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SIOP Training

Changes Log: Here's the place to record what you've added to this notebook

11/24/2007- added by Chris Prout... Quote from Darren Kuropatwa to Introductions and
Basic Principles of Training
12/2/2007- added by Chris Prout... Link to file from Dearborn Schools regarding SIOP.
Good handout sent to me by Dr. Aabed
12/2/2007- added by Chris Prout... Additional Resource section
12/21/2007 added by Chris Prout... Link to Guided Notes added to Comprehensible
Input section.

Additional Resources
Dearborn Schools Bilingual and Compensatory Education Resource Team Resource- Thanks
Dr. Aabed

Introductions and Basic Principles of Training

November 19, 2007
Day One
Presentation by Frank Blanco

For further information:


Starting Monday this model will be used in all three schools.

- A quiet classroom isn't always best. Students need to speak to learn to use the language.

Here's a related quote from Darren Kuropatwa ( "Learning is a

conversation. If you're not talking about it, you're not learning it."

-Good SIOP Lessons begin with content and Language Objectives

-One major challenge teaching our ELL students is...

-Language usage at home... no one to read to or with...
-Background vocabulary
-Lack of experience with the English Language
-Getting content (directions, content) knowledge across to the students
-Strong support structure for the home language but a distinct lack of a support structure
for English
-students don't feel involved in their education... limited engagement
-Communicating basic needs and wants
-Students may have conversational language but not content language
-Academic Language overload...Too much to learn
-New Cultural challenges
These challenges also apply to our students trying to learn.

Operating Principles for our training

-Challenge our surface assumptions
-ask clarifying questions
-Reserve judgment
-actively listen to self and others
-Turn off cell phones
-have fun

Word Walls- Terms to learn/use

EL- English Learner
SEI- Sheltered/Structured English Instruction
SIOP- Structured Instruction Observation Protocol
PWBAT- Participants will be able to
L1- Primary Language
L2- Target Language or new language

-word walls can be used as a support for our students

Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

Top Factors
1. Motivation
2. Age
3. Personality and Learning Styles
4. Peers and role models
5. Quality of Instruction
6. First Language Development
7. Access to the language/ Language Distance (Comparing L1 to L2, if the alphabets/
syntax are similar it will be easier to learn
8. Language attitude and status - the understanding that learning English is important
and allows for greater opportunities, greater status

How do these factors affect SLA?

- Relatedness- How important is it to students?
-Survival- Skills necessary to survive in school.

- Strength of L1 is key to learning L2
-Support network is important- many of our students are stronger in English than their

Personality and Learning Styles

- Auditory learners have a greater skill set for learning
-Important to use Multiple Intelligences to teach students
-Extrovert students may have an easier time of learning than introverted students
- Positive and negative
- Peers and families
-As students get older their peers tend to over rule their parents influence
- Important for them to have a role model to look up to from the same culture.

- EDGE- Explain, Demonstrate, Guided Practice, Evaluate
- Planning needs to be based on their needs and skills

L1 Development
- Proficiency in home language makes second language easier to acquire
- Easier to pick up a new language at a young age

Language Distance/Access
- similarities between L1 and L2 in grammar and structure of language (alphabet,
- Languages that share common factors are easier to learn

Language Attitudes
Desire to learn ...
Arabic is tied closely to religion.
Students/parents don't want to lose culture/religion by learning English

Carousel Activity
Process- Divide students into groups. Each group starts at one topic. Write down their
ideas in a short time period and then move on to the next station. Add thoughts to new
topic. Later move back to original groups and share with the class.
Why should we use this in the classroom?
- Allows students an opportunity to talk and move around
-Gives students an opportunity to practice their language skills with their peers and with
the class as a whole.

Differences between Academic and Social Languages

- Social is more informal, slang
- Social language is what they learn first... Academic comes later
- We assume they come with social language and need to teach the academic. Reality is
we need to teach both.
- BICS- Basic Interpersonal Communicative SKills
-CALP- Cognitive Academic Learning Proficiency

-1-2 years to develop basic, social and day to day needs... Academic language needs more
time to learn.

