Anda di halaman 1dari 25

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

TO MAKE AN EARLY CONCLUSION TO WHAT HAD OBSERVED WHEATHER IT IS HAPPENED OR HAD ALREADY HAPPENED PROCESS : A) State the event that been observed. B) Give reasonable reason or early conclusion.
Why ? Why its happen ? How its happen ? What cause it ? Because Maybe it .

ANSWERING TECHNIQUE A) Observation and inference sentences are saperated ; i) Observation : Plant A have many leaves ii) Inference : Because it have enough water. Observation and inference sentences are combine / join ; Plant A have many leaves because it has enough water. Differentiate Inference i) Observation : Plant A have more leaves than Plant A ii) Inference : Because plant A have more water than plant B OR i) Observatin : Plant A have many leaves while plant B have less leaves ii) Inference : Because plant A get enough water while plant B get less water. OR iii) Plant A get more water compare to plant B.

B)

C)

Figure 1 show two papaya trees planted on different type of soil. Both trees was produce with enough water and sunlight.

FIGURE 2 a) State an observation about the fruit on Plant P and Q in figure 2. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ b) State the inferences based on your observation in (a). ( Thick for the correct inferences) Answer Inference 1. Plant P had enough water 2. Plant P got more sunlight than Plant Q 3. Plant P is given fertilizer compare to Plant Q 4. Soil at Plant P is more fertile 5. Plant Q get less mineral than Plant P 6. Plant P is given quality fertilizer compare to Plant Q

c) State another observation to support your inferences in (b) ( Thick for the correct answer)

1. Plant P is bigger than Plant Q 2. Plant P has more fruit than Plant Q 3. Plant P has more leaves. 4. Plant P is bigger 5. Plant Q is smaller than Plant P Question 1

A group of student gathered information about the extinction of animal species in a particular forest.

The bar chart below the information obtained by the pupils.

( a ) What observation that can be made from the result in the bar chart above ? [ Tick ( ) the correct observation and cross ( X ) for the wrong statement ] Answer Observation 1. The number of extinct animals in year 2000 is higher than year 1800. 2. The number of extinct animals increases. 3. The number of extinct animal in year 2000 is the highest. 4. Every 50 years the number of extinct animals increases.

( b ) State the suitable inference based on your observation in (a).

[ Tick ( ) the correct inference and ( X ) for the wrong inference. ] Answer Inference 1. Deforestation for housing development 2. 50 species of animals facing extiction in year 2000 3. Humans population increased. 4. Increasing of illegal hunting 5. Many dams have been built. 6. Increasing of industrial area.

(c)

Give other observation to support your answer in (b)

[ Tick ( ) the correct observation and ( X ) for the wrong observation] Answer Observation 1. The forest area are decreasing. 2. The number of human population increased 3. The number of animals species are decreasing 4. Polluted water occurred.

CONCEPT : A SENTENCE IS KNOWN AS HYPOTHESIS SENTENCE WHEN IT FACT OR CONCEPT CAN BE TESTED WHEATHER IT IS CORECT OR WRONG EXAMPLE : a) The bigger size of ice, the longer time needed to melt. b) If the volume of water increased, the the boiling time also Increased PRINCIPLE : SHOULD HAVE 2 VARIABLE; MANIPULATED (WHAT IS CHANGE) AND RESPONDING VARIABLE (WHAT TO MEASURE) THAT CAN BE RELATED WITH THE TREND. EXAMPLE : MANIPULATED RESPONDING

The bigger size of ice If the volume of water increased

the longer time to melt the boiling time also Increased

IDENTIFY VARIABLE : 1) MANIPULATED VARIABLE / WHAT TO CHANGE - Things that is change to see the different result - Source that cause the different in experiment result. - Things that is change by the person who is making the investigation 2) RESPONDING VARIABLE / WHAT TO OBSERVE/MEASURE - The result that been observe / get 3) FIX VARIABLE / WHAT KEEP THE SAME - Criteria that need to be fix or keep the same during the Investigation

EXAMPLE 1
Diagram show an investigation that carried out by a pupil. P and Q have the same size, shape and material. P and Q is blown with the same strength. P is the first one to be drop down.

(a) Based on the investigation, state :( Underline the correct answers ) i) Manipulated variable / What to change ( Shape of the object / Base of the object / Base area of the object / Length of the object / Stability of the object ) ii) Responding variable / What to measure/observe ( Stability of the object / Time for the object to drop down / The strength of the object ) iii) Fix variable / What to keep the same ( Shape of the object / Object base / Object base area / Type of object / Lengh of the object )

(B) State hypothesis can be made on this investigation The higher / wider / longer _______________________________________, the longer / stronger / bigger_____________________________________

EXAMPLE 2.

Figure 1 show an experiment carried out by a group of pupils..


cork string nail oil tap water Nail boiled paper Anhydrous Calcium Chloride

Q Figure 1

Observation after a week.. 1. 2. 3(a) a) Based on this investigation, state : i. Manipulated variable / What to change ? :Presence of water / Presence of air and water / Presence of air Nail P rusted. Nail Q and R not rust.

ii. Responding variable / What to observe ?:Shape of nail / size of nail / colour of nail / rusting of nail

iii. Constant variable / What to kept the same ?:. Type of nail / mass of nail / condition on nail / volume of water / type of water

b)

What is the hypothesis can be made in this experiment?

Thick [ ] at the correct answer and[ X] at wrong answer Answer Hypothesis If the nail been expose to water, the nail will rust. The more expose to water, the more rusting will be. If the nail been expose to water and air, the nail will rust. If the nail been expose to air, the nail will rust The more expose to air, the more rusting will be.

Example 3

4.

A group pupils carried out an investigation to investigate the total of weight of eight paper

The results are shown. Time(hour) 1 2 3 4 a) Based on this investigation, state : i) Manipulated variable :_______________________________________ ii) Responding variable : _______________________________________ b) State hypothesis can be made on this investigation The more ____________________________________________, the less _____________________________________________ Total of weight of eight paper / g 180 160 135 110

Question

A group of pupils carried out an experiment to investigate the ability of sponge to absorb water. The different size of sponge were put into the beaker which contain the same volume of water.After two minutes the sponges were taken out.

Figure 4

(a) State the following variable : i ) Manipulated variable / What to change ?: ______________________________________________ ii ) Responding variable / What to measure ?: _______________________________________________

(b) Suggest two hypothesis based on the result in Figure 4 .

1. _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

2 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

STATING THE AIM OR PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION CARRIED OUT. Stating the aim of investigation is to relate the relationship between what to change ( manipulated variables )and what to observe/ what to measure (responding variables )

KEY WORDS FOR AIM/PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION. To study the relationship between ________________________ ( what to change) And ______________________. ( what to observe /measure)

EXAMPLES : To study the relationship between size of ice ( what to change )and time for ice melting (what to observe ).

To investigate the relationship between the distance of plants (what to change )and the products of plants obtained (what to observe /measure )

QUESTION 1.

1. Aiman and Amin carried out an investigation about the number of swings by each pendulum P and S as shown in diagram below.

Pendulum Bob Number of swings in 5 seconds

P 10

S 5

(a) ( )

Tick ( ) for the correct variables below. What to kept same Types of pendulum ( ) What to change Number of pendulum Length of pendulum ( ) What to observe Number of pendulum The number of swings The swings The pendulum The swing of pendulum

Size of pendulum Number of pendulum Size of the string Mass of pendulum

Pendulum Height of pendulum The swings

(b)

What is the aim of the investigation ? Tick ( ) for the correct answers or ( x ) for the false statements.

Tick or X

Answers for aim of investigation 1. To investigate between number of pendulum and number of swings of the pendulum. 2. To study the relationship between the number of pendulum and number of swings in 5 seconds. 3. To study the relationship between the string of pendulum and the swings . 4. To investigate the relationship between the length of pendulums and the number of swings in 5 seconds. 5. To study the relationship between the length of pendulum and the number of swings.

QUESTION 2.

The bar chart below shows an information of 450 grams of kurau fish . The fish was dried under the sun in a week.

( a ) Underline ( i ) What is the Manipulated Variables. ( The mass of kurau fish / The time of drying )

( ii ) What is the Responding Variables . ( The mass of kurau fish / The time of drying )

( iii ) What ia the Constant Variables . ( Mass of kurau fish / Types of fish /The number of days / The number of fishes) (b) What is the aim of the investigation ? To investigate _________________________ between

__-______________________ and ______________________.

QUESTION 3

The diagram below shows the comparison sizes of three different fruits.

Table 2 shows the result of the investigation. Types of fruit Langsat Mangoesteen Durians

Time to ripe

5 days

7 days

11 days

( a ) State 2 variables that must be collected during the investigation.

(b ) What is the aim of investigation that can relate the relationship between the two variables that you have mentioned in ( a ) ?

An orange can be produce 6 ml of juice when squeezed and watermelon can produce 15 ml of juice . ( c ) Based on the statement above , what is the aim of the investigation.

MAKING CONCLUSION :
STATE A SENTENCE TO RELATE THE MANIPULATED VARIABLE (WHAT TO CHANGE) AND THE RESPONDING VARIABLE (WHAT TO OBSERVE)

CONCLUSION MUST COVERED ALL THE INFORMATION OR DATA Examples : -

The bigger the size of ice, the longer the time to the ice melting.

The biggest size of ice , cause the longest time for the ice melting.

The most/greatest number of flower is produced when the temperature at 35 C to 45C.

QUESTION 1

In an experiment a pupil uses several thumbtacks and a magnet. The diagram below shown the number of thumbtacks that can pulled by the magnet at the different section.

(a)

Based on the above experiment, state the following variables: [ Underline the correct answer ]

(i)

Manipulated variable (what to change) (Type of thumbtacks / Mass of thumbtack / Section of Magnet / Type of magnet)

(ii) Responding variable (what to observe) (Type of magnet / Number of thumbtacks / Strength attractive of magnet / Number of thumbtacks that can be pulled)

(iii) Fixed/ Controlled variable (what kept the same)

(Section of magnet / Shape of thumbtack / Number of thumbtacks that can be pulled / Type of thumbtack )

(b)

What conclusion can be made from the experiment?

