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Date Performed: February 27, 2012 Date Submitted: March 5, 2012

EXPERIMENT 8 Chemical Kinetics

Ma. Sharmaine D. Espiritu Katryna Mae Ann T. Torres Proponents

Chemistry 14.1 MCD

Mr. Jayson DR. Vedad Laboratory Instructor

ABSTRACT

Chemical kinetics involves the study and discussion of chemical reactions with respect to reactions rates. The experiment was conducted to recognize certain factors affecting reaction rates and to determine and to explain their effects. The factors studied were nature of the reactants, concentration of reactant(s), temperature, surface area of reactant(s), and the presence of a catalyst. The experiment involved a variety of mixtures which were observed and their rates of reaction were compared and recorded. It was found that acids, substances with higher concentration, higher temperature, more surface area exposed and the presence of a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction.

I. EXPERIMENTAL In this experiment, various solutes and solvents were made to react with each other forming mixtures. These mixtures were designed to test specific factors that can alter reaction rates. A. Effect of Nature of Reactants In a 5-mL test tube, twenty drops of 0.1 M KMnO4 and twelve drops of 6 M H2SO4 were mixed and then equal amounts (ten drops) of the mixture were transferred to two separate test tubes. In the first test tube, ten drops of 0.1 M Na2C2O4 were added and ten drops of H2O2 were added to the second test tube. Their reaction rates were observed and recorded. B. Effect of Concentration In three separate 5-mL test tubes, ten drops of 6 M, 3 M and 1 M HCl. Three approximately equal pieces of Mg ribbon were placed in each of the three test tubes. Their reaction rates were timed and recorded. C. Effect of Temperature Ten drops of 0.15 M Na2S2O3 were put in a 5-mL test tube. It was placed in a water bath. Once the temperature rose to 40OC, ten drops of 3 M HCl were added and the time it took for the solution to turn cloudy was recorded. The procedure was repeated for temperatures of 60OC and 20OC. D. Effect of Surface Area Two chalks of approximately the same size were prepared. The first piece was placed in a 5-mL test tube and the other one was ground into powder and then placed in a separate test tube. Then, twenty drops of 1 M HCl was added to each of the two test tubes. Their reaction rates were observed and recorded. E. Effect of Catalyst Ten drops of freshly prepared H2O2 were placed in two separate 5-mL test tubes. Afterwards, a pinch of MnO2 was placed in the first test tube. The relative rates of the evolution of O2 in both test tubes were observed and recorded.

II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The effects of the nature of reactants were the first to be observed. Here, the relative rates of the disappearance of the pink color of the solution were recorded.

Table 1.1 Relative Rates of Disappearance of Pink Color of the Solution with Na2C2O4 and H2O2

Reducing Agent Na2C2O4 H2O2

Relative Rate of Disappearance of Pink Color of the Solution (Faster/Slower) Slower Faster

The net ionic equations are: 2MnO4- + 16H+ + 5C2O42- 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O and 5H2O2 + 2MnO4- + 6H+ 2Mn2+ +5O2 +8H2O

Generally, acid reactions, salt formation, and ion exchange are fast reactions. Covalent bond formation, however, happens between the molecules. Reactions tend to become slow in the formation of large molecules. This is why Na2C2O4 containing ionic bonds was oxidized more easily because the activation energy which is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction is low in comparison to the high activation energy of H2O2 containing covalent bonds. Their reduction potentials which is the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and be reduced is also another aspect for comparison. A solution with a lower (more negative) reduction potential will have the tendency to lose electrons to the new species and be oxidized. The reduction potentials of Na2C2O4 and H2O2 are +0.5 volts and +1.77 volts respectively. For this reason, Na2C2O4 is a stronger reducing agent because it has a lower reduction potential value. Next, the concentration of the reactants were investigated. Table 1.2 shows the rates by which the Mg ribbon dissolved in the three different concentrations of HCl.
Table 1.2 Rates of the Dissolution of Mg Ribbon in Different Concentrations of HCl

Concentration of HCL 6M 3M 1M

Time (seconds) 69 110 466

As the concentration of HCl is decreased, the rate of reaction becomes slower.

A reaction becomes faster when the concentration of one or more of the reactants is increased because there are more molecules that can collide with other molecules. However, due to two factors (1) only the more energetic molecules in a mixture undergo reactions as a result of collision and (2) the probability of a particular collision reaction depends on the orientation of the colliding molecules, only a fraction of the collisions of the molecules will lead to chemical reactions.

The third factor tested was temperature. The time it took for the solution to turn cloudy upon addition of HCl in three different temperatures are shown in table 1.3.
Table 1.3 Reaction Rates of Na2C2O4 to HCl in Different Temperatures

Temperature (OC) 20 40 60

Time (seconds) 34 16 10

As the temperature increases, the time it takes for the reaction to occur shortens.

Colliding molecules must have equal or greater total kinetic energy than the activation energy. Activation energy can be thought of as a barrier that prevents less energetic molecules from reacting. Since there are more high-energy molecules at higher temperatures, the rate of product formation will be greater. Another factor tested was the surface area of the reactant. Table 1.4 shows the relative rate of reaction of the chalk in powdered and granulated forms with HCl based on the bubble formation.
Table 1.4 Reaction Rates of Chalk in Powdered and Granulated States with HCl

State of Solid Substance Powdered Granulated

Relative Rate of Evolution of Bubbles Faster Slower

As the surface area increases, the rate of reaction indicated by the evolution of bubbles becomes faster.

Reactions are more rapid when molecules more readily collide with each other. Greater surface area means greater chance of contact between molecules thus reaction is faster. The last factor tested was the presence of a catalyst. The rates of the evolution of O2 gas in the presence and absence of MnO2 were recorded on table 1.5.
Table 1.5 Rates of Evolution of O2 Gas in the Presence and Absence of MnO2

Liquid Solution Without MnO2 With MnO2

Relative Rate of Evolution of O2 Gas Slower Faster

With the presence of a catalyst, in this case, MnO2, the rate of reaction is faster.

A catalyst is a substance that can speed up or slow down a reaction without itself being involved in the reaction. It can lower the overall activation energy for a chemical reaction. In doing so, more molecules are capable of reaching the minimum energy required to form new products.

III. CONCLUSION Rate of a chemical reaction depends on 3 factors: frequency of collisions between reactant molecules, amount of activation energy possessed by the molecule in order to break bonds and form new ones, and orientation during collision between the molecules. Reaction rates are also affected by different factors, five of which were observed in the experiment. These are nature of reactants, concentration of reactant/s, temperature, surface area exposed by reactant/s and presence of catalyst. For nature of reactants, most acids, ionic compounds and salts are formed faster in comparison to covalent compounds. Na2C2O4 reduced slower than H2O2 because of the presence of a covalent bond. For temperature, an increase induces a faster reaction while a decrease makes a reaction proceed slower. This is because of the energy being transferred between molecules that collide. Lower temperature means lower kinetic energy, which means that the activation energy is not reached immediately, while higher temperature leads to more kinetic energy in the reactant molecules, which leads to the activation energy being acquired faster. Concentration also affects the rate of reaction in that an increase in it makes the reaction faster. This is because of the presence of more molecules that can bond with the other reactant. Also, more surface area exposed by the reactant particle means that there is more contact between the reactants. Catalysts speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy, thus allowing a faster reaction.

IV. REFERENCES Chang, Raymond. Chemistry Ninth Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.: New York, 2007. Computer Assisted Chemistry Tutorial.(n.d.).Chemical Kinetics. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/chmkntcs.html General Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2006 Edition. Chemistry Unit, DPSM UP Manila.