Cummins Theory of Academic Language

Context Embedded- Provides many cues for the learner to access information (realia, video,
plays, audio)
Context Reduced- Clues are moved away. Few clues to assist learners.
Cognitively Undemanding- Easy non specialized language. Lower on Bloom's Taxonomy
Cognitively Demanding- Requires background knowledge to scaffold new ideas. Higher on
Bloom's Taxonomy
See chart on page 29

CU/CE Activities are the easiest- For example phone conversations

CD/ CR Activities are most difficult- For example reading and answering questions.
Embedding context makes things easier for all students bu especially the ELL students.

Introduction to SIOP Model and Structured Instruction

Chapter 1

Language Teachers- English, ESL, Language Arts

Content Teachers- Math, Science, Social Studies, Electives

How are they the same?

- both require reading and writing
-both require following directions
-vocabulary required

-styles of writing are different

Sheltered Instruction
Goal- to make grade level content standards more accessible for ELL students while they
develop and improve their English language proficiency

Teachers use scaffolding to aid in student comprehension of content topics and objectives
Scaffolding can include:
-adjusting speech
-rate, intonation
-adjust instructional tasks
-reduced expectations, reduced tasks
-Providing background experiences and information to build bridges to new learning
All students have experiences, just different from our expectations
-Highlighting key language features and instructional strategies to make it better for ALL
- Provides extended times for students to access the language and develop their language
skills, especially in content areas.

My definition
Sheltered Instruction provides opportunities for students of all abilities to learn content
and language skills by adjusting speech patterns, adjusting instructional tasks and
expectations and providing background experiences to build bridges to new learning.

SIOP is an umbrella of other methods and includes: MI,writing process, cooperative

learning, differentiated learning, standards.

SIOP is a lesson creation and delivery system

"We are not sheltering them from the curriculum, we are sheltering them from failure"
-We are not watering down the curriculum
Sink or Swim doesn't work for everyone. Our society, NCLB won't allow it!
Statistics about ELL Students
-10% come from home where English is not home language
-5% in 1990, will be 25% in 2025
-1990- 2005 2 million to 5 million ELL's
-K-12 increase 20%
-Greatest growth in SC, NC, TN and GA

Component Overview
Each component uses some of the 30 different features which are listed below.

Key components-
1. Lesson Preparation- Thinking about what you are going to teach
Content Objectives, Language Objectives, Content concepts, Supplementary materials,
adaption of content, meaningful activities
2. Building Background- Explicitly linking background to content
Concepts explicitly linked to background,
3. Comprehensible Input- Enhancing the ease of understanding of our instruction
4. Strategies
5. Interaction
6. Practice/Application
7. Lesson Delivery
8. Review and Assessment

Total Physical Response- Full body memory tool for learning content or terms. Use simple
gestures or actions to assist in memorizing/learning terms or concepts.

Lesson Preparation- Component 1

Chapter 2 in textbook starting on page 22

Six Features
1. Content Objectives are clearly defined, displayed and reviewed.
• What is clearly defined? Students need to understand the objective clearly.
• Develop content knowledge and skills
2. Language objectives are clearly defined, displayed and reviewed.
• Provides a language target for teachers to address.
• develop academic language
• Clearly planned and stated goals that incorporate techniques to develop and support
student Language Development
• Focuses on developing vocabulary, reading comprehension skills, writing process or
any other core component of language competency.
• Can be used to highlight functional language such as justifying opinions and
providing detailed information
• Can be used to demonstrate high order thinking skills such as summarizing,
articulating predictions, making comparisons, etc.
• Could be used as a way to assess understanding
• Uses Reading, writing, speaking and listening skills.
• Often, but not always, uses high order thinking skills.
• In ELA the content and the language objectives may overlap and this will be a
challenge for teachers.
See page 31 in textbook for verbs to use in developing Language Objectives
See page 29-30 for examples of language objectives
See page 31 for a checklist for language objectives

Key Considerations
1. Key content vocabulary-
2. Language Skills- Reading, writing, listening, speaking
3. Grammar and language structure
4. tasks (activitites)- Classify the different groups of people who were in the attic
along with Anne Frank
5. Language learning strategies- such as note taking, highlighting

3. Content concepts appropriate for the age and educational background levels of students.
4. Supplementary materials used to a high degree to make the lesson clear and meaningful
• hands on
• realia
• pictures
• visuals
• multimedia
• demonstrations
• related literature
• Hi-Lo Readers
5. Adaption of content to all levels of student proficiency
• graphic organizers
• outlines
• leveled study guides (see page 36)
• highlighted text
• taped text
• adapted text
• margin notes
• jigsaw reading
6. Meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts with opportunities for reading,
writing, listening and/or speaking.
• authentic tasks
• not busy work
No new format for planning... unless administration calls for it.