[ Tick for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ]

Conclusions 1. The more to the end of the pole,, the more the thumbtacks. 2. The more to the end of the pole, the increase the number of thumbtacks that can pulled. 3. At the end of magnet, the more thumbtacks will be pulled. 4. At the middle section of magnet, the number of thumbtacks that can be pulled least. 5. At the poles section, the number of thumbtacks that can be pulled the most. 6. The middle section of magnet , the least thumbtacks that can be pulled.

Answer

(c)

State a conclusion based on the above experiment. [ Underline the correct answer ]

Answer : The (most / least) number of thumbtacks that can be pulled at the ( end/ middle ) section of magnet.

Question 5 Planet J K L M N Distance from the sun/ million km 230 780 1470 2870 4500 Time of revolution/ year 2 12 76 84 165

Table 2 shows the distance of planet J, K, L, M and N from the sun and the time taken to make one complete revolution around the sun. (a) State two variables in the investigation. i. ii. ____________________________________ ____________________________________

(b) What conclusion can be made from the investigation based on Table 2? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

IDENTIFY TREND :

1. )

Trend : Increase / Ascending / Higher : 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 35 C, 46 C, 58 C, 69 C, 82 C, 95 C

2. ) Trend : Decrease / Descending / Lower : 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40 85 C, 76 C, 68 C, 59 C, 42 C, 35 C 3. ) Trend : Unchange / Constant / Same : 10, 10, 10, 10 35 C, 46 C, 58 C, 58 C, 58 C, 45 C, 35C

PREDICTING : PREDICTING IS A PROCESS OF FORECASTING EVENTS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS AND PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES OR CERTAIN PATTERN OF RELIABLE DATA.

QUESTION 1

Planet

Distance from the Sun/million km

Duration of movement/year 2 12 76 84 165

J K L M N

230 780 1470 2870 4500

(a) The above table shows the distance of planet J, K, L, M and N from the Sun and the duration of movement around the Sun. (Tick for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer) Answer Trend Increase Decrease Constant Unchange Ascending Descending Constant, Increase Ascending, Descending Remark

(a) An object takes eight years to make a complete movement around the Sun. Based from the information in the above table, predict the location of the object. (Tick for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ) Answer Prediction Between M and N Between J and L Between M and L Between L and K Between J and K Between L and M Between L and N Between J and M Remark

QUESTION 2 An investigation was carried by Fiza to find out the relationship between food resources with numbers of consumers. The investigation involved caterpillars and sparrows in the school garden. The study took four weeks.

The observation was recorded in the table below. Week Number of caterpillars Number of sparrows 1 30 6 2 24 9 3 19 13 4 15 18

(a) What is the trend for number of sparrows? ( Tick for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ) Answer Trend Increase Decrease Unchange Ascending Higher Descending Constant Remark

(b) State the trend for number of caterpillars and number of sparrows. Answer Trend for the caterpillars Increase Descending Unchange Increase Higher Become lower Constant

(c) Based on the answer in (b), compare the trend for number of caterillars with the trend for number of sparrows. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

(d) From the trend in (a), predict the number of sparrows on the 6th week.

Week Number of sparrows

1 6

2 9

3 13

4 18

6 ?

Question 3 When eight tissue papers are moistened, their total weight is 200g. The tissue papers are put to dry and their weights are recorded every hour. The result of the investigation is recorded in the table below.

Time 1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 4 hour

Total weight of eight tissue paper/g 180 160 135 110

(a)

What is the trend of change in the total weight of the tissue papers during the investigation? __________________________________________________________

QUESTION 4

The number of seeds grew out of 80 seeds in 20C are 10, in 25C are 20, in 30C are 40, in 35C and 40C are 70, in 45C are 10 and no seed grew in 50C.

A group of pupils carried out an investigation on the growth of seeds

(a)

Complete the table below. Surrounding temperature /C Number of seeds grew

(b)

State the trend of changes of the number of seeds germination. (Underline the correct trend in each box.) 10 40 seeds Increase / Decrease / Unchange Descending / Ascending /Constant Become higher / Become lower / Unchange 70 70 seeds Decrease / Increase / Constant Increase / Unchange / Decrease Same / Increase / Decrease 70 0 seeds Ascending / Descending / Same Increase / Decrease /Constant Become lower / Become higher / Constant

(c)

Based on the answer in (b), what is the trend for the number of germinated seeds when the temperature increae? ___________________________________________________________

(d)

Predict the number of seeds that grow in 41C. (Tick for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer.)

Answer

Prediction

Remark

58 More than 40 Between 70 to 10 Less than 45

QUESTION 5

Diagram below shows an investigation carried out at a place in Pulau Pinang.

(a) What is the trend for the length of the shadow from morning to afternoon? ____________________________________________________

(b) Predict the length of the shadow at 6.00 oclock in the afternoon. ____________________________________________________

(c) Predict the direction of the shadow at 9.30 in the morning. ____________________________________________________