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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- pscad examples
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DIGSILENT PowerFactory

The harmonics example has been reproduced from the IEEE Brown Book [1] . In this example, the effect of two non-linear loads within the confines of a small industrial plant (see Figure 1) is assessed using harmonic analysis. The system in question contains multiple voltage levels of 33kV and 6.6kV in the industrial plant and 220kV at the utility supply point. The plant load and power factor correction are both connected at the 33kV and 6.6kV voltage levels, along with two harmonic current sources that model the non-linear behaviour of a rectifier fed motor.

Utility Supply

220kV PCC

T1 100MVA 220/33kV

33kV

T2

Motor

SL - P

SL - Q

HF

Motor -- motor load with harmonic injection SL - P -- static load real power SL - Q -- static load reactive power C -- power factor correction capacitor HF -- harmonic filter

T2 30MVA 33/6.6kV

6.6kV

Motor

SL - P

SL - Q

HF

DIgSILENT

PowerFactory 12.1.172

IEEE Std 399-1997 Harmonic Case Studies Harmonics - Case Study 1 IEEE Brown Book Pg290

Figure 1: Industrial plant SLD for harmonic analysis and filter design study

The static load on both buses is modeled separately as a parallel combination of the real and reactive power drawn. This is to ensure the correct impedance frequency response is modeled in the example. The motors on both the 33kV and 6.6kV buses are modeled as real power loads at fundamental frequency with harmonic current injections. By double clicking on a motor load and going to the harmonics page, the current magnitudes are given as a percentage of the fundamental frequency current drawn. There are a number of case studies in the IEEE Brown Book to highlight the problems in this industrial plant and the filter solutions that can be implemented to alleviate them. Mainly the problems are due to the substantial harmonic current injections from the motor drives. The presence of the power factor correction capacitors on both the 33kV and 6.6kV buses means that there are going to be parallel resonances within the plant frequency response. If these parallel resonances are large in magnitude and

DIgSILENT

DIGSILENT PowerFactory

are at a frequency near or at a harmonic current that is produced as a result of the non-linear motor drives, then substantial harmonic voltage distortion levels may result. Harmonics in power systems, particularly in industrial plant like this one, can lead to many problems. These problems can be due to the both the harmonic currents and the resulting harmonic voltage levels they produce. In industrial plant they can lead to pulsating torques in rotating machinery and in some cases may even cause smaller units to stall. In plant containing power factor correction capacitors the increased voltage levels across the capacitors can seriously reduce their lifetime and may result in failure.

Case Study 1

In the first study example, Case Study 1, the 33/6.6kV transformer breakers are opened, disconnecting the 6.6kV bus from the supply. The motor drive, static load and power factor correction capacitor are all connected to the 33kV bus, which is supplied from the modeled utility source. A frequency scan is performed to show the impedance seen from the harmonic source at the 33kV bus (see Figure 2). This can be viewed in DIgSILENT on the Freq Scan 33kV page in the example, by left mouse clicking on the Z(f) button on the button bar menu, and executing the frequency scan function. The results show that with the 33/6.6kV transformer breakers opened, there is a parellel resonance at approximately 500Hz.

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50.000

30.000

20.000

10.0000

0.000

10.000

486.00

724.00

962.00

[Hz]

1200.0

Figure 2: Impedance vs frequency scan from the 33kV bus with the 6.6kV bus not connected

Even though the parallel resonant frequency is not at one of the characteristic harmonics of the motor drive (these are the six-pulse rectifier characteristic harmonics at the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th and 19th), it will still present a significant impedance to the harmonic injection currents at the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th, particularly the 7th harmonic at 420Hz.

DIGSILENT PowerFactory

To view the effect of motor drive operation on the voltage distortion levels at the 33kV and 220kV buses, the voltage waveforms at these buses are detemined and a harmonic analysis performed. In the example, the voltage waveforms can be viewed on the 33kV Vdist and 220kV Vdist pages, and the harmonic voltage spectra viewed on the 33kV bus:A spectra (see Figure 3) and 220kV bus:A spectra pages. To view these waveforms and spectra the Calculate Harmonic Load Flow option is chosen on the Button Bar menu and executed.

