Anda di halaman 1dari 9

At sign

At sign
The at sign or @, also called the ampersat, apetail, arroba, atmark, acosta, at symbol, commercial at, curlat, or monkey tail, is formally an accounting and commercial invoice abbreviation meaning "at the rate of" (e.g. 7 widgets @ $2 = $14). In recent years, its meaning has grown to include the sense of being "located at", especially in email addresses and social media. There is no universal word for this sign. On social media websites, the "at sign" can have several applications: It may be used as a textual addition to direct a person's attention It can denote an attribution or link It allows the site's parser to detect and notify the person of username references on websites such as Twitter and Facebook that apply to him/her (although parsing now automatically detects usernames without the symbol). Basically, the mark is encoded at . The Underwood Typewriter Company introduced the symbol on the keyboard of the "Underwood No. 5" in 1900 and continued the trend with subsequent models.

There are several theories about the origin of the commercial at character. The symbol developed as a mercantile shorthand symbol of "each at"the symbol resembling a small "a" inside a small "e"to distinguish it from the different "at" (symbolized by the mere letter "a") or "per." For example, the cost of "12 apples @ $1" would be $12, whereas the cost of "12 apples at $1" would be $1a crucial and necessary distinction. Medieval monks abbreviated the Latin word ad (at, toward, by, about) next to a numeral. One reason for this abbreviation was that it saved space and ink. Since thousands of pages of Bible documents were copied onto expensive papyrus or hides, and the words at, toward, by and about repeated millions of times throughout the ages, a considerable amount of resources could be spared this way. A theory concerning this graphic puts forward the idea that the form derives from the Latin word ad, where the d is spelled in capital, and then inversed back over the alpha in front of it, thus forming a shape that resembles the @. It was originally an abbreviation of the Greek preposition (transliterated ana), meaning at the rate of or per. An Italian academic claims to have traced the @ symbol to the Italian Renaissance, in a Venetian mercantile document signed by Francesco Lapi on May 4, 1537.[2] The document is about commerce with Pizarro, in particular the price of an @ of wine in Peru; @ has long

The @ symbol appears in the Medieval Bulgarian translation of the Manasses Chronicle (c. 1345). The symbol is used as the initial "a" for the "amin" (amen) formula.

Evidence of the usage of @ to signify French "" (meaning "at") from a 1674 protocol from a Swedish lower court and magistrate (Arboga rdhusrtt och magistrat)

At sign been used in Spanish and Portuguese as an abbreviation of arroba, a unit of weight equivalent to 25 pounds, and derived from the Arabic expression of "a quarter". In Italian, the symbol was interpreted to mean amphora (anfora). Currently, the word arroba means both the at-symbol and a unit of weight. In Italian, the symbol represents one amphora, a unit of weight and volume based upon the capacity of the standard amphora jar, and entered modern meaning and use as "at the rate of" or "at price of" in northern Europe.

The Aragonese historian Jorge Romance located the appearance of the @ symbol at the "taula de Ariza" registry from 1448, to denote a wheat shipment from Castile to the [1] Kingdom of Aragon.

From Norman French "" meaning "at" in the "each" sense, i.e. "2 widgets 5.50 = 11.00", comes the accountancy shorthand notation in English commercial vouchers and ledgers to the 1990s, when the email usage superseded the accountancy usage. It is also used like this in Modern French and Swedish; in this view, the at-symbol is a stylised form of that avoids raising the writing hand from the page in drawing the symbol; this compromise between @ and in French handwriting is found in street market signs.

Modern uses
In contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site or at rate meaning at and at the rate of. It has rarely been used in financial documents or grocers' price tags, and is not used in standard typography.[3]

