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Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Chapter 7

Vectors

7.8

Vector Equation of a Straight Line

2

Chapter 10

Three Dimensional Coordinates Geometry

  • 10.1 Basic Formulas

5

  • 10.2 Equations of Straight Lines

5

  • 10.3 Plane and Equation of a Plane

11

  • 10.4 Coplanar Lines and Skew Lines

22

  • 7.8 Vector Equation of a Straight Line

r = a + tc ,

t : scalar parameter

a : position vector of a fixed point on the straight line

c : direction vector r : position vector of any point on straight line

Remark

r = a + t (b

a)

Example

Let

A = (8, 7,0)

and B = (2, 1, 3) .

  • (a) Find the equation of the straight line AB .

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry Advanced Level Pure Mathematics Chapter 7 Vectors 7.8 Vector Equation of a
  • (b) Find the perpendicular distance from the point P(4,7, 9) to the line AB . Find also the foot of perpendicular.

Remark

In above example (b), the distance from P to AB may also be found directly without calculating the foot of perpendicular. The method is outlined as follows:

By referring to Figure,

PR

=

AP

sin

=

Since

AB AP AB
AB
AP
AB

Example

By finding the foot of perpendicular from the point P(10,1,13) to the line,

L :r = i + 5k + t (4i

5 j) ,

find

the

equation

of

straight

line

passing

through

P

and

perpendicular to L , find the perpendicular distance from P to L .

Page 1

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

  • 10.1 Basic Formula

The Distance Between Two Points

A x ( , y , z ) ( x , y , z ) 2
A x
(
,
y
,
z
)
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
2
2
2
Distance between
and B
is
(x
x
)
+ ( y
y
)
+ (z
z
)
.
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Section Formula
AP
m
Let P(x, y, z) divide the joint of A
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
and B
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
in the ratio
=
1
1
1
2
2
2
PB
n
mx
+
nx
my
+
ny
mz
+
nz
2
1
2
1
2
1
The Coordinate of the point P is
,
,
m
+
n
m
+
n
m
+
n
10.2
Equations of Straight Lines
In vector form, the equation of straight line is
r = a + tc , where
r
is the position vector of any point in the
line, a is fixed point on line and c is direction vector of line.
If r = (x, y, z) , a =
(
x
,
y
,
z
) , c = (a,b, c), we have
1
1
1
xi + yj + zk
=
x i + y
j + z k + t
(a
i + bj
+ ck
)
1
1
1
=
(x
+
ta)i
+
( y
+
tb) j
+
(z
+
tc)k
1
1
1
Since i , j, k are basis vectors in
3
R
, we have
x
=
x
+
ta
1
x
y
y
z
z
x 1
y
=
y
+
tb
1
1
or
=
=
1
a
b
c
z
=
z
+
tc
1
Parametric Form of a Straight Line
The equation of the straight line passing through the point (
x
,
y
,
z
)
and with direction vector (a,b, c) can be
1
1
1
x
=
at
+
x
1
expressed in the form of
y
=
bt
+
y
where t is a parameter.
1
z
=
ct
+
z
1

This is called the parametric form of the straight line.

Symmetric Form of a Straight Line

The equation of the straight line passing through the point

(

x

1

,

y

1

,

z

1

)

and with direction vector (a,b, c) and is

Page 2

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x 1

x

a
a

=

y

y

1

b

=

z

z

1

c

and this is called the symmetric form of the straight line.

General Form of a Straight Line

The equation of a straight line can be written as a linear system

A x

1

A x

2

+

B y

1

+

B

2

y

+

C z

1

+

C

2

z

+

D

1

+

D

2

=

=

0

0

which is called the general form of a straight line.

(

If given two points P x

1

1

,

y

1

,

z

1

) , P

2

(

x

2

,

y

2

,

z

2

) , the equation of straight line becomes

x

y

z

=

=

=

x

1

y

1

z

1

+

+

+

t

(

x

2

t

(

y

2

t

(

z

2

x

1

)

y

1

)

z

1

)

or

x

x

1

=

y

y

1

=

z

z

1

x

2

x

1

y

2

y

1

z

2

z

1

Example

Find the equation of the line joining the points (2,0,3) and (4, 1,2) .

S 1

x

Let L

1

:

y

z

=

=

=

x

1

y

1

z

1

+

+

+

1

l

1

1

m

1

1

n

1

x

and

L

2

:

y

z

=

=

=

x

2

y

2

z

2

+

+

+

2

l

2

2

m

2

2

n

2

and L

To find the intersection point of line L

1

2

we solve

x

1

y

1

z

1

+

1

l

1

+

1

m

1

+

1

n

1

=

=

=

x

2

y

2

z

2

+

2

l

2

+

2

m

2

+

2

n

2

i.e.

find

1

and

2

.

Note

After finding

1

and

2

is any two equations,

1

and

2

must put into the 3rd equation in order

to test whether it is satisfied or not.

S 2

Page 3

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(

Distance of a point P x

0

,

y

0

,

z

0

)

from the line

x

x 1

l

=

y

y

1

=

z

z

1

m

n

FIND P' .

Let P' be (

x

1

+ l

,

y

1

+ m

,

z

1

+ n

) .

Direction vector of

PP'

(

x

1

+

l

x

0

,

y

1

+ m

y

0

,

z

1

+

n

z

0

)

Direction vector of line (l, m , n)

(

x

1

+

l

x

0

,

y

1

+

m

y

0

,

z

1

+

n

z

0

)

l

(

,

m

,

n

)

=

0

As

is formed,

P' can be determined and so

d =

PP'

Theorem

Given

L

1

:

x

x

1

l

1

=

y

y

1

m

1

=

z

z

1

n

1

and

L

1

// L

2

L

2

:

x

x

2

l

2

=

y

y

2

=

z

z

2

m

2

n

2

Their direction vectors are parallel

l

1

m

1

n

1

=

=

l

2

m

2

n

2

Remark

L

1

L

2

l l

1

2

+ m m

1

2

+ n n

1

2

= 0

  • 10.3 Plane and Equation of Plane

A vector perpendicular to (or orthogonal to) a plane is a normal vector o that plane.

In Figure, n is a normal vector of the plane (

).

Normal vector of a plane is not unique, for if n is a normal vector, then an (a is

any non-zero real number) is also a normal vector.

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry Advanced Level Pure Mathematics ( Distance of a point P x 0

Let P

0

(

x

0

,

y

0

,

z

0

Set

n = (A ,B ,C)

 
 

P P n = 0

0

 

We have (

x

 

x

0

,

y

 

y

0

,

z

 

(

A x

x

0

)

+ B

(

y

Remark

 

) be a fixed point and P(x, y, z) be any point on it.

i.e. A, B, C are given.

z

0

)

A B C

(

,

,

)

=

0

y

0

)

+ C

(

z

z

0

)

=

0

The general form of plane equation is Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .

Furthermore, if three points are given,

P i
P
i

(

x

i

,

y

i

,

z

i

)

i = 1,2,3.

( Vector Form )

( Normal Form )

Page 4

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(

A x

We have

(

A x

1

(

A x

2

x

1

)

x

2

)

x

3

)

+

B

(

y

+

B

(

y

1

+

B

(

y

2

y

1

)

y

2

)

y

3

)

+

C

(

z

+

C

(

z

1

+

C

(

z

2

z

1

)

z

2

)

z

3

)

=

0

=

0

=

0

Example

n = (A, B,C) π 0

The system has non-trivial solution of A, B,C .

x x y y z z 1 1 1 Hence, x x y y z z
x
x
y
y
z
z
1
1
1
Hence, x
x
y
y
z
z
1
2
1
2
1
2
x
x
y
y
z
z
2
3
2
3
2
3

= 0 . It is an equation of plane. ( 3 Point Form )

Find the equation of the plane passing through the points P(2,4,3),Q(4,1,9) and R(0, 1,6).

Find also its distance from the origin.

The perpendicular distance between a point and a plane

Theorem The perpendicular distance between a point P x ( , y , z ) and
Theorem
The perpendicular distance between a point P x
(
,
y
,
z
)
and a plane
1
1
1
: Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 is
Ax
+
By
+
Cz
+
D
1
1
1
d =
2
2
2
A
+
B
+
C
Proof
Let P
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
be any point on the plane (
).
0
0
0
0
Ai + Bj + Ck
is a vector normal to the plane ( ).
Ai
+
Bj
+
Ck
n =
The unit vector n normal to the plane (
) is
.
2
2
2
A
+
B
+
C

The perpendicular distance d between the point P and the plane is equal to the magnitude

of the projection of P P

0

on n .

Therefore

d

=

0
0

P P n

 
 

=

[(

x

1

x

0

)

i

+

(

y

1

y

0

)

j

+

(

z

1

z

0

)

k

]

Ai + Bj + Ck 2 2 2 A + B + C
Ai
+
Bj
+
Ck
2
2
2
A
+
B
+
C

   

(

A x

1

x

0

)

+

B

(

y

1

y

0

)

+

C

(

z

1

z

0

)

 
 

=

A 2

A

2

+

B

2

+

C

2

   

Ax

1

+

By

1

+

Cz

1

Ax

0

 

By

0

Cz

0

 
 

=

   
 
A 2 + B 2 + C 2

A

2

+

B

2

+

C

2

But,

D = Ax

0

By

0

Cz

0

, since P

0

(

x

0

,

y

0

 

,

z

0

)

lies on the plane.

 

d =

Ax

1

+

By

1

+

Cz

1

+

D

 
 
A 2 + B 2 + C 2

A

2

+

B

2

+

C

2

Example

Find the perpendicular distance between two parallel planes

(
(

1

):

x

y +

2

z =

6

and (

2

): 2

x

2

y +

4

z +

5

=

0 .

Page 5

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Solution

Take a point P(0,0,3) on (

1

) .

The required distance is just the perpendicular distance between P and (

  • 2 ) .

i.e.

d

=

2

0

2
2

2

0

+

4

3

+

5

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry Advanced Level Pure Mathematics Solution Take a point P (0,0,3) on (

2

+

(

2)

2

+

4

2

=

17 6
17
6

12

units.

Angles Between Two planes

Given 2 planes

1

:

A x + B y + C z + D

1

1

1

1

=

0 and

2

:

A x + B

2

2

y + C

2

z + D

2

=

0

The angle between two planes is

n

1

n

2

=

n

1

n

2

cos

cos

=

=

and , which are a pair of supplementary angles and

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry Advanced Level Pure Mathematics Solution Take a point P (0,0,3) on (

(

A

1

,

B

1

,

C

1

)

(

A

2

,

B

2

,

C

2

)

(
(

A

2

1

+

B

2

1

+

C

2

1

)(

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry Advanced Level Pure Mathematics Solution Take a point P (0,0,3) on (

A

2

2

+

B

2

2

+

C

2

  • 2 )

Remark

(a)

1

//

2

(b)

1

2

n

1

=

t n

2

,

t : scalar

A

1

=

B

1

=

C

1

A

2

B

2

C

2

= t

n

1

n

2

= 0

A A

1

2

+ B B

1

2

+C C

1

2

= 0

Equation of Plane Containing Two Given Lines

Given two lines

  • L 1

:

x

x

1

l

1

=

y

y

1

m

1

=

z

z

1

n

1

  • L 2

:

x

x

2

l

2

=

y

y

2

=

z

z

2

m

2

n

2

The normal vector of the required plane

n

=

(

l

1

,

m

1

,

n

1

)

(

l

2

,

m

2

,

n

2

)

=

i

l

1

l

2

j

m

1

m

2

k

n

1

n

2

=

n

=

(m n

1

2

m

2

n ) i

1

(l n

1

2

l n ) j

2

1

+

(l m

1

2

l m ) k

2

1

(

m

1

n

2

m

2

n

1

,

l n

1

2

+ l

2

n

1

,

l m

1

2

l m

2

1

)

The equation of the plane

Page 6

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

Find the equation of the plane containing two intersecting lines.