Resource: Science for English Language Learners by Fathman & Crowther from NSTA.
Building Background- Component 2
Chapter 3 in textbook beginning on page 52

1. (7) Concepts explicitly linked to students' background experiences
2. (8) Links explicitly made between past learning and new concepts
Here are some ways to link new knowledge:
• Questioning: Solicit responses
• Showing media such as pictures, video
• KWL charts
• Charts: Referencing key information
• Student Journals
• Quick Writes (think, pair, share... think, write, share)
3. (9) Key vocabulary emphasized
• Without vocabulary most reading can be pointless and hard.
• Introduced, written, repeated and highlighted
• To understand a reading students need to know 93% of the words. This is the
instructional level. If there are more than 7% unknown words it becomes
frustrating to students. (Do our resources (textbooks) meet this standard?)
• Research says that students from poverty come with a very limited vocabulary
• Two things that help one move out of poverty are education and relationships
• Two of the most significant factors for student achievement: high expectations and
unconditional caring.
• The higher the income the higher the access to language
How do we do this? (pages 63-68)
• Vocabulary word Maps (map my word online resource, Visual Thesaurus- )
• Tired Daisy.. write an old word in the middle of the flower, the petals are synonyms.
• Concept Definition map (see above resource)
• Word Walls
• personal dictionaries (index cards and binder rings or use the back of their
• Word sorts (page 64)
• Concept Definition maps
• word study books
• Cloze sentences
• Vocabulary games

• Inside Words- A book all about developing Academic Vocabulary

Comprehensible Input- Component 3

Chapter 4-Starting on page 78
1. (10) Speech appropriate for students' proficiency levels
• speak slowly and clearly
• pause between phrases
• warm and friendly
• simple sentence structures
2. (11) Clear explanation of academic tasks
• Give clear, simple directions for all steps
• provide models of completed assignments
• emphasize key parts of the assignment
3. (12) A variety of techniques used to make content concepts clear
• gestures, body language, pictures, objects
• model of a process, task or assignment
• preview material for optimal learning
• Allow alternative form for expressing understanding
• Use multimedia and other technologies
• provide repeated exposures to words, concepts and skills
• For teenagers be succinct (Short directions, step by step)
• Use sentence strips
• use graphic organizers
• audiotape texts for comprehension
Things to look at from the textbook:
Page 80 has some examples of sentences for different levels of student proficiencies
Page 82 has some examples of feature #12 (A variety of techniques used to make content
concepts clear)
Pages 85-89 have some examples of using the three features

Guided Notetaking- Here's a link about a technique for guiding your students through note

Strategies- Component 4
Chapter 5 starting on page 94


1. (13) Ample opportunities provided for students to use learning strategies

• "The special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend,
learn, or retain new information"
• Instructional Strategies are things that teachers do to promote student learning
• Learning strategies are the things that learners do to help them learn.
◦ To teach students to access information
◦ to assist them in problem solving
◦ to help students make connections between what they know and what they
are learning
◦ active learners are better learners.
• Three main types
◦ Metacognitive (purposefully monitoring our thinking, taking corrective action
if understanding fails)
▪ predicting/inferring
▪ Self-questioning
▪ monitoring/clarifying
▪ evaluating
▪ summarizing
▪ visualizing
◦ Cognitive (helping students organize the information they are expected to
learn through the process of self-regulated learning)
▪ rereading
▪ highlighting
▪ mapping information
▪ taking notes
▪ graphic organizers
▪ visualization
▪ mnemonics
◦ Social/Affective Strategies (The Social and Affective influences on learning)
▪ interaction
▪ questioning for clarification
▪ cooperative learning groups
▪ self-talk