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30.000

24.000

18.000

12.000

7.000 9.324 %

5.000 5.995 % 11.000 5.144 % 6.0000 13.000 2.919 % 17.000 1.374 % 19.000 1.042 %

0.000

1.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 3: 33kV bus voltage spectra for 33kV connected motor load with the 6.6kV bus not connected

The harmonic voltage spectra results in the 33kV bus:A spectra and 220kV bus:A spectra pages have the IEEE harmonic voltage limits superimposed on the harmonic voltage distortion results. They show that the voltage distortion at the 220kV bus is within the IEEE defined limits but that at the 33kV bus, the 5th, 7th and 11th harmonic voltages exceed the limits, and the 13th harmonic is at the limit. Clearly under this scenario a solution to alleviate the harmonic problem at the 33kV bus, is neceesary.

Case Study 2

In the second study example, Case Study 2, the 33/6.6kV transformer breakers are closed, and the effect of the 6.6kV bus load assessed without the contribution of the motor drive load at 6.6kV. Firstly, the impedance assessment at the 33kV bus (see Figure 4) now shows that the inclusion of the 6.6kV bus capacitor results in two parallel resonant frequencies at approximately 330Hz and 715Hz, with the largest parallel resonance occurring at the higher frequency. This is fortunate as the higher order harmonics in a six-pulse converter which the harmonic motor drives harmonic injection currents are modeling, tend to rapidly diminish in magnitude as the order increases.

DIGSILENT PowerFactory

50.000

40.000

30.000

20.000

10.0000

0.000

10.000

486.00

724.00

962.00

[Hz]

1200.0

Figure 4: Impedance vs frequency scan from the 33kV bus with the 6.6kV connected

However, the same frequnecy scan performed at the 6.6kV bus (see Figure 5) shows that the lower frequency parallel resonance at approximately 350Hz is the most significant, which is coincident with the higher magnitude lower order harmonics.

4.0000

3.2000

0.800

0.000

10.000

486.00

724.00

962.00

[Hz]

1200.0

The harmonic spectra results at the 33kV bus (see Figure 6) now indicate that the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonic voltage distortion limits have been exceeded, and that at the 6.6kV bus (see Figure 7) the 5th, 7th and 11th harmonic voltage distortion limits have been exceeded.

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30.000

24.000

18.000

12.000

5.000 6.621 % 11.000 5.387 % 6.0000 7.000 3.264 % 17.000 1.705 % 19.000 1.225 % 13.000 4.516 %

0.000

5.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 6: 33kV bus voltage spectra for 33kV connected motor load with the 6.6kV bus connected

30.000

24.000

18.000

19.000 0.249 %

0.000

5.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 7: 6.6kV bus voltage spectra for 33kV connected motor load

These results indicate that the inclusion of the 6.6kV bus elements worsen the voltage distortion problem by introducing a further parallel resonant frequency and increasing the effective driving point impedance value as seen from the 33kV bus. Additionally, the frequency scan results indicate that the motor drive may be better placed at the 33kV bus, due to the relatively lower magnitude impedance at lower frequencies, seen from the 33kV bus by the harmonic injection currents.

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DIGSILENT PowerFactory

Case Study 3

In the third study example, Case Study 3, the effect of the 6.6kV bus load is assessed without the contribution of the motor drive load at the 33kV bus. The harmonic spectra results for the 6.6kV and 33kV buses indicate that while the distortion levels at the 33kV bus have generally improved in terms of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) levels, the distortion voltage magnitudes at the 6.6kV bus could be considered excessive in terms of good plant operating practice, (see Figure 8) with the THD level exceeding 16%. Additionally the result in Figure 8 confirms that the motor drive would be best placed at the 33kV bus due to the increased distortion levels at the lower order harmonic voltages at the 6.6kV bus.