Contemporary usage
A common contemporary use of @ is in email addresses (transmitted by SMTP), as in (the user jdoe located at site the domain). BBN Technologies' Ray Tomlinson is credited with introducing this usage in 1971.[4] This idea of the symbol representing located at in the form user@host is also seen in other tools and protocols; for example, the Unix shell command ssh tries to establish a ssh connection to the computer with the hostname using the username jdoe. On web pages, organizations often obscure email addresses of their members or employees by omitting the @. This practice, known as address munging, makes the email addresses less vulnerable to spam programs that scan the internet for them. Another contemporary use of the @ symbol in American English is adding information about a sporting event. Opposing sports teams sometimes have their names separated by a v. (for versus). However, the "v." may be replaced with "@" when also conveying at which team's home field the game will be played. In this case, the away team is written first.[5] On some online forums without threaded discussions, @ is used to denote a reply; for instance: "@Jane" to respond to a comment Jane made earlier. Similarly, in some cases, @ is used for "attention" in email messages originally sent to someone else. For example, if an email was sent from Catherine to Steve, but in the body of the email, Catherine wants to make Keirsten aware of something, Catherine will start the line "@Keirsten" to indicate to Keirsten that the following sentence concerns her. This also helps with mobile email users who cannot see bold or color in email. In microblogging (such as Twitter and StatusNet-based microblogs), @ before the user name is used to send publicly readable replies (e.g. "@otheruser: Message text here"). The blog and client software can automatically interpret these as links to the user in question. This use of the @ symbol was also made available to Facebook users on

At sign September 15, 2009.[6] In Internet Relay Chat (IRC), it is often shown before a user's nick to mark the operator of a channel. @ is also used on many wireless routers/modems, where a solid green @ symbol indicates the router is connected and a solid amber @ indicates there is a problem.

Computer programming
@ is used in various programming languages although there is not a consistent theme to its usage. For example: In ALGOL 68, the @ symbol is brief form of the at keyword; it is used to change the lower bound of an array. For example: arrayx[@88] now refers to an array starting at index 88. In C#, it denotes "verbatim strings", where no characters are escaped and two double-quote characters represent a single double-quote. As a prefix it also allows keywords to be used as identifiers. In Forth, it is used to fetch values from the address on the top of the stack. The operator is pronounced as "fetch". In Java, it has been used to denote annotations, a kind of metadata, since version 5.0. In ML, it denotes list concatenation. In modal logic, specifically when representing possible worlds, @ is sometimes used as a logical symbol to denote the actual world (the world we are 'at'). In Objective-C, @ is prefixed to language-specific keywords such as @implementation, and also to form string literals. In Pascal, @ is the "address of" operator (it tells the location at which a variable is found). In Perl, @ prefixes variables which contain arrays. In PHP, it is used just before an expression to make the interpreter suppress errors that would be generated from that expression.[7] In Python 2.4 and up, it is used to decorate a function (wrap the function in another one at creation time). In Ruby, @ prefixes instance variables, and @@ prefixes class variables. In Scala, it is used to denote annotations (as in Java), and also to bind names to subpatterns in pattern-matching expressions. In T-SQL, @ prefixes variables. In several xBase-type programming languages, like DBASE, FoxPro/Visual FoxPro and Clipper, it is used to denote position on the screen. For example: @1,1 SAY "HELLO" to show the word "HELLO" in line 1, column 1. In FoxPro/Visual FoxPro, it is also used to indicate explicit pass by reference of variables when calling procedures or functions (but it is not an address operator).[8]

Gender-neutrality in Spanish and Portuguese

In Portuguese and Spanish, as well in other West Iberian languages where many words end in '-o' when in the masculine gender and end '-a' in the feminine, @ can be used as a gender-neutral substitute for the default 'o' ending[9], which some advocates of gender-neutral language-modification feel indicates implicit linguistic disregard for women. These languages do not possess a neutral gender and the masculine forms are also used traditionally when referring to groups of mixed or unknown sex. The at-sign is intended to replace the desinence '-o', including its plural form '-os', due to the resemblance to a digraph of an inner letter 'a' and an outer letter 'o'. As an example of the @ being used for gender-inclusive purposes, we can consider the Spanish and Portuguese word amigos. When the word represents not only male friends, but also female ones, the proponents of a gender-inclusive language replace it with amig@s. In this sense, amigos would be used only when the writer is sure the group referred to is all-male. Usage of amigas is the same in traditional and such new forms of communication. Alternative forms for a gender-inclusive at-sign would be the slash sign (amigos/as) and the circle-A, (amigs)maybe as a kind of "bisexual digraph".However (as) is more used, using the male first, and the feminine in brackets, amigos(as), For

At sign more about this, see Satiric misspelling. The Real Academia Espaola disapproves the use of the at-sign as a letter.[10]

