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GRAMMAR: Parts of Speech: Pronoun: Used in place of a noun. Noun: Person/place/thing. Verb: Expresses action/being.

Adverb: Describes verb (how/how much/when/where). Adjective: Describes noun/pronoun. Interjection: Expresses strong feeling/surprise. Conjunction: Joins words. Preposition: Links object with another part of the sentence. Syntax: Ordering of words in a sentence Determines meaning Articles: The: Definite Article A: Indefinite Article Subject: Complete Subject: The part of the sentence containing the noun/pronoun. Bare Subject: The main word in the complete subject. Predicate: Complete Predicate: The part of the sentence containing the verb. Bare Predicate: The verb in the complete predicate. Types of Sentences: Simple Sentence: One independent clause Contains subject & predicate Complete thought Compound Sentence: Two or more independent clauses (joined with coordinating conjunction) Complete thought Complex Sentence: One independent clause One or more dependent clauses Complete thought Kinds of Sentences: Declarative: Simple statement (.). Interrogative: Question (?). Imperative: Command (!/.). Exclamatory: Statement said with rising voice (!). Sentence Varieties: Natural Order: Subject is at the beginning of the sentence. Inverted Order: Subject is at the end of the sentence. Split Order: Subject is in the middle of the predicate. Sentence Errors: Sentence Fragment: A word, group of words, phrase, or subordinate clause that is punctuated as a complete sentence. Run-On Sentence: Two or more independent clauses are mistakenly joined together without a conjunction or correct punctuation.

Comma Splice Error: Two sentences are separated only by a comma where a period should have gone. Subject-Verb Agreement: Subject & verb must agree in number. Singular Subject = Singular Verb (Add s) Plural Subject = Plural Verb Conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions: and or nor for but so yet Subordinating Conjunctions: when whenever before after until unless if although because since while Relative Pronouns: that which who whom where

SHORT STORIES: The Narrative Structure: Setting: Time:


Day Season Year Place: Country City Room Atmosphere: Setting Plot Characters Dialogue Sights Sounds Plot: Introduction: Catch readers interest Establish setting Provide information Introduce main characters Introduce main conflict Rising Action: Complications arise through series of related events Plot thickens Climax: Emotional high point Crisis Determines ending Resolution: Progress towards solution Falling action Conclusion: Outcome/ending Different from starting point Conflict: The problem the main character must solve. Human vs. Human Human vs. Him/Herself Human vs. Nature Human vs. Society

Human vs. Technology Human vs. Fate/The Unknown Characters: Main Character: Essential to the story Protagonist (good guy) Antagonist (bad guy) Minor Character: Changes story Not essential Incidental Character: Does not influence plot at all Provides interest, humour, realism, etc. Character Analysis: Background Information Age Occupation Relationships What they say What they do What others say about them How they respond to others What the author tells you Physical Description Role in Story Personality Traits Point of View: First Person: Narrator is part of story Third Person: Narrator is not part of story Omniscient (knows everything) Omnipotent (controls everything) Theme: The main idea/message of the story. Based on specific subject Expressed as a sentence Suspense: The growing excitement felt while awaiting the climax of a story. Types of Suspense: Danger: Physically/mentally dangerous position. Time Element: Time constraints/restrictions. Foreshadowing: Hinting that something will happen. Setting: Unconventional/dangerous places. Rhythm: Changing rhythm of speech.

Images/Sights/Sounds: Conjure fear. Connotation & Denotation: Connotation: Association Denotation: Definition Literary Forms: Alliteration: Repetition of initial consonant sounds. Allusion: References to well-known ideas/other works of literature/historical events. Direct: Straightforward. Figurative Language: Figures of speech. Hyperbole (Overstatement): Exaggeration. Indirect: Not straight to the point. Insincere: Not sincere. Literal Language: Primary meaning. Litotes (Understatement): Saying less than is meant. Local-Colour Story: Story including customs/traditions of an area/region. Metaphor: Direct comparison between two unlike things. Myth: Well-known, untrue story. Onomatopoeia: Sound of word reflects its meaning. Personification: Giving human qualities to inanimate objects. Simile: Direct comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Symbol: Something that represents both itself and something else. Tall Tale: Exaggerated story. Literary Terms: Pathetic Fallacy: Human emotion is reflected in nature. Irony: Reversal of expectations. Situational Irony: Opposite of what is expected occurs. Dramatic Irony: Audience knows more than the character. Verbal Irony: Character says the opposite of what he/she intends. Catharsis: Emotional relief induced by tragic literature. Foreshadowing: Hint of things to come. Parody: A remake of something that mocks the original.

