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# Module11.

6: ElectricalPower
ReviewOfElectricalFundamentals ElectromagneticInduction D.C.Generation D.C.Motor VoltageRegulation A.C.Motor A.C. Motor A.C.Generation Inverters,transformers &Rectifiers Inverters transformers & Rectifiers Batteries

## Review of Electrical Fundamentals

D.C. SERIES CIRCUIT Inaseriescircuit, thesamecurrent the same current flowsthrough eachresistance each resistance butthevoltage dropacrosseach drop across each istheproductof current&the current & the resistance.

## PARALLEL D.C CIRCUIT

Samevoltage acrosseach across each resistancebut thecurrent h througheachis theratioof voltage&the g resistance.

## VARIABLE RESISTOR & POTENTIOMETER

GENERATION OF A.C.

GENERATION OF A.C.

A.C FUNDAMENTALS

## POSITIVE & NEGATIVE POWER

RESISTIVE CIRCUIT

INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT

## Electro Magnetic Induction I d ti

Electro - Magnetism
HYSTERISIS(BH)CURVE HYSTERISIS (BH) CURVE SOFT&HARDMAG.MATERIAL SOFT & HARD MAG MATERIAL

EFFECTOFLAMINATION

Electromagnetic Induction

The transfer of electric energy from one circuit to another without the aid of electric connections is called induction. When electrical energy is transferred by means of a magnetic field, it is called ti fi ld i ll d electromagnetic induction. induction

Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction occurs whenever there is relative movement between a conductor and a magnetic g field, provided the conductor is cutting across th magnetic lines of force and is the ti li ff di not moving parallel to them.

Electromagnetic Induction

The relative movement may be caused by a stationary conductor and a moving field or by a moving conductor with a stationary field. A moving field may be provided by a moving magnet or by changing the value of i t b h i th l f the current in an electromagnet.

## Faradays Laws Of Electromagnetic Induction

Faradays First Law - Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f is induced in that conductor or whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes an e.m.f is induced in it it. Faradays Second Law - The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is proportional to the rate of change of flux-linkages. flux linkages.

## Direction & Magnitude of Induced EMF

The direction of induced e.m.f and current can be found by applying left-hand-rule for generators or Lenzs Law. Left hand Left-hand rule is used where induced e m f is due e.m.f to flux-cutting i.e. dynamically induced e.m.f Lenzs law Len s la is used, when it is d e to change b sed hen due by flux-linkages i.e. statically induced e.m.f. Faraday's second law determines the magnitude of an induced e.m.f and Lenz's law determines the polarity of the induced e.m.f.

## Classification Of Electromagnetic Induction

Generator Action
DYNAMICALLY INDUCED E.M.F Moving conductor, Stationary flux

Transformer action
STATICALLY INDUCED E M F E.M.F Stationary conductor, Varying flux Self Induced E.M.F Mutually Induced E.M.F

## LEFT HAND RULE FOR COILS

For a current carrying coil held in the left hand, the encircling fingers indicating the direction of current, current the thumb indicates the north pole of this electromagnet.

AUTO TRANSFORMER

## RESONANCE IN AN A.C CIRCUIT

D.C. Generation

D.C. GENERATOR

DC generator is a device g which converts mechanical energy i t electrical energy into l t i l in the form of direct current. e o o d ec cu e .

## E.M.F INDUCED IN A COIL

When the coil links with the max. flux, max. e.m.f. is induced in it. it

## First finger Flux thuMb Motion h b i Middle Finger e M F e.M.F

GENERATION OF D.C

GENERATION OF D.C
The commutator segment changes the polarity as the coil travels through a set of poles.

EFFECT OF INCREASING NO. OF COILS no. of coils reduces ripples of the dc voltage. no. of t f turns i each in h loop will increase this value. value p no. of loops does not increase the max. value of generated voltage.

## PARTS OF A D.C GENERATOR

Armature A cylindrical structure in which slots are cut to house the copper conductors Frame or Yoke It provides path for the magnetic flux. Also, it holds flux Also the field coils & pole pieces. Pole Shoes It provides the required magnetic flux. It can be a permanent or electromagnet Commutator It converts the induced e.m.f e m f into d c d.c.

Carbon brush Its function is to collect the d.c from the commutator

ARMATURE OF A DC GENERATOR
A cylindrical structure, made up of i to d f iron t provide a highly permeable path for the flux to concentrate around the armature conductor, in which slots d i hi h l are cut to house the coils.

## FIELD, POLE SHOES & WINDINGS

A practical d.c generator uses electromagnets instead of permanent magnets. To produce a magnetic fi ld of th necessary strength with ti field f the t th ith permanent magnets would greatly increase the size of the generator generator.

## FIELD FRAME OF A D.C MACHINE

COMMUTATOR & CARBON BRUSH The brushes ride on the commutator, commutator forming electrical contact between armature coils & external circuit.

TYPES OF D.C GENERATOR D.C SERIES GENERATOR The armature & field are in series, so the flux increases with increase in load increasing the load, e.m.f.