x 2 y + 1 z x 2 y + 1 z L : = =
x
2
y
+ 1
z
x
2
y
+ 1
z
L
:
=
=
and L
:
=
=
1
2
3
4
2
1
3
2
Example
intersection of two planes is a line.
3x
+
4y
+
2z
=
1
Solve
6x
+
2y
+
z
=
0
Alternatively,
Solution
consider
k = n n
1
2
From the above examples we conclude that the
Family of Planes
Given two planes
:
A x + B y + C z + D
=
0
1
1
1
1
1
:
A x + B
y + C
z + D
=
0
2
2
2
2
2
The family of planes is any plane containing the line of intersection
and
.
1
2
:
A x + B y + C z + D
+ k
(
A x + B
y + C
z + D
)
=
0 , where k is a constant.
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
x
2
y
+
z
=
4
Example
Find the equation of the plane containing the line
and passing
x
+
6
y
5
z
=
0
the point ( 1,1,2) .
x
+
2
z
=
4
Example
Find the equation of the plane containing the line
L
:
and parallel to the
1
y
z
=
8
x
3
y
+ 4
z
7
line L
:
=
=
.
2
2
3
4
Example
(a)
The position vector of a point P(x, y, z) is given by r = xi + yj + zk .
In Figure, P ( x , y , z ) is a point on the plane
In Figure,
P
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
is a point on the plane
:r ◊n = d .
0
0
0
0
The line
:
r = r
+ ta
,
where t
is
a real scalar
and
r
= x i + y
j + z
k , passing
0
0
0
0
0
through P
and does not lie on
.
0
a
n
Show that the projection of  on
is given by
r
=
r
+
t
a
n
where t
is a
0
n
n

Page 7

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

real scalar.

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(b)

Consider the lines

1

:

r =

3

i +

6

j +

2

k + t

(2

i

3

j

k

)

and

and the plane

2

:

r =

10

i

19

j

2

k + t

(8

i

19

j

4

k

)

:r (4i + j

2k) = 4

(i)

Let

A and B

be the points at which

intersects

1

and

2

respectively.

Find the coordinates of A and B and show that AB is perpendicular to both

1

and

2

.

(ii)

Show that the projections of

1

and

2

on

are parallel.

Theorem

Two given planes

1

:

x

x 1

A

=

y

y

1

B

and

2

:

y

y 1

B

=

z

z

1

C

.

Prove that the equation of any plane through the line of intersection of

1

and

2

must

Proof

contain a line L :

x

x

A
A

1

=

y

y

1

B

=

z

z

1

C

The equation of plane through the line of intersection of

1

and

2

is

B

(

x

x

1

)
)

A

(

y

y

1

)

+ k C

(

(

y

y

1

)

B

(

z

z

1

)

=

0



(*)

Normal Vector of (*)

n

1

=

(

B

,

A + kC

,

Bk

) .

Direction vector of line L

:

n

2

=

(

A

,

B

,

C

)

n

1

n

2

= 0

(*) is parallel to

line L .

Since (*) and L pass through the point (

x

1

,

y

1

,

z

1

) .

(*) contains L .

  • 10.4 Coplanar Lines and Skew Lines

Coplanar Lines

Definition

Two lines are said to be Coplanar if there exists a plane that contains both lines.

Two lines are Coplanar

they must be either parallel or they intersect.

Theorem

Two lines

(

L

1

):

x

x

1

a

1

=

y

y

1

b

1

=

z

z

1

c

1

and

(

L

2

) :

x

x

2

2

a
a

=

y

y

2

b

2

=

z

z

2

c

2

are coplanar if and only if

x

1

x

2

a

1

a

2

y

1

y

2

b

1

b

2

z

1

z

2

c

1

c

2

= 0

  (*)

Page 8

Three Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

Show that the two lines

L

  • 1 :

x

2

=

y

1

=

z

and L

 
 

1

2

3

2

:

x

  • 1

y

=

2

=

z

3

  • 4

1

2

are coplanar.

Skew Lines

Two straight lines are said to be Skew if they are non-coplanar i.e. neither do they intersect nor are they

being parallel.

To find the shortest distance between them, we have to find the common perpendicular to both lines first.

The method is illustrated by the following example.

Example

It is given that the two lines

L

1

:

x

1
1

5

y

z + 1

2

1

=

=

and L

2

:

x

1
1

2

y

4

z

1

1

=

=

are non-coplanar. Find the shortest distance between them.

Example

Consider the line L

:

x

2
2

1

y

2

z

1

2

=

=

and the plane

: x + y + z = 0 .

  • (a) Find the coordinates of the point where L intersects

  • (b) Find the angle between L and

.

.

Page 9