Other uses and meanings

In (especially English) scientific and technical literature, @ is used to describe the conditions under which data are valid or a measurement has been made. E.g. the density of saltwater may read d = 1.050 g/cm @ 15C (read "at" for @), density of a gas d = 0,150 g/L @ 20C, 1 bar, or noise of a car 81 dB @ 80km/h (speed). As an abbreviation for alias in articles about missing persons, obituaries, brief reports - for instance: "John Smith @ Jean Smyth" (a possible abbreviation of aka). In chemical formulae, @ is used to denote trapped atoms or molecules. For instance, La@C60 means lanthanum inside a fullerene cage. In Malagasy, @ is an informal abbreviation for the prepositional form amin'ny. In genetics, @ is the abbreviation for locus, as in IGL@ for immunoglobulin lambda locus. In the Koalib language of Sudan, @ is used as a letter in Arabic loanwords. The Unicode Consortium rejected a proposal to encode it separately as a letter in Unicode, but SIL International uses Private Use Area code points U+F247 and U+F248 for lowercase and capital versions.[11] A schwa, as the actual schwa character "" may be difficult to produce on many computers. It is used in this capacity in the ASCII IPA schemes SAMPA, X-SAMPA and Kirshenbaum. In leet it may substitute for the letter "A". It is frequently used in typing and text messaging as an abbreviation for "at". In online discourse, @ is used by some anarchists as a substitute for the traditional circle-A.

"Commercial at" in other languages

In most languages other than English, @ was less common before email became widespread in the mid-1990s, although most typewriters included the symbol. Consequently, it is often perceived in those languages as denoting "The Internet", computerization, or modernization in general. In Arabic, it is at spelled ( using the English pronunciation). In Armenian, it is "shnik" () which means puppy. In Azeri, it is at (using the English pronunciation). In Basque, it is "a bildua" (wrapped a). In Belarusian, it's called "" ("helix", "snail") In Bosnian, it is "ludo a" ("crazy a"). In Bulgarian, it is called ("klyomba", means nothing else) or (maymunsko a "monkey A"), maimunka (), "little monkey". In Catalan, it is called 'arrova' (which means a unit of measure), or 'ensamada' (because of the similar shape of this food speciality) In Chinese In mainland China, it is quan A (A), meaning "circled A / enclosed A" or hua A (A), meaning "lacy A". Sometimes as xiao laoshu ( ), meaning "little mouse".[12] Nowadays, for most of China's youth, it is at (using the English pronunciation). In Taiwan, it is xiao laoshu ( ). In Hong Kong and Macau, it is at (using the English pronunciation). In Croatian, it is most often referred to by the English word at. Informally, it is called a manki, coming from the local pronunciation of the English word, monkey. Note that the Croatian word for monkey, majmun, is not used to denote @. In Czech, and Slovak, it is called zavin, which means (rollmops).