POETRY: Poem: Piece written in verse Lines of set length Rhythm Imagery Rhyme Iambic Pentameter: Iam = unstressed, stressed 5 iams/line Types of Poems: Sonnet: 14 lines 10 beats/line Iambic pentameter Blank Verse: 10 beats/line Iambic pentameter Free Verse: No fixed pattern Unrhymed lines of varying length Lyric: Musical quality Expresses personal emotions/thoughts Prose: Narrative writing Not a poem ARTICLES: Newspaper Vocabulary: Font: Style & size of type. Masthead: Information about the newspaper. Headline: Extra large font across top of page (above/below masthead). Wire Service: News agency/organization that gathers news & transmits it to individual newspapers. Column: Vertical divisions of a page Opinion/comment expressed by a regular writer Broadsheet: Full sized newspaper (6 columns/page). Tabloid: Smaller format (1/2 of broadsheet); offers sensational news. Hard News: Up-to-the minute news & events that are reported immediately. Soft News: Background information; human interest stories. Paparazzi: International press corps who compete for stories of a sensational nature. Reporter: Person hired to rush to the scene & phone back information ASAP. Layout: Position of stories, advertisements, photos, & graphics on a page. Morgue: Newspapers collection of clippings, photos, reference materials, microfilm. Deadline: Assigned time for stories to be submitted in order to make the issue going to press.

MEDIA: Types of Advertising: Newspaper: Visual Straight forward Subscription/news stand/online Affordable Radio: Audio Imagination All age groups Unifying Cost (stereo/car/computer) Internet: Visual Audio Convenient Free information Versatile (multitask) Repair (virus) TV: Visual Audio Freedom of choice 40% commercials/infomercials Mail: Time Junk mail

Types of Propaganda: Testimonial: Endorsement of a product by a well-known person/organization. Bandwagon: Suggestion that everyone is doing it. Snob Appeal: Association of a product with a desirable life style. Facts & Figures: Implication that figures & statistics prove a point beyond dispute. Hidden Fears: Exploitation of an individuals fears/insecurities. Magic Ingredients: Implication that a products effectiveness is scientifically based. Weasel Words: Use of vague qualifiers/disclaimers to make the consumer think that the product is better than it really is.

Advertising Appeals: Band Loyalty: Older, well-established businesses. Conformity: Bandwagon. Hero Worship: Endorsement of a product by a celebrity. Status: Class. Humour: Entertaining; deceptive. Feminine Attractiveness: More appealing to men. Masculine Attractiveness: More appealing to women. Style Changes: Keep up with the times. Vanity: Happiness. Economy: Economize. Luxury: Symbols of wealth. Convenience: Work-saver/time-saver. Creativity: Personal touch. Commonly Used Advertising Techniques: Beauty Appeal: Beautiful people/places/things. Celebrity Endorsement: Associates product with well-known person. Compliment the Consumer: Flatter consumers. Escape: Idea of escape. Independence/Individuality: Associates product with people who can think & act for themselves. Intelligence: Associates product with smart people who cant be fooled. Lifestyle: Associates product with a particular style of living/way of doing things. Nurture: Associates product with taking care of someone. Peer Approval: Associates product with friendship/acceptance. Rebel: Associates product with behaviours/lifestyles that opposes societys norms. Rhetorical Question: A question posed to the consumer that demands a response that affirms the products goodness. Scientific/Statistical Claim: Scientific proof. Unfinished Comparison/Claim: Incomplete comparison. Analyzing Ads: Target audience Emotions Hidden message (what the ad really says) Intended use Distractions Signs/symbols Advertising techniques Decoding Print Advertising: Language: Name of product Fears Claims Propaganda Visual Features: Mood

Copy (print component) Signatures (logo/brand name) Eyes drawn Relationship of visual & written component Content: What is happening What images are projected Stereotypes Body language Posture/positioning/body language Symbols Whole: Emotional hook Effectiveness Target market Values Cultural attitudes Society Terms: Media: All means of communication. Advertising: To tell about a product, service, etc. publicly through forms of media to make people want to buy it. Implicit: Suggested but not plainly expressed. Explicit: Clearly stated/shown. Emotive: Causing emotion. Discrepancy: Failure to match. Self-Image: A persons image/conception of him/herself. Self-Esteem: A persons conception of his/her own worth; self-respect. Copy: Written text. Signature: Logo/brand. Claim: To say, without proof/evidence, that something is true. Logo: Design symbolizing organization. Target Market: A group of consumers of a type considered likely to buy a particular product. Slogan: Advertising phrase. Fears: An individuals insecurities. Propaganda: Misleading publicity. Effective Logo: Reflection Clear & simple Significance Solid design principals Timelessness Research Uniqueness Ability to adapt OTHER:

Thesis: A sentence that identifies the main position of the essay & previews the arguments that will be used to prove that position.

Tests ideas Develops argument Guides reader