2. (14) Scaffolding techniques consistently used, assisting and supporting student

• The teacher's careful attention to the student's level of functioning and beginning
instruction at a level that will encourage their learning
• prompting, questioning and elaboration to facilitate moving to higher order skills
• The goal is increasing the students independence (see pg 101 for a diagram)
• Verbal scaffolding
◦ paraphrasing (very important for ELL. It reinforces their understanding and
models correct English)
◦ Using think-alouds
◦ Reinforcing contextual definitions
• Procedural Scaffolding
◦ Explicit teaching, modeling, and practice
◦ One on One teaching
◦ Cooperative, multi level groups
• What you would see in a classroom using scaffolding?
◦ multi-level groups
◦ pairing with higher level students
◦ teacher modeling of the lessons
• What do you hear in a classroom using scaffolding?
◦ discussions with students
◦ paraphrasing
3. (15) A variety of questions or tasks that promote higher-order thinking skills
• 80,000 questions a teacher asks per year... 80 percent (64,000) are literal or
knowledge level of questions. Not much higher order thinking skills are being asked.
• How many academic questions does the average student ask in a year? 10. Ten!
• "The Private Eye" program with its emphasis on asking the questions " What is it
like? What else is it like?" would provide opportunities for our students to expand
their higher order thinking skills.

Princeton Note-Taking Technique- Talk to Mr. Koch regarding folding vocabulary pages.
Nice Demo!

For more details see the following pages:

page 96- details on strategies
page 97 When working with strategies we need to teach the students:
1. Declarative- What is the strategy?
2. Procedural- How do I use the strategy?
3. Conditional- When and why do I use the strategy? (Teachers don't tend to do this one
well. We tend to leave it to the students to discover and learn.)
page 98- Good strategies to use
gist- good for summarizing
DRTA- Direct Reading Thinking Activity

Interactions- Component 5
Chapter 6 starting on page 114

1. (16) Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion between teacher/student and
among students, which encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts
• Between teacher/student, student/student
• Do not have to be verbal can be written
• Should encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts.
• How to promote oral language?
◦ role playing
◦ word play (Pictionary type games)
◦ dictating a story
◦ retelling a story using puppets or dramatic play
◦ Drawing a picture and telling about it
◦ Small-group discussion of books by the same author
• How to elicit elaborated responses? Could be posted in the classroom for students or
for teacher use.
◦ Tell me more about that...
◦ What do you mean by...
◦ What else...
◦ Why is that important...
◦ What does that remind you of...
◦ In other words... is that accurate....
◦ Have student X elaborate on student y's response...
2. (17) Grouping configurations support language and content objectives of the lesson.
• Types of groups (random, voluntary, teacher)
• Changing groups
• Group roles (recorder, reporter, timekeeper, cheerleader)
• Planning group activities
• Configuration and activity must have a purpose
• Cooperative Learning Groups should...
◦ Organizing groups based on ability levels should be limited
◦ groups should be rather small in size
◦ Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but
not overused
3. (18) Sufficient wait time for student responses consistently provided.
• Additional wait time is needed for ELL students as they are processing their
thoughts in their own language. Longer that the typical 8-10 seconds given by most
4. (19) Ample opportunities for students to clarify their learning in L1 with aide, peer or

For more details from the textbook

page 127- activities from popular game shows

Practice/Application-Component 6
Chapter 7 beginning on page 136

1. (20) Hands on materials and or manipulatives are provided to practice new content
• students have a greater chance of success
• context embedded while cognitively challenging
• relevant meaningful activities
• clustering
• using graphic organizers
• solving problems in cooperative learning groups
• writing in a journal
• engaging in discussion
2. (21) Activities provide for students the opportunity to apply content concepts and
language knowledge in the classroom
3. (22) Activities provide for using all language skills such as Reading, writing, listening and