D.C. SHUNT GENERATOR The fi ld i di i Th field winding is parallel to armature, ll l t t thus the flux is independent of the load current So the e m f is almost constant current. e.m.f constant.

D.C COMPOUND GENERATOR The series field has a rising voltage with load & the shunt field has a drooping voltage chas. So at hi h l d series fi ld compensates th t higher loads, i field t the drop & the terminal voltage is almost constant

## TYPES OF D.C. GENERATOR

SERIES GENERATOR SHUNT GENERATOR COMPOUND GENERATOR

ARMATURE REACTION

The current carrying armature conductor has its own field, which increases with the current, which weakens & distorts the main magnetic field.

GENERATOR WITH INTERPOLE An interpole has the same polarity as the next main pole in the direction of rotation thus t ti th it counteracts the armature reaction

D.C.

GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS

Series generator with rising chas. Shunt generator g with drooping chas. h

## D.C GENERATOR ASSEMBLY

VOLTAGE REGULATION Induced e.m.f is proportional to the flux. By controlling the field circuit resistance, this e.m.f can be controlled.

D.C MOTORS

D.C. MOTOR

## FIELD SURROUNDING PARALLEL CONDUCTORS

Force of attraction Force of repulsion

## Current Carrying Conductor In A Magnetic Field

Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force moves this conductor from a region of more flux to lesser flux.

## TORQUE ON A CURRENT CARRYING COIL

On the upper side of the conductor A, flux is less & at the bottom, it is more so it moves upwards similarly B moves downward, creating a torque.

## BASIC D.C. MOTOR OPERATION

There are positions, when there is no torque Th iti h th i t on the coil. So, in a practical motor more no. of coils arranged at different angles are used.

BACK EMF IN A MOTOR When the rotating armature cuts the main g magnetic field, an e.m.f is induced into it, known as back emf. Back e.m.f increases with speed. Difference between supply voltage & back e.m.f decides the current to the motor and the mechanical power developed.

## With DPDT switch it h

GROWLER
The coil & laminated core of growler form the i th primary of f a transformer, of which the generators armature becomes the secondary.

TESTING ARMATURE FOR SHORTS The hacksaw blade will vibrate vigorously, if there is any shorts in the armature windings.

## TESTING A GROUND IN THE ARMATURE

If a ground exists between the windings & the core of the armature, the test p g lamp will glow. This test may also be accomplished using an ohmmeter.

## TESTING THE FIELD COILS

FOR SHORTED TURNS FOR SHORT TO GROUND

OUTPUT OF A DC ALTERNATOR

A.C. MOTOR
AC motor or induction motor is a device, which converts electrical energy (in the form of a.c.) to mechanical energy. The stationary part is called as stator, the rotating one as rotor. There i no electrical contact b t Th is l t i l t t between th the stator & the rotor. Conversion of energy is based on electromagnetic induction induction.

## STATOR & ROTOR

A rotating magnetic field is produced when the stator is excited with a 3a.c. supply. The speed of rotation i called as synchronous speed, as t ti is ll d h d Ns=120*f /P where f is the frequency & P is the no. of poles

SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR This type of rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with slots for carrying conductors, which are heavy bars of copper, aluminium or alloys. The motor operation depends upon the production of eddy currents in the steel rotor.

CONSTRUCTION OF STATOR It is made of number of stampings, which are slotted to receive the windings. Since aircraft electrical systems operate at 400 Hz, an induction motor may operate at speeds ranging from 6,000 rpm to 24,000 rpm.

## SLIP RING or PHASE WOUND ROTOR

This type of rotor is provided with 3-phase windings, which are starred internally. The other three terminals are brought out and connected to three insulated slip rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them, under running condition, the slip rings are short-circuited. h t i it d , g As soon as current flows in the stator, the lines of magnetic flux produced in the field coils cut across the rotor and induce a voltage in the bars. The rotor has such an extremely low resistance that the induced voltage causes a large current to flow, and this current creates a magnetic field that reacts with the rotating field in the stator.

## Slip In An Induction Motor

The rotor of an induction motor will assume a position in which the induced voltage is minimised. There must be difference in speed b t b a diff i d between th rotor and th the t d the rotating field. This difference in speed is called slip, and is expressed as a percentage of the synchronous p p g y speed. % slip = Ns-N Ns Ns N x 100

:- Synchronous speed = (120 x f / P) rpm :: Motor or Rotor speed (Ns-N) is called the slip-speed

## CAPACITOR START A.C. MOTOR

1 a.c motors are not self starting. A capacitor with starting winding offers a phase shift & starts the motor.

A.C. MOTOR

The necessary phase-splitting is produced by induction. A induction low-resistance, short-circuited coil or copper band is placed h ll across one ti of each small tip f pole. The presence of the ring causes the magnetic field g through the ringed portion of the pole face to lag appreciably behind that through the other part of the pole-face.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Because of the magnetic locking between the stationary & the rotating parts magnetic fields, it runs at synchronous speed only.

