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Chapter 2 Section 3 1. Many of waters biological functions stem from its chemical structure 2. Polar3.

The polar nature of water allows it to dissolve polar substances such as sugars, ionic compounds, and some proteins 4. Water does not dissolve nonpolar substances, such as oil because a weaker attraction exists between polar and nonpolar molecules than between two polar molecules 5. Dissolved or dissociated ions, are present in all of the aqueous solutions found in living things and are important in maintaining normal body functions 6. The polar nature of water also causes water molecules to be attracted to one and another 7. Hydrogen Bond- is the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge 8. Hydrogen bonds in water exert an attractive force string enough so that water clings to itself and some other substances 9. Hydrogen bonds form, break and reform with great frequency 10. A number or bonds can be bonded together at one time 11. Water has the ability to dissolve many substances 12. Water molecules stick to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding 13. Cohesion- An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together 14. Related to cohesion is the surface tension of the water 15. The cohesive forces in the water resulting form hydrogen bonds cause the molecules at the surface of the water to be pulled downward into the liquid 16. As a result, the water acts as if it has its own skin on its surface 17. Adhesion- Is the attractive forces between two particles or different substances, such as water or gas molecules 18. A related property is, Capillarity- Which is the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid 19. Water has a high heat capacity, which means that water can absorb or release relatively large amounts of energy in the form of heat with only a slight change in temperature 20. Energy must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds and energy is released as heat when hydrogen bonds are formed 21. The energy that water initially absorbs breaks hydrogen bonds between molecules 22. Only after these hydrogen bonds are broken does the energy begin to increase the motion of the water molecules, which raise the temperature of the water 23. When the temperature of water drops, hydrogen bonds reform, which releases large amount of energy in the form of heat

24. Therefore, during a hot day, water can absorb a large quantity of energy from the sun and can cool the air without a large increase with the waters temperature 25. As a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down 26. Unlike most solids, which are denser than their liquids, solid water is less dense then liquid water 27. Because ice floats on water, bodies or water such as ponds and lakes freeze from the top down and not the bottom up 28. A Solution- is a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance 29. Solutions can be mixtures of liquids, gases, solids 30. A Solute- is a substance dissolved in the solvent 31. The particles that compose a solute may be ions, atoms, or molecules 32. The Solvent- is the substance in which the solute is dissolved 33. The Concentration- of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution 34. A Saturated Solution- is one in which no more solute can be dissolved 35. Aqueous Solutions- (solutions in which water is the solvent) are universally important to all living things 36. One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of its acidity or alkalinity 37. As water molecules move about, they bump into one another, some can result in a chemical change 38. The first step is that one molecule water molecule pulls apart from another water molecule or dissociates into two ions of opposite charges (see book) 39. Hydroxide ion- OH(negative) 40. Hydronium ion- H3O(positive) 41. Acid- if the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater then the number of hydroxide ions then the solution is acid (see book) 42. These free hydrogen ions combine with water molecules to form hydronium ions, H3O (positive) 43. If sodium hydroxide, NaOH, a solid is dissolved in water, it dissociates to form sodium ions, Na (positive), and hydroxide ions, OH (negative) (see book) 44. This solution then contains more hydroxide ions then hydronium ions and is therefore defined as a Base 45. Scientist have developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution, this scale is the pH scale, it ranges from 0 to 14 46. The control of pH is important for living systems 47. Enzymes can function only within a very narrow pH range 48. The control of pH in organisms is often accomplished with buffers 49. Buffers- are chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution