Characteristics of a material to oppose the electrons to flow Ohm ( ) Rheostat is to control the resistance Factors The length of the conductor Type of the conductor Diameter /thickness of the conductor Temperature

Voltage (V) Resistance (R)

Direction of electron flow and current flow

Electron flow V= IR In series circuit In parallel circuit

Current flow

I total = I1=I2=I3= Vtotal =V1+V2+V3+ Rtotal = R1+ R2+ I total = I1+I2+I3+ Vtotal = V1=V2=V3= 1/Rtotal = 1/R1+ 1/R2+ 1/R3+ 18

Two poles North South Magnetic materials Non-magnetic materials

Iron, nickel, cobalt Plastic, glass, paper, magnesium ribbon, zinc, wood Magnetic line shows the existence of magnetic field.



Right-hand grip rule


Strength of the magnetic field can be increased by a. increasing the number of turns of the solenoid b. increasing the electric current that flows c. increasing the diameter of the solenoid


Chapter 8 Generation of Electricity

Formed by A Insulated wires B Magnet Electrical energy is generated when magnetic field is disturbed

Electrical energy generator

Types of electrical energy generators

a. Thermal generator Chemical heat potential kinetic electrical

b. Hydroelectric generator

Potential kineticelectrical

c. Diesel generator

Chemical heat potentialkinetic electrical

d. Nuclear generator Chemical nuclearheatpotential kinetic electrical


e. Gas turbine generator

Chemicalheatpotential kinetic electrical

Device to increase or decrease the voltage of an alternating current Two types

Step-up transformer- more turns in the secondary coil.

Step-down transformer-more turns in the primary coil. Efficiency of transformer Never 100%efficient due to a. resistance in the coils b. energy lost in the form of heat Can be raised up by a. using copper wire b. using laminated soft iron plates to form the core

Relationship between voltage and numbers of turns

Transmission and distribution of electricity

Function of national grid network a. Generate electricity according to needs b. some power stations can be shut down when no use c. the broken down power station can be replaced d. more electrical energy can be channeled to regions with higher energy demand

Electrical power supply and wiring system in homes

240 V Alternating current Three types of wires

Live wire electric current flows into the house Neutral wire Earth wire connected to copper plates underground to prevent electric shock 22

3 pin plugs
Live L Brown ( connected to a fuse ) Neutral N Blue Earth E Yellow with green stripes Two types of fuses Wire fuse Cartridge fuse Cannot be replaced

Power and voltage of home electrical appliances

Power ( W)= energy ( J ) /time (s ) Power (W)= voltage (V) x current ( I )

Electrical energy( kWh)= Power ( kW)x time ( h)

Chapter 9 stars and galaxies

The sun 1. Consists of hydrogen and helium 2. the nearest star to the earth 3. 25 days to rotate on its own axis 4. 1.4 million km diameter 5. about 2 x10 30 kg 6. temperature of the surface ~ 6000 0 C 7. temperature of the core ~15 million 0C 1. corona 2500 km thick ( outermost layer ) Visible during eclipse ~1.5 million 0C 2. chromosphere 30 km thick Visible during eclipse ( RED ) ~10,000-500,000 0 C 3. photosphere 3000 km Yellow light ( from earth ) ~6000 0 C Heat and light from this layer 4. core Hydrogen and helium gas Nuclear fusion ~15 million 0 C 1. prominence An explosion from chromospheres Can be seen during eclipse 300-400 thousand km Hot gas is pulled back by gravity of Sun Emit charged particles solar wind

The structures of the sun

The phenomena at the suns atmosphere


2. Solar flares

3. sunspot

Explosion of gases in sudden in the chromospheres Releases charged particles.i.e. protons and electrons Emits gamma rays and X-rays Releases a lot of energy Around the sunspot At photosphere, varies in size Due to intense magnetic activity ~ 4000 0 C compared to the 60000 C Charged particles from the Sun collide with the air particles on earths atmosphere. Electrons kinetic energy is converted to visible light Hydrogen atoms collide and form helium gas, heat is released. More than 25,000 11,000-25,000 7,500-11,000 6,000-7,500 5,000-6,000 3,500-5,000 Less than 3,500

The effects of the phenomena on the Sun to the earth


Generation of energy by the Sun Stars Classifications 1. colours & temperature

Nuclear fusion

2. size 3. brightness

Blue Whitish blue White Yellowish white Yellow Orange Red A dwarf star A giant star A Supergiant star