A 3-phase a c is applied to the stator windings and a 3 phase a.c rotating magnetic field is produced. A direct current is applied to the rotor winding and another magnetic field is produced. Due to continuous and rapid rotation of stator poles poles, the rotor is subjected to a torque which is rapidly reversing i.e. the rotor is subjected to torque which g j tends to move it first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Because of its large inertia, the rotor can not instantaneously respond to such quickly t ti t t l dt h i kl reversing torque and thus it remains stationary. Thus, the synchronous motor is a not a self-starting motor motor.

All synchronous motors have some kind of starting device One device. type of simple starter is another motor, either ac or dc, which brings the rotor up to approximately 90% of its synchronous speed. Th starting motor i then di d The i is h disconnected and the rotor d d h locks-in-steps with the rotating field. Another starting method is a second winding of the squirrel-cage type of rotor. This induction-winding brings the motor almost to synchronous speed and when the dc is disconnected to the rotor windings, the rotor pulls into step with the field. If the load on the motor is increased, rotor tends to fall back in phase but it still continuous t run synchronously. Th maximum t ti to h l The i torque, which th hi h the motor can develop without pulling out of step or synchronism is, p q called the pull-out-torque.

## SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Vs- INDUCTION MOTOR

For a given f frequency, the synchronous motor runs at a constant average speed whatever is the load, while the speed of an induction motor falls somewhat with increase in p load. A synchronous motor is not self-starting self-starting. A dc excitation is required by synchronous motor but not by induction i d ti motor. t A synchronous motor can be operated over a wide range of y p g power factor both lagging & leading but induction motor always runs at lagging power factor, which may become very low at light loads loads.

Generation Of A.C.

Generation Of A.C.

## Three Phase Distribution

Sine wave current in each of the coils produces sine varying magnetic field on the rotation axis. Magnetic fields add as vectors. Sum of the magnetic fields produces the rotating magnetic field.

## Three Phase Distribution

Simplified Si lifi d construction t ti of 3-phase AC Generator Output voltage produced by 3-phase AC Generator

STAR or Y - Connection

## 3 Phase A.C Generator

Armature, Armature the stationary part contains 3 phase p windings and the rotating magnetic field induces a three phase output a.c a c voltage in them them.

## A Brushless 3-Phase A.C Generator

The PMG produces an output of 120V at 800 Hz which is fed to the PMG rectifier unit. The output of the PMG rectifier is fed to the voltage regulator which provides current for the primary exciter field winding winding. The primary exciter field induces current into a three-phase rotor winding three phase winding. The main exciter winding is wound so as to form six p poles in order to p produce an output at 115 VAC@400 p Hz. The excitation system is an integral part of the rotor and that there is no direct electrical connection between the stator and rotor. The output of this winding is fed to three shaft-mounted rectifier diodes which produce a pulsating DC output which is fed to the rotating field winding.

## Phase A 1, 4 Phase B 3, 6 Phase C 5 2 Ph 5,

+Ve Group 1, 3, 5

-Ve Group 2, 4, 6

Diodes between the lines of max. positive to max. max negative voltages conduct conduct.

## AVERAGE D.C. (the ( h output contains 6 pulses in one cycle) i l i l )

Batteries

The positive electrode is lead peroxide and the negative electrode is spongy lead. The electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid. The capacity depends on the size of the plate there are always several plates each combined to one element by connecting post straps and feature of terminal post for post-straps outside connection. To pre ent an risk of to ching of plates being slid in prevent any touching one another, separators are installed, a thin wooden sheet and a corrugated perforated plastic-sheet.

Ni Cd BATTERY
The positive plates are made from a porous plaque on which Nickel Hydroxide has been deposited. The negative plates are made from similar plaques on which Cadmium Hydroxide is deposited. y p The electrolyte used is 30% by weight of KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) in distilled water water. The specific gravity of the electrolyte remains between 1 240 and 1 300 b t 1.240 d 1.300. The battery charge can not be determined by a specific gravity check of the electrolyte.

## Lead Acid - Vs - Ni-Cd Battery

Lead Acid Battery L d A id B Ni Cd B Ni-Cd Battery

CELL IMBALANCE
In Ni-Cd battery the negative plate controls the cell's voltage characteristics. This, with slightly lower charge efficiency i th positive-plates, results i an h ffi i in the iti l t lt in imbalance between the negative and positive plates in each cell. The cell-imbalance condition is reduced by pulse charging or terminating the constant-potentialcharging, when the battery is close but below full charge. Then, proceed to complete the charge at a constant-current rate of approximately 10% of th t t t t f i t l f the ampere-hour capacity of the battery.

## DEEP CYCLING & EQUALIZATION

Discharging the battery at a rate somewhat lower than that used for the capacity test. When the cell voltage is down to around 0.2 volt per cell, short across each cell with a shorting strap. Leave the strap across the cells for three to eight hours to be sure that all of the cells are completely discharged. This process is known as equalization After equalization. equalization the battery is ready to charge.

NOTE
When installing the battery, connect the "hot" lead first. first If you, you accidently short-circuit between the battery and the aircraft with your wrench, you will not cause a spark if the ground h ill k h d lead has not been connected. When removing a battery, always disconnect the ground l d fi d lead first f the same reason. for h

SYMBOLS