Anda di halaman 1dari 3


MARCH, 2012.


NAME:_________________________________________________________ Biofuels and the Environment Instructions: Read through the text, answer the questions that follow.

Leading investors have joined the growing chorus of concern about governments and companies rushing into producing biofuels as a solution for global warming, saying that many involved in the sector could be jeopardising future profits if they do not consider the long-term impact of what they are doing carefully. It is essential to build sustainability criteria into the supply chain of any green fuel project in order to ensure that there is no adverse effect on the surrounding environment and social structures. The report produced by the investors expresses concern that many companies may not be fully aware of the potential pitfalls in the biofuel sector. Production of corn and soya beans has increased dramatically in the last years as an eco-friendly alternative to fossil fuels but environmental and human rights campaigners are worried that this will lead to destruction of rain forests. Food prices could also go up as there is increased competition for crops as both foodstuffs and sources of fuel. Last week, the UN warned that biofuels could have dangerous side effects and said that steps need to be taken to make sure that land converted to grow biofuels does not damage the environment or cause civil unrest. There is already great concern about palm oil, which is used in many foods in addition to being an important biofuel, as rain forests are being cleared in some countries and people driven from their homes to create palm oil plantations. An analyst and author of the investors' report says that biofuels are not a cure for climate change but they can play their part as long as governments and companies manage the social and environmental impacts thoroughly. There should also be greater measure taken to increase efficiency and to reduce demand. Questions Q1 - ____ are worried about the boom in biofuels. Few people Many people Only these leading investors Q2 - Biofuel producers ____ know about the possible problems. do not might not must not



Q3 - Environmentalists believe that increased production of corn and soya has destroyed rain forests. may lead to the destruction of rain forests. will lead to the destruction of rain forests. Q4 - Biofuels might drive food prices up. drive food prices down. have little or no impact on food prices. Q5 - The increased production of palm oil just affects the environment. just affects people. affects both people and the environment. Q6 - The author of the report says that biofuels have no role to play in fighting global warming. can be effective in fighting global warming on their own. should be part of a group of measures to fight global warming.

Through the Tunnel

Soon he was clear inside. He was in a small rock-bound hole filled with yellowish-grey water. The water was pushing him up against the roof. The roof was sharp and pained his back. He pulled himself along with his hands - fast, fast - and used his legs as levers. His head knocked against something; a sharp pain dizzied him. Fifty, fifty-one, fifty-two . . . . He was without light, and the water seemed to press upon him with the weight of rock. Seventy-one, seventy-two . . . . There was no strain on his lungs. He felt like an inflated balloon, his lungs were so light and easy, but his head was pulsing. He was being continually pressed against the sharp roof, which felt slimy as well as sharp. Again he thought of octopuses, and wondered if the tunnel might be filled with weed that could tangle him. He gave himself a panicky, convulsive kick forward, ducked his head, and swam. His feet and hands moved freely, as if in open water. The hole must have widened out. He thought he must be swimming fast, and he was frightened of banging his head if the tunnel narrowed. A hundred, a hundred and one. . . The water paled. Victory filled him. His lungs were beginning to hurt. A few more strokes and he would be out. He was counting wildly; he said a hundred and fifteen, and then, a long time later, a hundred and fifteen again. The water was a clear jewel-Breen all around him. Then he saw, above his head, a crack running up through the rock. Sunlight was falling through



it, showing the clean dark rock of the tunnel, a single mussel shell, and darkness ahead.

QUESTIONS 1. Vocabulary. Match words to synonyms or definitions. Lever Dizzy Strain Sharp Slimy Stroke Crack
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pressure, pain , that causes damage. Able to cut, with a very thin edge. Liquid substance unpleasant to touch A long and narrow space. A method of swimming, a particular swimming movement.

2. Answer the following questions according to the text or to the story if you cannot find the information in the text. a. Did Jerry have any brothers or sisters?____________________ b. How old was Jerry?________________________________ C. Was Jerrys father dead or alive? ______________________ D. Who did he live with?_____________________________

E. Why did Jerry want a pair of goggles?_____________________ F. What did he train his lungs for?_______________________ 3. What is your opinion about the story? Give reasons for your answer.