Birth of the stars Death of the stars


They are a star system Formed by millions of stars Classify into groups according to the shapes. Constellation Formed by groups of certain pattern of stars Function: invention of calendar, as a compass The importance of the Sun The importance of the Moon To provide energy through nuclear fusion ( hydrogen + hydrogen ) Causing tides Helps in invention of calendars,


Chapter 10 space exploration

Astronomers Thales Pythagoras


Aristotle Eratosthenes Claudius Ptolemy Ibrahim Al-Fazari Aryabhatta Al-Khawarizmi Al-Battani Al-Biruni Umar-Al Khayyam Nicholas Copernicus Johannes Kepler Hans Lippershey Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Edmond Halley Karl Jansky Edwin Powell Hubble Clyde William Tombaugh Year
1957 1958 1959 1961 1963 1965 1968 1969 1973 1970-1989 1986 1990 1992 2000

Constellation to classify stars Earth was flat disk floating on an ocean Earth was spherical Orbits of the planets were circular Orbit of the moon was inclined to the equator of the earth Earth was the centre of the Universe Sun, planets and Moon orbited around the Earth Use geometry to estimate the circumference of the earth Earth was not flat, but spherical
Earth was the centre of the Universe Planet revolved in a small circle while orbiting the earth Construct astrolabe to measure the height of the stars Rotation of the earth, eclipses of the moon and the Sun Constructed the astronomical table Study the brightness and motion of the stars Earth rotated on its axis Improved the Roman calendar First person to claim that the Sun is the centre of solar system Earth orbits the Sun Planets move about the sun Orbits of the planets were ellipses and not perfect circles Invented the first telescope in 1608 First person to use a telescope to observe the universe Laws of gravity All planets are kept in their orbits by the force of gravity of the Sun Discovered Halleys comet Invented radio telescope Discovered Andromeda galaxy using a telescope Discovered Pluto

Events Sputnik I Explorer I Luna 3 Major Yuri Gagarin Valentina Tereshkova Alexei Leonov Apollo 8 Neil Armstrong Skylab Many space probes were launched MIR Discovery Hubble Space Telescope Mars Observer The International Space Station
Russian man-made satellite American man-made satellite Russian space probe orbited the moon Russian astronaut first man in space Russian astronaut, first woman in space Russian astronaut, first man walk in space American space probe orbited the moon American first man set foot on the moon First space station by America Russian space station First space shuttle By five astronauts in earths orbit American space shuttle to orbit Mars Sponsored by 16 nations


Application of technology related to space exploration

1 Space telescope 2 Rockets 3 Space probes 4 Space station 5 Space shuttle 6 Man-made satellite Telescope in space Takes photographs Carry probes and satellites to the space Unmanned spacecraft Take photographs Astronauts live and work in Reusable spacecraft that carries astronauts and equipments into space and back to earth 1. remote sensing-collecting data from distant objects 2. telecommunication 3. meteorology /weather 4. navigation 5.geology 6. agriculture 7. Disaster management 8. forestry 9. national security management

List down the function of 1. Cobalt chloride paper : to test for the presence of water vapour 2. Red litmus paper : alkalinity red to blue 3. Blue litmus paper : acidity blue to red 4. Filter paper the presence of oil translucent 5. Anhydrous Calcium chloride ( solid ) :absorb water vapour 6. Silica gel : absorb water vapour ( blue to pink /redish ) 7. Sodium hydroxide : absorb carbon dioxide 8. Lime water : to test for the presence of carbon dioxide :colourless to cloudy 9. Burning splinter : test for the presence of hydrogen gas : extinguish the fire with pop sound 10 glowing splinter : test for the presence of oxygen : relight/reflame again 11. Universal indicator :pH acidic : red, orange, yellow; neutral: green; alkaline: blue, purple 12. Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator : acidity -red/purple to yellow 13. Iodines solution : presence of starch-brown to dark blue ( no heating ) 14. Benedicts solution : presence of glucose : blue to red precipitate ( heating ) 15. Millons solution : presence of protein; colourless to white precipitate ( before heating) red precipitate ( after heating ) 16. Acidified Potassium dichromate solution : presence of sulphur dioxide orange to green 17. Acidified potassium permanganate solution: presence of suphur dioxide- purple to colourless 18. Iodine solution ( cell ) : to dye plant cells e.g. onion cells 19. methylene blue solution : to dye animal cells e.g. cheek cells