At sign In Danish, it is snabel-a ("(elephant's) trunk-a"). In Dutch, it is called apenstaartje ("(little) monkey-tail"). In Esperanto, it is called e-signo ("at" for the email use, with an address pronounced zamenhof e esperanto punkto org), po-signo ("each"refers only to the mathematical use) or heliko ("snail"). in Estonian, it is also called at, meaning "@". In Faroese, it is kurla (sounds "curly"), hj ("at"), tranta and snpil-a ("(elephant's) trunk-a"). In Finnish, it was originally called taksamerkki ("fee sign") or yksikkhinnan merkki ("unit price sign"), but these names are long obsolete and now rarely understood. Nowadays, it is officially t-merkki, according to the national standardization institute SFS; frequently also spelled "at-merkki". Other names include kissanhnt, ("cat's tail") and miukumauku ("miaow-meow"). In French, it is arrobase or arrobe or a commercial (though this is most commonly used in French-speaking Canada, and should normally only be used when quoting prices; it should always be called arobase or, better yet, arobas when in an email address), and sometimes a dans le rond (a in the circle). Same origin as Spanish, which could be derived from Arabic, ar-roub. In France, it is also common (especially for the younger generations) to say "at" (using the English word) when spelling out an email address. In Georgian, it is "at" (using the English pronunciation), spelled ( ). In German, it sometimes used to be referred to as Klammeraffe (meaning "spider monkey"). Klammeraffe refers to the similarity of @ to the tail of a monkey grabbing a branch. Lately, it is mostly called at just like in English In Greek, it is most often referred to as papaki (), meaning "duckling," due to the similarity it bears with comic character designs for ducks. In Greenlandic, and Inuit language, it is called aajusaq meaning "a-like" or "something that looks like a" In Hebrew, it is colloquially known as shtrudel ( .)The normative term, invented by The Academy of the Hebrew Language, is krukhit ( ,)which is a Hebrew word for strudel. In Hindi, it is "at" (using the English pronunciation). In Hungarian, it is called kukac ("worm, maggot"). In Icelandic, it is referred to as "at merki ("the at-sign") or "hj", which is a direct translation of at. In Indonesian, it is usually read et. Variations exist especially if verbal communication is very noisy such as: a bundar/a bulat (meaning "circle A"), a keong ("snail A"), and (very rarely) a monyet ("monkey A"). In Italian, it is chiocciola ("snail") or a commerciale, sometimes at (pronounced more often Italian pronunciation:[t], rarely [at]) or ad. In Japanese, it is called attomku ( , "at mark"). The word is a wasei-eigo, a loan word from the English language, or Gairaigo, referring to foreign loan words in general. It is sometimes called naruto, because of Naruto whirlpools or food (Narutomaki). In Kazakh, it is officially called ("moon's ear"), sometimes unofficial as ("dog's head"). In Korean, it is called golbaeng-i (; bai top shells), a dialectal form of whelk. In Kyrgyz, it is officially called ("monkey"), sometimes unofficial as ("doggy"), and et (using the English pronunciation). In Latvian, it is pronounced same as in English, but, since in Latvian [] is written as "e" not "a" (as in English), it's sometimes written as et. In Lithuanian, it is eta (equivalent to English at but with Lithuanian ending) In Luxembourgish it used to be called Afeschwanz (monkey-tail), but due to widespread use it is now pronounced 'at' like in English. In Macedonian, it is called (pronun. my-moon-cheh, little monkey) In Malay, it is called alias when it is used in name, di when it is used in email. It is also commonly used to abbreviate atau which means or or either. In Morse Code, it is known as a "commat," consisting of the Morse code for the "A" and "C" run together as one character: (---). The symbol was added in 2004 for use with email addresses, the only change since World War

At sign I. In Norwegian, it is officially called krllalfa ("curly alpha" or "alpha twirl"). (The alternate alfakrll is also common, but is not its official name.) Sometimes Snabel a, @'s Swedish/Danish name, (trunk a, as in elephant's trunk) is used. Commonly, people will call the letter [t] (as in English), particularly when giving their email address. In Persian, it is at (using the English pronunciation). In The Philippines, at means 'and' in Tagalog which could be used interchangeably in colloquial abbreviations. Ex: Magluto @ kumain. Cook and eat. In Portuguese, it is called 'arroba' (from the Arabic arrub). The word arroba is also used for a weight measure in Portuguese. While there are regional variations, one arroba is typically considered as representing approximately 32 pounds, 14.7kg, and both the weight and the symbol are called arroba. In Brazil, cattle are still priced by the arroba now rounded to 15kg. (This occurs because the same sign was used to represent the same measure.) In Polish, it is called, both officially and commonly mapa (monkey); sometimes also mapka (little monkey). In Romanian, it is called colloquially (iliterately) Coad de maimu (monkey-tail) or "a-rond". The latter is commonly used and it comes from a-round from its shape, but that is nothing like the mathematical symbol "A-rond" (rounded A). Some even call it "aron". Recommended reading: "at" or "la".

In Russian, it is most commonly sobaka () (dog). The name "dog" has come from Soviet computers DVK where the symbol had a short tail and similarity to a dog. In Serbian, it is called / ludo A (crazy A), / majmune (little monkey) or / majmun (monkey) In Slovenian, it is called afna (little monkey) In Spanish-speaking countries it denotes a pre-metric unit of weight. While there are regional variations in Spain and Mexico it is typically considered to represent approximately 25 pounds (11.5kg), and both the weight and the symbol are called arroba. It has also been used as a unit of volume for wine and oil.