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30.000

24.000

17.000 1.525 %

19.000 1.146 %

0.000

5.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 8: 6.6kV bus voltage spectra for 6.6kV connected motor load

Case Study 4

In the final case study in the Harmonics example, Case Study 4, a filter design is implemeneted at the 33kV bus, to modify the resonant behaviour of the plant and reduce the harmonic voltage distortion levels. Filter design in situations where there are harmonic distortion problems can be approached using either single tuned harmonic filters or C-type high pass filters. In this example a single tuned filter is applied with a low Q factor, and is designed to provide reactive power and minimise losses at the fundamental frequency. Additionally the effective impedance of the original resonance should be modified such that the voltage distortion is maintained within either prescribed limits or levels that allow adequate plant operation.

DIGSILENT PowerFactory

In the example, the filter is connected at either the 33kV or 6.6kV buses, along with the motor drive with the harmonic current injections. This is to finalise whether the motor drive installation is better suited at the higher or lower voltage levels within the plant. The design of the filter is not elaborated on within this text, however in summary its design incorporates the original power factor correction capacitance, and a series connected tuning reactor. The filter is designed to alleviate the effects of the parallel resonance in Study Case 1, evident at the 33kV bus when the 6.6kV bus is not connected. It can be seen from Figure 2 that the parallel resonance occurs at approximately 500Hz. The filter could be tuned to eliminate this resonance directly, however this approach leads to the occurrence of lower order resonant behaviour. Given that there are two significant harmonic currents at the 5th and 7th harmonics below the original resonant frequency, the risk is that the new parallel resonance may occur at these frequencies. For this reason single tuned filters should be designed to remove specific harmonic currents rather than parallel resonances. Additionally it is recommended that single tuned filters be tuned to resonate 5% below the harmonic current to be eliminated. This is to account for variation in the utility system impedance which may occur due to switchings or outages and affect the frequency of the parallel resonance. In this example, the filter is tuned to approximately 5% below the frequency of the 5th harmonic current, with a low Q factor, in order that a substantial component of the higher order harmonics produced by the motor are also filtered. In the DIgSILENT Study Case 4 example, the 33/6.6kV transformer breakers are opened as in Study Case 1, and on the 33kV bus, the power factor correction capacitor is removed from service, while the harmonic filter HF is connected. The example is then re-run with the 33kV motor load connected to assess whether the harmonic voltage limits have been breached with the addition of the harmonic filter.

DIGSILENT PowerFactory

30.000

24.000

18.000

12.000

6.0000 7.000 2.657 % 11.000 2.934 % 13.000 2.938 % 17.000 2.882 % 19.000 2.837 %

5.000 1.170 %

0.000

5.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 9: 33kV bus voltage spectra for 33kV motor load and harmonic filter connected, with the 6.6kV bus disconnected

The results from Figure 9 indicate that at each harmonic, the IEEE voltage standards for bus voltages below 69kV have been met. However, the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) levels have only been reduced from approximately 12% to 6% and in some situations this level of distortion may prove to be too high. This may necessitate the design and implementation of a second single tuned filter, tuned around the 7th harmonic frequency, to filter more of the higher order harmonics.

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30.000

24.000

18.000

12.000

7.000 6.118 %

6.0000

5.000 1.928 %

11.000 1.714 %

13.000 1.088 %

17.000 0.558 %

19.000 0.429 %

0.000

1.00

7.00

11.0

13.0

17.0

19.0 [-]

Figure 9: 6.6kV bus voltage spectra for 33kV motor load and harmonic filter connected, with the 6.6kV bus connected

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Figure 10 shows the harmonic voltage spectra at the 6.6kV bus for the 33kV connected motor load and harmonic filter. The distortion levels have significantly reduced when compared with the unfiltered case in Figure 7, although the 7th harmonic voltage level may prove onerous for smaller induction motor operation.

Reference

[1] IEEE Brown Book (IEEE-Std 399), pgs 265 to 312, 1997

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