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WingBoxBeams

Wing,EmpennageandFuselagestructuresareessentiallybeams. LoadedinBendingShearandTorsion. CrosssectionTypicallyResemblesaBox

(Skin StringerPanelsDesign) TransportWing(Two cellbox)

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

WingDesignShearEnvelopeforstaticconditions

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

Wingbendingmomentenvelopeforstaticconditions

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

WingDesignTorsionenvelopeforStaticConditions

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

Bodymonocoqueverticalshearenvelope

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

BodymonocoqueverticalBendingMomentenvelope

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

BodymonocoqueTorsionenvelope

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

BodymonocoqueLateralshearenvelope

TypicalWingandBodyLoads

BodymonocoqueLateralBendingMomentenvelope

PurposeofAnalysis

Toobtainstressesduetobending StressesduetoShear StressesduetoTorsion

NeedforaBoxBeam

AsimplebeamsuchasI ResistsBending. Itisweakintorsion. A/CstructureisLoadedinTorsion. StructurerequiresadequateTorsionalStiffness.

TypesofCrossSection

UnstiffenedSingleCell TwoStringerwithStiffenedCell(LightAeroplanes) ThreestringerSingleCell(LightAeroplanes) MultistringerSingleCell(TransportThickwings) MultistringerMultiCell(MilitaryThinwings)

Assumptions

AllAssumptionsofbeamtheoryareapplicablemainly
PlanesectionsremainPlane Closelyplacedrigiddiaphragms

GeneralCharacteristicsofBoxBeams
Consistsofwideskinstringerpaneltoresistbending torsionandshear. Skinscarryalltheshear(Torsionandshear) Skinscarryverylittlecompression. Skinsexhibitpostbuckledstrength Boxsectiongenerallynotsymmetric(unsymmetricbending) Boxistaperedandmustbeconsidered.

LimitationsofBeamTheory.
Beamisnotunderpurebending Duetopresenceofshearstresses,planesectionsdonot remainplane Thisleadstoaphenomenoncalledshearlag.

ShearLageffectinawingBoxBeam

EstimationofBendingstresses.

IngeneraltheSectionisunsymmetric,hence bendingstressisobtainedfrom

Forsymmetricsection
Theprincipalstresses

SectionProperties

Themomentsofinertiaofthesectioniscomputed consideringtheskinandthestringer. Needtoaccountforskinbuckling(dependsonstress Requiresaniterativeprocedure.

IterativeProcedure
Step1Assumeskinfullyeffective(lumpskinareawithstringer) Step2ComputeIx,IzandIxz Step3Computebendingstressb Step4 Findeffectivewidth Step5 ComputeIx,IyandIxzandb Step6 RepeatSteps1to5tillconvergence
b

EstimationofShearStresses.

Shearstressduetoappliedshear Shearstressduetoappliedtorsion Shearflow=fs xt Conceptofshearflowisusedextensively.

Basicequilibriumcondition

AxialLoadandshearflowsonamember.

(qn+1qn) y =P2P1
EquilibriumEquation

Shearflowduetoshear

AlsoWrittenaswhere

ExampleofanopensectionShearflowtwocommonidealizations

Sheetcarriesbendingstress

Sheetcarriesonlyshear

Momentduetoshearflowclosedcell

BredtBathoEqn

TorqueMy appliedtoaclosedcellresultsin uniformshearflowq

TwistofaClosedCell
Shearflow Consideraunitlength

StrainenergyU=

Fromcastiglianostheorem

SinglecellBoxsubjectedtoshear

Proceduretoobtainq0 Step1Startingatanypointobtain Step2CalculatemomentMI duetoqIaboutapointO

Step3Momentduetoq0 aboutthepointisq0.2A Step4obtainq0frommomentequilibrium MI +q0.2A=VX0 Makeacuttointroduceunknownshearflowq0

ShearCenter
Iftheshearisappliedthroughshearcenterthetwistiszero Assume theshearflowq=qI +q0 isforshearthroughS.C Twist

Hence

Theshearcentermaythenbeobtainedbytakingmomentsof shearflowqaboutpointO

PointstoRemember
Shearcenterliesonanaxisofsymmetry Shearcentermaynotcoincidewithcentroid. Linejoiningshearcentersistheaxisoftwist Aircraftwingstructureisgenerallyunsysmmteric Flexuralaxisistheneutralaxis(principalaxis) Shearflowiszeroatanaxisofsymmetrywhenloadingis alsosymmetricaboutthataxis.

Dcellwithtwostringers
SectionwithGeometryandloadisshownbelow,determinethe shearstressintheskinandwebandthelocationoftheshear centerforthecell

Dcellwithtwostringers

DCellwith3Stringersection
Calculatethelineofactionoftheshearcenterforthethreestringercellas shownbelow.

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

SingleCellMultiStringersection

MultiCellBoxBasicPrinciple

Inamulticellboxthereareasmanyunknownshearflows astherearecells Twistcellequationsneedtobeusedtoobtainthem Twistofeachcellisequaltotwistofthebox

EquationsforTwist

LettherebeNcells MakeNcutsandobtainshearflowq1,q2qn Lettheunknownshearflowsbeq10,q20qno


Twistofanycelli= Equatingthetwistofeachcell Eqn1= 2= 3 [N1]Equations

Takingmomentofshearflowsaboutapointo Wheredspanellength, Pperpendiculardistancefromo

Withtheseequationsq10,q20.qN0 areobtained

Twocellbox
Sameexampleconsideredexceptamiddlespartomakethebox becomeatwocell(threespars)

Twocellbox

Twocellbox

Twocellbox

Twocellbox

Twocellbox

Twocellbox