@ on an DVK Soviet computer (circa 1984)

In Swedish, it is called snabel-a ("(elephant's) trunk-a"), kanelbulle (Cinnamon roll) or simply "at" like in the English language. In Swiss German, it is commonly called Affenschwanz ("monkey-tail"). In Thai, it is commonly called at like English. In Turkish, it is et (using the English pronunciation). Also called as gzel a (beautiful a), zel a (special a), salyangoz (snail), ko (ram), kuyruklu a (a with a tail), engelli a (a with hook) and kulak (ear). In Ukrainian, it is commonly called et ("at"), other names being ravlyk () (snail), slymachok () (little slug), vukho () (ear) and pesyk () (little dog). In Urdu, it is called at, identical to the English use of the symbol. In Uzbek, it is called kuchukcha which means doggy, a direct translation of this term from Russian. In Vietnamese, it is called a cng (bent a) in the North and a mc (hooked a) in the South. In Welsh, it is sometimes known as a malwen or malwoden (a snail).

At sign

Unicode variants
Besides the in its regular size, there is also a Unicode character for a small at-sign: , located in the Small Font Variants code chart[13] Depending on the font type this small at-sign can have the size of lower-case letter, but it is often smaller than that. In addition, the "full-width ASCII variants"[14] code chart has .

In culture
The Museum of Modern Art admitted the at sign to its architecture and design collection.[12] There is a character named @ in the book Syrup by Max Barry. In roguelikes with ASCII graphics, the at sign is traditionally used as the player character. Author Philip Pullman added the category of "things that were invented for one purpose, but are used for another" to his "Museum of Curiosity" collection with the @ as an example.[15] John Lloyd, pledged on QI series A DVD to support widespread use of the term "Astatine" to refer to the symbol. This name was chosen as the chemical element astatine has the chemical symbol "At".[16] A Chinese couple tried to name their son @ - pronouncing it "ai ta" or "love him" - according to the Chinese State Language Commission.[17][18]

[1] "La arroba no es de Sevilla (ni de Italia)" (http:/ / www. purnas. com/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ la-arroba-no-es-de-sevilla-ni-de-italia). Jorge Romance. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [2] Willan, Philip (2000-07-31). "Merchant@Florence Wrote It First 500 Years Ago" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ international/ story/ 0,3604,348744,00. html). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [3] Bringhurst, Robert (2002). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 2.5), p.272. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-133-4. [4] Who sent the first e-mail? (http:/ / ask. yahoo. com/ ask/ 20010824. html) [5] For an example, see: http:/ / www. nfl. com/ schedules [6] Tag Friends in Your Status and Posts | Facebook Blog (http:/ / blog. facebook. com/ blog. php?post=109765592130) [7] PHP: Error Control Operators Manual (http:/ / php. net/ manual/ en/ language. operators. errorcontrol. php) [8] "Visual FoxPro Programming Language Online Help: SET UDFPARMS (Command), or MSDN Library 'How to: Pass Data to Parameters by Reference'." (http:/ / msdn. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ z9b11381. aspx). Microsoft, Inc.. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [9] Martell-Otero, Loida (Fall 2009). "Doctoral Studies as Llamamiento, or How We All Need to be 'Ugly Betty'". Perspectivas: 84106. [10] DPD 1 edicin, 2 tirada (http:/ / buscon. rae. es/ dpdI/ SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=genero#22) [11] Constable, Peter, and Lorna A. Priest (Oct. 12, 2009) SIL Corporate PUA Assignments 5.2a (http:/ / scripts. sil. org/ cms/ scripts/ page. php?site_id=nrsi& item_id=SILPUAassignments). SIL International (http:/ / www. sil. org/ ). pp. 59-60. Retrieved on Apr. 12, 2010. [12] "Why @ Is Held in Such High Design Esteem" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 22/ arts/ design/ 22iht-design22. html?ref=technology). The New York Times, Alice Rawsthorn, March 21, 2010. 2010-03-22. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [13] (http:/ / www. unicode. org/ charts/ PDF/ UFE50. pdf) [14] (http:/ / www. unicode. org/ charts/ PDF/ UFF00. pdf) [15] "Meeting Twelve P-51 Mustang, Tempting Fate, Inventions Being Used for Things They Weren't Designed For". The Museum of Curiosity. 8 June 2009. No. 6, season 2. [16] John Lloyd and John Mitchinson (6 November 2006). QI The Complete First Series: "Factoids" (Audio Commentary) (DVD). BBC and 2 Entertain. ISBN5-014503-232528. [17] "English invades Chinese language" (http:/ / english. peopledaily. com. cn/ 90001/ 90781/ 90879/ 6241904. html), August 17 2007", People's Daily Online [18] "Couple try to name baby @" (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ email/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=188& objectid=10458356), Aug 17, 2007, NZ Herald

