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Gas chromatography (GC),

Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.[1][2] In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (an homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator"). The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness.

Gas-Liquid Chromatography In gas-liquid chromatography, it is the interaction between the gaseous sample (the mobile phase) and a standard liquid (the stationary phase), which causes the separation of different molecular constituents. The stationary phase is either a polar or nonpolar liquid, which, in the case of capillary column, coats the inside of the column, or is impregnated onto an inert solid that is then packed into the GC column.

Figure 2. Gas Chromatography Instrument A schematic layout of a GC instrument is shown in Figure 2. The basic components are an inert carrier gas, most commonly helium, nitrogen or hydrogen, a GC column packed or coated with an appropriate stationary phase, an oven that allows for precise temperature control of the column and some type of detector capable of detecting the sample as it exits or elutes from the column.

Gas-liquid chromatography works because the molecules in the samples are carried along the column in the carrier gas, but partition between the gas phase and the liquid phase. Because this partitioning is critically dependent on the solubility of the sample in the liquid phase, different molecular species travel along the column and elute at different times. Those molecules that have a greater solubility in the liquid phase take longer to elute and thus are measured at a longer interval. Solubility is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of the solute; therefore, separation between different components of the sample occurs based on molecular properties such as relative polarity (like ethylene glycol versus base oil) and boiling point (like, fuel versus diesel engine base oil). For example, using a polar stationary phase, with a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds will generally result in longer elution times for the polar compounds, because they will have greater solubility in the polar stationary phase. Flame Ionization There are many methods used to detect molecules as they elute. However, the most commonly employed method is flame ionization. In flame ionization, the eluting sample is passed through a hydrogen gas flame and the ion flux measured. As the sample passes through the flame, any molecules present are ionized, resulting in an increased ion flux. The total increase in ion flux is proportional to the amount of species present allowing the area under the increasing ion flux peak to be directly related to the concentration of the eluting species. GC is often also coupled with Fourier Transformer Infrared (FTIR) or mass spectrometric (MS) detectors.

ASTM D86
atmospheric distillation (ASTM D 86), vacuum distillation (ASTM D 1160), fractional distillation of crude oils (ASTM D 2892), Pot Still distillation (ASTM D 5236)

Commercial names and uses for major petroleum products


Refinery blends Crude oil cuts Gases Still gases Propane/butane Light/heavy naphtha Motor fuel Fuel gas Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Gasoline Consumer products

Aviation turbine, Jet-B Jet fuel (naphtha type) Kerosine Aviation turbine, Jet-A Jet fuel (kerosine type) No. 1 fuel oil Light gas oil Diesel No. 2 fuel oil Heavy gas oil No. 4 fuel oil No. 5 fuel oil Bright stock Residuals No. 6 fuel oil Heavy residual Coke Kerosine (range oil) Auto and tractor diesel Home heating oil Commercial heating oil Industrial heating oil Lubricants Bunker C oil Asphalt Coke

Petroleum products are hydrocarbon compounds, containing combinations of hydrogen and


carbon with various molecular forms. Many compounds occur naturally. Other compounds are created by commercial processes for altering one combination to form another. Each combination has its unique set of chemical and physical properties. Specifications for petroleum products are based on properties such as density and boiling range to assure that a petroleum product can perform its intended task. See also Petroleum processing and refining.

Petroleum product
Materials derived from petroleum, natural gas, or asphalt deposits; includes gasolines, diesel and heating fuels, liquefied petroleum gases (LPG and bugas), lubricants, waxes, greases, petroleum coke, petrochemicals, and (from sour crudes and natural gases) sulfur.

. Scope 1.1 This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates (see Note 1), aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.

The proportion of light hydrocarbons in the petroleum mixture varies greatly among different oil fields, ranging from as much as 97% by weight in the lighter oils to as little as 50% in the heavier oils and bitumens. The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as follows:[9] Composition by weight Element Percent range Carbon 83 to 87% Hydrogen 10 to 14% Nitrogen 0.1 to 2% Oxygen 0.05 to 1.5% Sulfur 0.05 to 6.0% Metals < 0.1%

ASTM Overview
ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.
Working in an open and transparent process and using ASTMs advanced electronic infrastructure, ASTM members deliver the test methods, specifications, guides and practices that support industries and governments worldwide.

ASTM D86-96, which is performed under atmospheric pressure and is used for determining the boiling point distribution of light petroleum fractions, such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and light gas oil; micro-distillation; molecular distillation

Cloud Point & Pour Point Apparatus


Cloud point and pour point are indicators of the lowest temperature of utility for petroleum products. The sample is periodically examined while it is being cooled in the cloud and pour point apparatus. The highest temperature at which haziness is observed (cloud point), or the lowest temperature at which movement of the oil is observed (pour point), is reported as the test result.

Cloud Point - The cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals first appears in a fuel sample that is cooled. The cloud point is determined by visually inspecting for a haze in the normally clear fuel.

Pour Point - The pour point is the lowest temperature at which movement of the fuel sample can be
determined when the sample container is tilted. The apparatus used is the same as for the Cloud Point. At every 1oC of cooling, the sample is inspected and when no movement is detected after 5 seconds, the test is stopped. 1oC is added to the temperature where no movement was observed and this is the pour point.

POUR POINT The bunker fuel pour point is the lowest temperature at which a residual fuel can be handled without excessive amounts of wax crystals forming out of solution. If a fuel is below the pour point, wax will begin to separate out which will block filters. Wax will also

build up on tank bottoms and on heating coils. When heat is re-applied it can be difficult to get the wax to re-dissolve because of its insulating nature, therefore manual cleaning of tanks becomes necessary. To avoid the operational difficulties just described, it is necessary to store the fuel at least 10C above the pour point. The transfer pumps in the fuel system are usually designed to operate at a maximum viscosity of 800 - 1000 cSt. For efficient transfer, the fuel should therefore be heated to the right viscosity. For less viscous fuels, i.e. RMA 10 and RMB 30, the important parameter for handling purposes when tank heating is not fitted is the pour point. Cloud Point The bunker fuel cloud point is the temperature at which wax begins to crystallise from a clear distillate. These wax crystals will cause rapid filter blockage.

Cloud and Pour Point


When an oil is cooled slowly the temperature at which the oil becomes cloudy in appearance is called its cloud point. The temperature at which the oil ceases to flow or pour is called its pour point. Most of the petroleum based lubricating oils contain dissolved paraffin wax and asphalt impurities. When the oil is cooled these impurities undergo solidification which cause jamming of the machine. So the cloud and pour points indicate the suitability of the lubricants in cold condition. A good lubricant must have low cloud point and pour point. An oil is taken in a flat bottomed tube enclosed in an air jacket and it is cooled in a freezing mixture. Thermometers are introduced into the oil and freezing mixture. As the cooling takes place via the air jacket temperature of the oil falls. The temperature at which the cloudiness appears is noted as the cloud point. The cooling is further continued. The temperature at which the oil does not flow in the test tube for 5 seconds on tilting it to the horizontal position is noted as the pour point. Pour point of a lubricating oil can be lowered by dewaxing or by adding a pour point depressant. Poly alkali benzene called para flow is a commonly used pour point depression.

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VISCOSITY Definitions Viscosity is defined as the internal resistance of fluid to flow.

Effect of pressure and temperature on viscosity Viscosity of fluids varies with pressure and temperature. For most fluids the viscosity is rather sensitive to changes in temperature, but relatively insensitive to pressure until rather high pressures have been attained. The viscosity of liquids usually rises with pressure at constant temperature. Water is an exception to this rule; its viscosity decreases with increasing pressure at constant temperature. For most cases of practical interest, however, the effect of pressure on the viscosity of liquids can be ignored. Temperature has different effects on viscosity of liquids and gases. A decrease in temperature causes the viscosity of a liquid to rise. Effect of molecular weight on the viscosity of liquids is as follows; the liquid viscosity increases with increasing molecular weight.

Methods for Measuring Viscosity Capillary Type Viscometer


Viscosity of liquids is determined by instruments called viscosimeter or viscometer. One type of viscometer for liquids is the Ostwald viscometer (Figure 8.3). In this viscometer, the viscosity is deduced from the comparison of the times required for a given volume of the tested liquid and of a reference liquid to flow through a given capillary tube under specifiedinitial head conditions. During the measurement the temperature of the liquid should be kept constant by immersing the instrument in a temperature-controlled water bath. or

U-tube viscometers
These devices also are known as glass capillary viscometers or Ostwald viscometers, named after Wilhelm Ostwald. Another version is the Ubbelohde viscometer, which consists of a U-shaped glass tube held vertically in a controlled temperature bath. In one arm of the U is a vertical section of precise narrow bore (the capillary). Above this is a bulb, with it is another bulb lower down on the other arm. In use, liquid is drawn into the upper bulb by suction, then allowed to flow down through the capillary into the lower bulb. Two marks (one above and one below the upper bulb) indicate a known volume. The time taken for the level of the liquid to pass between these marks is proportional to the kinematic viscosity. Most commercial units are provided with a conversion factor, or can be calibrated by a fluid of known properties. The time required for the test liquid to flow through a capillary of a known diameter of a certain factor between two marked points is measured. By multiplying the time taken by the factor of the viscometer, the kinematic viscosity is obtained.

Measuring Viscosity
Several engineering units are used to express viscosity, but the most common by far are centistoke (cSt) for kinematic viscosity and the centipoise (cP) for dynamic (absolute) viscosity. The kinematic viscosity in cSt at 40C is the basis for the ISO 3448 kinematic viscosity grading system, making it the international standard. Other common kinematic viscosity systems such as Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) and the SAE grading system can be related to the measurement of the viscosity in cSt at either 40C or 100C. Kinematic viscosity is traditionally measured by noting the time it takes oil to travel through the orifice of a capillary under the force of gravity (Figure 1). The orifice of the kinematic viscometer tube produces a fixed resistance to flow. Different sized capillaries are available to support fluids of varying viscosity. The time taken for the fluid to flow through the capillary tube can be converted directly to a kinematic viscosity using a simple calibration constant provided for each tube. The dominant procedure for performing kinematic viscosity measurements is ASTM D445, often modified in the used oil analysis lab to save time and make the test measurement more efficient.

Figure 1. Capillary U-Tube Viscometer Absolute viscosity is measured as the resistance to flow when an external and controlled force (pump, pressurized air, etc.) forces oil through a capillary (ASTM D4624), or a body is forced through the fluid by an external and controlled force such as a spindle driven by a motor. In either case, the resistance to flow (or shear) as a function of the input force is measured, which reflects the internal resistance of the sample to the applied force, or its dynamic viscosity.

There are several types and embodiments of absolute viscometers. The Brookfield rotary method pictured in Figure 2 is the most common. Absolute viscosity measurement has historically been used for research applications, quality control and grease analysis within the field of machinery lubrication.

C Program to calculate roots of quadratic equations C Program to calculate roots of quadratic equations This is a simple C program to calculate roots of quadratic equations.A function sqrt() is used in this program to find the square root. #include main() { int a,b,c,d; float root1,root2; printf("Enter the values of a,b,c"); scanf("%d%d%d",&a,&b,&c); d=b*b-4*a*c; root1=((-b)+sqrt(d))/(2*a); root2=((-b)-sqrt(d))/(2*a); printf("root1=%f and root2=%f",root1,root2); }