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Required air to remove moisture or water vapor production in a room can be calculated as L = G / (xr - xm) (1) where L = required

air flow (kg/h) G = moisture or vapor production in the room (kg/h) xr = humidity ratio room air (kgH2O/kg dry air) xm = humidity ratio make-up air (kgH2O/kg dry air)

Example - Removing Moisture from a Room


Required air flow to keep a humidity ratio of 0.010 (kgH2O/kg dry air) in a room with input air humidity ratio of 0.001 (kgH2O/kg dry air) and vapor production 100 (kg/h) can be calculated as L = 100 (kg/h) / (0.010 (kgH2O/kg dry air) - 0.001 (kgH2O/kg dry air)) = 11020 (kg/h)

Design of Ventilation Systems


A ventilation system may be designed more or less according the following procedure:

Calculate heat or cooling load, including sensible and latent heat Calculate necessary air shifts according the number of occupants and their activity or any other special process in the rooms Calculate air supply temperature Calculate circulated mass of air Calculate temperature loss in ducts Calculate the outputs of components - heaters, coolers, washers, humidifiers Calculate boiler or heater size Design and calculate the duct system

1. Calculate Heat and Cooling Loads


Calculate heat and cooling loads by

Calculating indoor heat or cooling loads Calculating surrounding heat or cooling loads

2. Calculate Air Shifts according the Occupants or any Processes


Calculate the pollution created by persons and their activity and processes.

3. Calculate Air Supply Temperature


Calculate air supply temperature. Common guidelines:

For heating, 38 - 50oC (100-120oF) may be suitable For cooling where the inlets are near occupied zones - 6 - 8oC (10-15oF) below room temperature For cooling where high velocity diffusing jets are used - 17oC (30oF) below room temperature

4. Calculate Air Quantity


Air Heating

If air is used for heating, the needed air flow rate may be expressed as qh = Hh / cp (ts - tr) where qh = volume of air for heating (m3/s) Hh =heat load (W) cp = specific heat capacity of air (J/kg K) ts = supply temperature (oC) tr = room temperature (oC) = density of air (kg/m3)
Air Cooling

(1)

If air is used for cooling, the needed air flow rate may be expressed as qc = Hc / cp (to - tr) where qc = volume of airfor cooling (m3/s) Hc =cooling load (W) (2)

to = outlet temperature (oC) where to = tr if the air in the room is mixed


Example - heating load:

If the heat load is Hh = 400 W, supply temperature ts = 30 oC and the room temperature tr = 22 oC, the air flow rate can be calculated as: qh = (400 W) / (1.2 kg/m3) (1005 J/kg K) ((30 oC) - (22 oC)) = 0.041 m3/s = 149 m3/h
Moisture

If it is necessary to humidify the indoor air, the amount of supply air needed may be calculated as: qmh = Qh / (x2 - x1) where qm = volume of air for humidifying (m3/s) Qh = moisture to be supplied (kg/s) = density of air (kg/m3) x2 = humidity of room air (kg/kg) x1 = humidity of supply air (kg/kg)
Dehumidifying

(3)

If it is necessary to dehumidify the indoor air, the amount of supply air needed may be calculated as: qmd = Qd / (x1 - x2) where qmd = volume of air for dehumidifying (m3/s) Qd = moisture to be dehumified (kg/s)
Example - humidifying

(4)

If added moisture Qh = 0.003 kg/s, room humidity x1 = 0.001 kg/kg and supply air humidity x2 = 0.008 kg/kg, the amount of air can expressed as: qmh = (0.003 kg/s) / (1.2 kg/m3) ((0.008 kg/kg)- (0.001 kg/kg))

= 0.36 m3/s Alternatively the air quantity is determined by the requirements of occupants or processes.

5. Temperature loss in ducts


The heat loss from a duct can be expressed as: H = A k ( (t1 + t2) / (2 - tr) ) where H = heat loss (W) A = area of duct walls(m2) t1 = initial temperature in duct (oC) t2 = final temperature in duct (oC) k = heat loss coefficient of duct walls (W/m2 K) (5.68 W/m2 K for sheet metal ducts, 2.3 W/m2 K for insulated ducts) tr = surrounding room temperature (oC) The heat loss in the air flow can be expressed as: H = q cp (t1 - t2) where q = mass of air flowing (kg/s) cp = specific heat capacity of air (kJ/kg K) (5) and (5b) can be combined to H = A k ((t1 + t2) / 2 - tr)) = q cp (t1 - t2) (5c) (5b) (5)

For large temperature drops should logarithmic mean temperatures be used.

6. Selecting Heaters, Washers, Humidifiers and Coolers


Units as heaters, filters etc. must on basis of of air quantity and capacity be selected from manufactures catalogues.

7. Boiler
The boiler rating can be expressed as:

B = H (1 + x) where

(6)

B = boiler rating (kW) H = total heat load of all heater units in system (kW) x = margin for heating up the system, it is common to use values 0.1 to 0.2 Boiler with correct rating must be selected from manufacturer catalogues.

8. Sizing Ducts
Air speed in a duct can be expressed as: v=Q/A where v = air velocity (m/s) Q = air volume (m3/s) A = cross section of duct (m2) Overall pressure loss in ducts can be expressed as: dpt = dpf + dps + dpc where dpt = total pressure loss in system (Pa, N/m2) dpf = major pressure loss in ducts due to friction (Pa, N/m2) dps = minor pressure loss in fittings, bends etc. (Pa, N/m2) dpc = minor pressure loss in components as filters, heaters etc. (Pa, N/m2) Major pressure loss in ducts due to friction can be expressed as dpf = R l where R = duct friction resistance per unit length (Pa, N/m2 per m duct) l = length of duct (m) (9) (8) (7)

Duct friction resistance per unit length can be expressed as R = / dh ( v2 / 2) where R = pressure loss (Pa, N/m2) = friction coefficient dh = hydraulic diameter (m) (10)

Fan Inlet - Suction Pressure and Air Density


If inlet suction pressures exceeds 270 mm W.G (10 in W.G) the change in air density should be compensated by increasing the suction pressures with a correction factor:

Suction Pressure (Water Gauge) (mm) -135 -200 -270 -380 -490 -600

(in) -5 -7.5 -10 -14 -18 -22

Pressure Correction Factor -f1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06

1 in water = 248.8 N/m2= 0.0361 lb/in2 = 25.4 kg/m2 = 0.0739 in mercury

For suction pressures below 270 mm W.G (10 in W.G) the correction is normally neglected. Corrected suction pressure can be expressed as: Psc = Ps f where Psc = corrected suction pressure (mm W.G., in W.G) f = correction factor Ps = design (and measured) suction pressure (mm W.G., in W.G) (1)

Example - Correcting Suction Pressure


Design or measured suction pressure Ps = -380 mm W.G. (-14 in W.G). Correction factor from table above 1.04. For proper fan selection the suction pressure should be corrected to Psc = (-380 mm W.G) 1.04 = -395 (mm W.G.)

Fans - Influence of Air Temperature and Air Density on Volume Flow, Pressure Head and Power Consumption
Since density of air vary with temperature and air pressure (or altitude and elevation above sea level), a fan will not deliver according manufacturing specification if the operating conditions are outside NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure conditions.

NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure Conditions


Manufacturers specification of fans are in general based on the

NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure Conditions - 20oC, 101.325 kN/m2, 1.204 kg/m3 (68oF, 29.92 inches Hg, 0.075 pounds per cubic foot).

A fan is a "constant volume" device where the transported volume always is the same, no matter the air temperature or density, if all other things are equal. Only the mass flow through the fan vary with air temperature and air density.

With hot air and lower air density - less mass will be transported through the fan With cold air and higher air density - more mass will be transported through the fan With equal speed and dimensions - the volume flow remains equal

When selecting a fan it is important to know if the specification of the system is based on operating conditions or NTP conditions. The formulas below can be used to calculate the volume flow, pressure head and power consumption at NTP conditions if the operating conditions are known, or vice versa if the NTP conditions are known. The examples below may clarify the procedures:

Volume Flow
The ratio between volume flow at different temperatures can be expressed as qo / qr = (273 + to) / (273 + tr) or qo = qr (273 + to) / (273 + tr) where qr = reference volume flow (m3/s) qo = operating volume flow (m3/s) tr = reference temperature (oC) to = operating temperature (oC) (1b) (1)

Pressure Head
The ratio between developed pressure at different temperatures can be expressed as: dpo / dpr = (273 + to) / (273 + tr) or dpo = dpr (273 + to) / (273 + tr) where dpr = reference pressure developed (Pa) dpo = operating pressure developed (Pa) (2b) (2)

Power

The ratio between power consumption at different temperatures can be expressed as: Po / Pr = (273 + tr) / (273 + to) where Pr = reference power consumption (W) Po = operating power consumption (W) (3)

Volume, Pressure and Power Ratio Chart


The volume, pressure and power ratios are expressed in the chart below. The chart is based on a NTP reference of 20 oC.

Fans - Temperature and Density - Volume Flow, Pressure and Power Charts (pdf)

Volume, Pressure and Power Ratios Calculator


The calculator below can be used to estimate the volume, pressure and power ratios at different temperatures. The default values are based on NTP conditions.
20

tr - reference temperature (oC) to - operating temperature (oC)

20

Reset!

Example - Fan with Hot Air


A fan delivers 10,000 m3/h of hot air at 60 oC. The total pressure loss in the system at this volume is estimated to 500 Pa. Decide the correct air volume and pressure for choosing a fan from the manufacturers data. Decide the power consumption. Since the air volume is estimated for the hot air, the correct volume for the fan is 10,000 m3/h. The pressure coefficient is approximately 1.15 for air at 60 oC according the chart. The correct pressure in the manufacturing data sheet should be 500 x 1.15 = 575 Pa. The power consumption according the manufacturing data is 2.5 kW. The power coefficient is approximately 0.88 for air at 60 oCaccording the chart. The correct power consumption should be 2.5 kW x 0.88 = 2.2 kW. Note! Don't compensate the pressure developed by the fan if the pressure loss in the system is estimated on the basis of normal charts based on air with density 1.2 kg/m3.

Example - Fan with Combustion Air


10,000 m3/h of normal standard air at 20 oC shall be transported at an operating combustion air temperature of 180 oC. The total pressure developed at 180 oC is estimated to 500 Pa. Decide the correct air volume and pressure for choosing the fan from the manufacturers data and decide the total pressure for selecting the fan! The volume coefficient in the chart above is 1.55 at 180 oC. The operating volume flow for selecting the fan would be 10,000 x 1.55 =15,500 m3/h. The pressure coefficient for air at 180 oC is approximately 1.55 according the chart. The correct pressure used in the manufacturing data sheet should be 500 x 1,55 = 775 Pa. The power consumption according the manufacturing data is 4 kW. According the chart the power coefficient is approximately 0.65. The correct power consumption should be 4 kW x 0.65 = 2.6 kW. Note! The power consumption is lower in operating conditions than during start ups. A motor should in general be big enough to handle the higher power consumption at start ups. Remember! If fans starts with temperatures below 20 oC (NTP), the power consumption will be higher than the catalogue specification. In this situation a fan may be stopped by the electrical overload protection. Higher power consumption during start ups may be compensated by reducing the volume flow through the fan with a closing damper on the fan's outlet.

Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes


Pressure and Pressure Loss
According the Energy Equation for a fluid the total energy can be summarized as elevation energy, velocity energy and pressure energy. The Energy Equation can then be expressed as: p1 + v12 / 2 + g h1 = p2 + v22 / 2 + g h2 + ploss where p = pressure in fluid (Pa (N/m2), psi (lb/ft2)) ploss = pressure loss (Pa (N/m2), psi (lb/ft2)) = density of the fluid (kg/m3, slugs/ft3) v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s) g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2, ft/s2) h = elevation (m, ft) For horizontal steady state flow v1 = v2 and h1 = h2, - (1) can be transformed to: ploss = p1 - p2 (2) (1)

The pressure loss is divided in


major loss due to friction and minor loss due to change of velocity in bends, valves and similar.

The pressure loss in pipes and tubes depends on the flow velocity, pipe or duct length, pipe or duct diameter, and a friction factor based on the roughness of the pipe or duct, and whether the flow us turbulent or laminar - the Reynolds Number of the flow. The pressure loss in a tube or duct due to friction, major loss, can be expressed as: ploss = (l / dh) ( v2 / 2) where ploss = pressure loss (Pa, N/m2) = friction coefficient l = length of duct or pipe (m) (3)

dh = hydraulic diameter (m) (3) is also called the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation. (3) is valid for fully developed, steady, incompressible flow.

Head and Head Loss


The Energy equation can be expressed in terms of head and head loss by dividing each term by the specific weight of the fluid. The total head in a fluid flow in a tube or a duct can be expressed as the sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head. p1 / + v12 / 2 g + h1 = p2 / + v22 / 2 g + h2 + hloss where hloss = head loss (m, ft) = g = specific weight (N/m3, lb/ft3) For horizontal steady state flow v1 = v2 and h1 = h2, - (4) can be transformed to: hloss = h1 - h2 where h = p / = head (m, ft) The head loss in a tube or duct due to friction, major loss, can be expressed as: hloss = (l / dh) (v2 / 2 g) where hloss = head loss (m, ft) (6) (5) (4)

Friction Coefficient -
The friction coefficient depends on the flow - if it is

laminar, transient or turbulent

and the roughness of the tube or duct. To determine the friction coefficient we first have to determine if the flow is laminar, transient or turbulent - then use the proper formula or diagram.

Friction Coefficient for Laminar Flow


For fully developed laminar flow the roughness of the duct or pipe can be neglected. The friction coefficient depends only the Reynolds Number - Re - and can be expressed as: = 64 / Re where Re = the dimensionless Reynolds number The flow is

(7)

laminar when Re < 2300 transient when 2300 < Re < 4000 turbulent when Re > 4000

Friction Coefficient for Transient Flow


If the flow is transient - 2300 < Re < 4000 - the flow varies between laminar and turbulent flow and the friction coefficient is not possible to determine.

Friction Coefficient for Turbulent Flow


For turbulent flow the friction coefficient depends on the Reynolds Number and the roughness of the duct or pipe wall. On functional form this can be expressed as: = f( Re, k / dh ) where k = absolute roughness of tube or duct wall (mm, ft) k / dh = the relative roughness - or roughness ratio Roughness for materials are determined by experiments. Absolute roughness for some common materials are indicated in the table below (8)

Absolute Roughness - k Surface 10-3 (m) Copper, Lead, Brass, Aluminum (new) 0.001 - 0.002 (feet) 3.3 - 6.7 10-6

Absolute Roughness - k Surface 10-3 (m) PVC and Plastic Pipes Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Isophthalic pipe Stainless steel Steel commercial pipe Stretched steel Weld steel Galvanized steel Rusted steel (corrosion) New cast iron Worn cast iron Rusty cast iron Sheet or asphalted cast iron Smoothed cement Ordinary concrete Coarse concrete 0.0015 - 0.007 0.005 0.015 0.045 - 0.09 0.015 0.045 0.15 0.15 - 4 0.25 - 0.8 0.8 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.5 0.01 - 0.015 0.3 0.3 - 1 0.3 - 5 (feet) 0.5 - 2.33 10-5 1.7 10-5 5 10-5 1.5 - 3 10-4 5 10-5 1.5 10-4 5 10-4 5 - 133 10-4 8 - 27 10-4 2.7 - 5 10-3 5 - 8.3 10-3 3.33 - 5 10-5 1 10-3 1 - 3.33 10-3 1 - 16.7 10-3

Absolute Roughness - k Surface 10-3 (m) Well planed wood Ordinary wood 0.18 - 0.9 5 (feet) 6 - 30 10-4 16.7 10-3

The friction coefficient - - can be calculated by the Colebrooke Equation: 1 / 1/2 = -2,0 log10 [ (2,51 / (Re 1/2)) + (k / dh) / 3,72 ] (9)

Since the friction coefficient - - is on both sides of the equation, it must be solved by iteration. If we know the Reynolds number and the roughness - the friction coefficient - - in the particular flow can be calculated. A graphical representation of the Colebrooke Equation is the Moody Diagram:

The Moody Diagram - The Moody diagram in a printable format.

With the Moody diagram we can find the friction coefficient if we know the Reynolds Number - Re and the Relative Roughness Ratio - k / dh In the diagram we can see how the friction coefficient depends on the Reynolds number for laminar flow - how the friction coefficient is undefined for transient flow - and how the friction coefficient depends on the roughness ratio for turbulent flow. For hydraulic smooth pipes - the roughness ratio limits zero - and the friction coefficient depends more or less on the Reynolds number only. For a fully developed turbulent flow the friction coefficient depends on the roughness ratio only.

Example - Pressure Loss in Air Ducts


Air at 0 oC is flows in a 10 m galvanized duct - 315 mm diameter - with velocity 15 m/s. Reynolds number are expressed as: Re = dh v / where Re = Reynolds number (10)

v = velocity = density = dynamic or absolute viscosity Reynolds number calculated: Re = (15 m/s) (315 mm) (10-3 m/mm ) (1.23 kg/m3) / (1.79 10-5 Ns/m2) = 324679 (kgm/s2)/N = 324679 ~ Turbulent flow Turbulent flow indicates that Colebrooks equation (9) must be used to determine the friction coefficient - -. With roughness - - for galvanized steel 0.15 mm, the roughness ratio can be calculated: Roughness Ratio = / dh = (0.15 mm) / (315 mm) = 4.76 10-4 Using the graphical representation of the Colebrooks equation - the Moody Diagram - the friction coefficient - - can be determined to: = 0.017 The major loss for the 10 m duct can be calculated with the Darcy-Weisbach Equation (3) or (6): ploss = ( l / dh ) ( v2 / 2 ) = 0.017 ((10 m) / (0.315 m)) ( (1.23 kg/m3) (15 m/s)2 / 2 ) = 74 Pa (N/m2)

Sizing Ducts
The design of the ductworks in ventilation systems are often done by using the

Velocity Method Constant Pressure Loss Method (or Equal Friction Method) Static Pressure Recovery Method