At sign

External links
"Daniel Soar on @" (, London Review of Books, Vol. 31 No. 10, 28 May 2009 ascii64 the @ book free download (creative commons) by patrik sneyd foreword by luigi colani (11/2006) ( A Natural History of the @ Sign ( The many names of the at sign in various languages Linguist's view ( Gender-inclusive use of @ in Portuguese (and in Spanish too): 2 A lngua e o sexo (2 Tongue and Sex), Quartos (quarters) I (, II ( and III (, one of the subjects of Controversial Numbers ( #lang=en) project Where it's At: names for a common symbol ( Article at World Wide Words UK Telegraph Article: Chinese parents choose to name their baby "@" ( main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/08/17/wname117.xml) This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors

At sign Source: Contributors: .:Ajvol:., 12jacksont, 16@r, 21655, 28bytes, 72llama, 842U, AKRMadison, AThing, Aannoonn, Aanund, Abedulita, AceMyth, Aceman2000, Achowat, Aeontech, Ajgorhoe, Ajones282, Akomor1, Alan J Shea, Alazoral, AlexWangombe, Alpha Quadrant, Alpy01, Andres, AndrewHowse, Andypopa, Angr, Anime Addict AA, Anon126, AnonMoos, Anonymous Bob, Anonymous editor, Anthony Appleyard, Anticipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, Anypodetos, Avillia, Avoided, Azimout, B, BOO HISS BOO HISS, BRPXQZME, Bazonka, BenB4, Bender235, Benjamin9832, BennyD, Bfinn, BiT, Bill q1, Bjankuloski06en, Blackcats, Bmud, Bobblewik, Boffy b, Boral, Bronger, BruceBCohen, Brus07, Brusegadi, Buckstars, Bupbupbupbup74, C-w-l, C.Fred, C777, CAWylie, CHV, CaliforniaAliBaba, Cam479, Cambalachero, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Cantus, Cfailde, Cgdvw25, Ched Davis, CiaPan, CielProfond, Ciphergoth, Closedmouth, Cmdrjameson, Confuseus, ContributingCarol, Cripipper, Criticality, Curtissthompson, Cybercobra, D.brodale, DCsounds, DHN, DVD R W, Danlev, Danno uk, DavidGC, Davidwr, Dawnseeker2000, Dcamp314, DePiep, Denelson83, Denisarona, Dhollm, Dickenschrader, Dinesh smita, Dogcow, Dread Specter, Droll, Dryguy, Dysmorodrepanis, Earthlyreason, Eastlaw, EasyTarget, Edmundv, Eleassar777, Elliottcable, Emdx, Emelmujiro, Epbr123, Ermengol Pataln, Eu.stefan, Eurosong, EvanProdromou, Evb-wiki, Everard Proudfoot, Evonash, ExemplaryStudent, Facts707, Fastily, Faunas, Feline1, Fetchcomms, Fjarlq, Fjor, Fl, Flares, Foobaz, Foxtyke, Frungi, Fufu70, Funandtrvl, Furrykef, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Gaius Cornelius, GalaxiaGuy, Gary King, Gene Nygaard, Gennaro Prota, Gfoley4, Ghandis papa, Ghmyrtle, Gil Gamesh, Grafen, Grayshi, Grubber, Gulmammad, Guyjohnston, Gwalla, Gwernol, Habbit, Hairy Dude, Haku-Spain, Hamza2007, Hawklord, HelenKMarks, Hellbus, Heron, Honette, Humilulo, Husky, Hvn73, ISD, IanMSpencer, Imugur, Intgr, IronGargoyle, IstvanWolf, J.delanoy, JHunterJ, JRM, JTN, Jacob Poon, JadziaLover, JamesAM, JamieVicary, JanCeuleers, Jason Cherniak, Jd027, JediMaster362, Jeff Relf, Jmabel, Jnorton7558, Jogloran, John of Reading, John254, Jooler, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jredmond, Julesd, Jweiss11, KGasso, Kain Nihil, KarasuGamma, Keka, Kelisi, Kellen`, Kelly Martin, Ken