PIQ Chart
Three parts to the chart
1. P=Plus
2. I=interesting

Lesson Delivery- Component 7

Chapter 8 Beginning on page 152

1. (23) Content objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery
• Stated orally and written down
• provides a focus, structure, direction and evaluation
2. (24) Language objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery
• Stated orally and written down
• provides a focus, structure, direction and evaluation
3. (25) Students engaged approximately 90-100% of the period
• Three types of student engagement (page 156 in textbook)
◦ Allocated Time
▪ The amount of time spend studying a topic
◦ Engaged Time
▪ The amount of time students are actively participating in instruction
◦ Academic Learning Time
▪ Students' time on task- Time that is directly related to a
standard that is going to be tested or assessed.
• How do we keep students engaged?
◦ well-planned lessons
◦ appropriate amount of time (length of activity)
◦ clearly, explained academic tasks
◦ strong classroom management
◦ active student involvement
◦ meaningful application to the student's world
4. (26) Pacing of the lesson is appropriate to the students' ability level
• The pace of the lesson is just right, not too fast but not too slow
• matches the needs of the students

Review and Assessment- Component 8

Chapter 9 Beginning on page 166

1. (27) Comprehensive review of key vocabulary
2. (28) Comprehensive review of key content concepts
3. (29) Regular feedback provided to students on their output (e.g., language, content,
• Orally
◦ validating
◦ Repeating correct answers
◦ Supporting through paraphrasing
◦ Extending student responses
• Facial expressions and body language
• Student to student feedback
◦ Share with a partner
◦ Put your heads together
4. (30) Assessment of student comprehension and learning of all lesson objectives (e.g.,
spot checking, group response throughout the lesson)
• Assessment is " the gathering and synthesizing of information concerning students'
• Evaluation is "making judgments about students' learning."
• Assessment and evaluation are a cycle but assessment needs to be first.
• Active Response Techniques (page 172-175)
◦ number wheels
◦ number cards- numbers match multiple choice questions
◦ thumbs up/down
◦ response board
◦ response pads
◦ Stand up/Sit Down
◦ rubrics- should be consistent across subject areas at the school level
◦ For vocabulary
▪ use analogies
▪ paraphrasing
▪ word study books
▪ personal dictionaries
Outcome Questions Questions asked at the end of the lesson to summarize and extend
the students' learning. Have students respond to three of their choice. They can respond
either orally, as a ticket to leave, or in a journal. Related Idea: Students could create and
maintain their own learning logs. These logs would be a journal of their daily learning and
could include the objective of the day, what they did during the lesson and their responses
to the outcome questions.
1. I wonder...
2. I discovered...
3. I still want to know...
4. I learned...
5. I still don't understand...
6. I still have a question about...
7. I will ask a friend about...
Other ways of saying "I don't know"
• Encourage students to use these instead of "I don't know..."
1. Let me think about it...
2. Repeat the question, please
3. Can I ask my friend ...

Effective Teaching Cycle for English Learners (really this applies to all learners)
Page 169
1. Develop Lessons based on standards and SIOP
2. Teach lesson
3. Assess student work and comprehension
4. Review key concepts and vocabulary
5. Make adjustments to improve student comprehension
6. Reteach
Adaptations for English Language Learners- Page 175
• range of problems
• time (extend time)
• Level of support
• Level of difficulty
• product and demonstration of understanding
◦ drawing
◦ hands one
◦ demonstration
◦ talking
• degree of participation

Lesson Planning
Pre-Lesson Planning Template pg 138
Use the SIOP Model
Implementing the SIOP Model

My Lesson Plan Blueprint

Topic: Difference between large and small intestine
Content Objective: SWBAT list the differences between the large and small intestine

Language Objective: SWBAT use a Venn Diagram to show the difference between the
large and small intestine.Afterwards they will share with a partner and their table group

Building Background:
Key Vocabulary: Add the following to your personal science dictionary: large intestine,
small intestine, villi, nutrients, waste products
words have been added to the classroom word wall
Prior Experience:
Prior Lessons: Review and discussion of prior lesson

Comprehensible Input: Focus on using shorter sentences with pauses between phrases.
Demonstrate and model assignment.

Strategies: Cognitive Strategy- Venn Diagrams

Knowledge Level Questions- What is the large intestine? What is the small intestine?
Higher Level Thinking- Compare and contrast the large and small intestine. Create a
simile for one of the parts we have discussed.