Hirsch, KenKuhl, Kennercat, Kernigh, KevinJr42, Kjaergaard, Koavf, Komitata, Kongr43gpen, Kpalion, KrAtul, Krubo, Kungfuadam, Kwamikagami, LFaraone, Lantrix, Larch922, Larrymcp, Lawrence Cohen, Letdorf, Letuo, Leucius, Leuqarte, Leveni, LibraSunNOLA, Ligulem, Ling.Nut, Livy, Logixoul, Lotje, Lusanaherandraton, Lusitana, Maffoo22, Malick78, Mangajin, Mani1, Manwe, Margaridas, Markaci, Marsian, Martin S Taylor, Materialscientist, MaximvsDecimvs, Mcattell, Meaghan, Mediumal, MeekMark, Mehmet Karatay, Meiskam, Melchoir, Mermaidienne, Mindmatrix, MinorEdits, Mipadi, Mitsukai, Mkmk, Mo0, Momus, Montrealais, Morriswa, Mourn, Moverton, Mr2001, Mrschimpf, Mskadu, Mtcv, Murtasa, Mxn, Mzajac, NOLA504ever, Naleh, Nanami Kamimura, Nathanael Bar-Aur L., NatusRoma, Neko-chan, NevilleDNZ, NewEnglandYankee, Nihiltres, No, my name is not Jonas, Nonent310, Nordisk varg, Nosferattr, Number36, OrangUtanUK, Owen, OwenX, OwlofDoom, Ozga, Paf00, Pak21, Pale2hall, Pandamonia, Pardus2, Pascalbrax, Pass a Method, Paulalexander, Pepoluan, Peter Karlsen, PeterIto, PeterJohnson, Phanerozoic, Philippe, Pi72, Piano non troppo, Pieispi314thegame, Pioto, Pit-trout, Plugwash, Polylerus, Potatoswatter, Pouya, ProfPolySci45, Project2501a, Purple Paint, Pyrop, Queenmomcat, Quuxplusone, Railwayfan2005, RaspK FOG, Razalhague, Rchamberlain, Redsox00002, RememberMe?, Retard107, Reywas92, Rich Farmbrough, Rillian, Ripounet, Rjwilmsi, Robincross224, RossenV, Rothorpe, Ruud Koot, Ryanmcdaniel, SCZenz, SGBailey, Sade, Sandstein, Sarsnic, Saul.paul.metto, Sbo, Scientific29, ScottyBerg, Sdavis21, Sean.hoyland, Sebdelprat, Secdio, Sergei Frolov, Seunghun, SideTimes, Sjl0523, Snori, SnowFire, SocratesJedi, Soulparadox, Sp0ng, Sp33dyphil, SpiralOut, Spiritia, Spizzer2, SporadicN, Spug, SpuriousQ, Srborlongan, Ssentinull, Stampfull, Stigmatasaurus, Suruena, Sverdrup, Svyatoslav, TShilo12, Tasc, Tavilis, TenPoundHammer, Tengilorg, Teorth, The Man in Question, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Ungovernable Force, The coast holds, TheCatalyst31, This lousy T-shirt, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Tikiwont, Tinus, Tirkfl, Tobias Bergemann, Todd Vierling, Tokek, Tommy0178, Tonymaric, Torc2, Tothwolf, Totie, Treygdor, Trifon Triantafillidis, Twang, Twas Now, U-571, UdovdM, Uncle G, Undisputedloser, Usenetpostsdotcom, V85, Vadmium, Violetriga, Vvneagleone, W3bbo, Wakuran, WhiteHatLurker, WikiPediaAid, WikiPlayer, Wikid77, Winchelsea, Winner 42, Wiwaxia, Woohookitty, Wwwwolf, Xil, Xy, Yohanes.niko, Yonidebest, Ytrottier, YukiMuonMadobeNite, Yzmo, Zegumabeach, Zoffoperskof, , , 748 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:19-manasses-chronicle.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Original: Constantine Manasses File:1674 liten.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Boivie, Hekerui, Herbythyme, Nicke L, 1 anonymous edits File:Ariza1448-2.jpg Source: License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Jorge Romance. Original uploader was Damianvila at en.wikipedia File:Basic interpreter on the DVK computer.JPG Source: License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Sergei Frolov, Soviet Computers Museum,

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //