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Marie Yvanoff

Advanced Antenna Design

Project1: Antenna Synthesis

Dr. Venkataraman Date: February 28, 2003

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Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to create a computer tool for the different Antenna Synthesis

Method. Using Matlab, a graphical interface is created where the user will have the possibility to choose between the different methods available. For each one of the methods, matlab mfiles are generated with different input parameters. In this report, the Antenna Synthesis Methods are presented theoretically and an example of the different matlab output is presented. The following figure is the graphical interface for the Antenna Synthesis Method, with a scroll to choose between the different methods and the different input parameters needed to generate the results of the method.

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to create a comp uter tool for the diffe

Figure1: Graphical Interface

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Schelkunoff’s Polynomial Method:

Given:

-

Spacing d

-

Phase Difference β

-

Position of nulls z 1 , z 2 , z 3 …z n

Array Factor Calculation: AF = (z- z 1 ) (z- z 2 )… (z- z n ) Z= e jΨ and Ψ= kd cos(θ+β) plot AF vs θ

Matlab file: Schelkunofftab.m

• Schelkunoff’s Polynomial Method: Given: - Spacing d - Phase Difference β - Position of nulls
• Schelkunoff’s Polynomial Method: Given: - Spacing d - Phase Difference β - Position of nulls

Figure2: Array Factor for 1 null at 90º ; d = 0.5λ and d = λ

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Fourier Transform Method:

i) Continuous Line Source Distribution:

Given SF(θ) d for a range of θ 1 ≤ θ ≤ θ 2

Assume k z =0 = phase distribution along length.

ξ= kdcos(θ)- k z

Calculate range for ξ corresponding to range for θ

Current distribution is derived with:

I

a

(

z

' ) =

1

2

π

ξ

2

ξ

1

ξ

(

)

SF e

ξ

jz '

ξ

d

Where SF (ξ ) = SF (θ )

d

Integrate and obtain I(z’) for

l

l

z '

2

2

Calculate

SF

θ

(

)

a

=

l / 2

(

I z

' )

e

ξ

jz '

dz

'

l / 2

Matlab file: FourierLineSource.m

Example with the desired radiation pattern symmetrical about θ = π/2 given by:

SF(θ) = 1

for

π/4< θ <3 π/4

0 elsewhere

At first, we plot the current distribution, for different length:

F ourier Trans form ed M ethod for Line S ourc e

(*w avelen gth) S o urc e 10 * w avelength 5 Line line l =
(*w avelen gth)
S o urc e
10 * w avelength
5
Line
line
l =
l =
2
Normalized Current I(z)
S ourc e
S ourc e
0
z
-1
P o s itio n
-2
-0.4
1
-4
4
1
0
-0.2
* w avele ngth
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-5
5
-3
3

Figure 3: Plot of the current distribution

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Eventually, the plot of the Space Factor is generated of the desired pattern and the

synthesized patterns using the Fourier Transform Method.

Current Distribution and Synthesized Pattern with Fourier Transform Method

1 0.5 0 -0.5 Normalized Current I(z)
1
0.5
0
-0.5
Normalized Current I(z)
120 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 Space Factor 160 100 Source Position z (*wavelength) 180 140
120
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
Space Factor
160
100
Source Position z (*wavelength)
180
140
40
20
60
80
0
1
2
2.5
l
= 5* wavelength
l
=
Desired Pattern
-2
10 * wavelength
-1
-1.5
0.5
1.5
-2.5
-0.5
0

Observation angle theta (degrees)

Figure4: Fourier Transform Method for Linear Source

Eventually, the plot of the Space Factor is generated of the desired pattern and the synthesized

Figure5: Space Factor Plot vs θ

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ii) Linear Array:

Given AF(θ) d for the domain: θ 1 ≤ θ ≤ θ 2

Ψ= kd cos(θ+β) with β = 0 for Broadside

Calculate the Excitation coefficients:

a

m

=

1

2

π

ψ

2

ψ

1

AF

(

ψ

)

e

jm

ψ

d

ψ

Where

AF (ψ ) = AF (θ )

d

The approximated Array Factor is calculated with:

AF

a

=

M

a e

m

jm

ψ

m M

= −

Matlab file: FourierLinearArray.m

Example: [cnorm,N] = FourierLinear(10,0.5)

The function takes the length and the spacing of the array as parameters and returns the

number of elements and the normalized excitation coefficients. In this example, d = λ/2 and

l = 10 λ.

>> [cnorm,N] = FourierLinearArray(10,0.5);

N =

21

>> cnorm'

ans =

-0.0100

0.0455

-0.0496

0.0101

0.0518

-0.0895

0.0578

0.0558

-0.2170

0.3582

1.0000

0.3582

-0.2170

0.0558

0.0578

-0.0895

0.0518

0.0101

-0.0496

0.0455

-0.0100

>>

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Woodward Lawson:

i) Continuous Line Source Distribution:

Given:

-

Desired SF(θ) d

-

Length l

Choose M l/λ

The total number of sampling is: 2M+1

With

-

Sampling separation: Δ = λ/l

-

Sampling angle θ m = cos -1 (m Δ)

-

Coefficient b m =[ SF(θ= θ m )]

Calculation of the approximated SF:

M

SF(θ) a = ∑ S θ ( ) m m M = − ⎧ ⎡ kl
SF(θ) a =
S θ
(
)
m
m M
= −
⎡ kl
⎤ ⎫
sin
(cos
θ
cos
θ
m
2
⎦ ⎪
S
=
b
m
m
kl
(cos
θ
cos
θ
m
2
Plot SF(θ) a vs θ and SF(θ) d vs θ

Matlab file: WoodLineSource.m

• Woodward Lawson: i) Continuous Line Source Distribution: Given: Desired SF( θ ) - Length l

Figure6: Space Factor Plot vs θ – Woodward Method for Line Source

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ii) Linear Array:

Given:

  • - Desired AF(θ) d

  • - Length l

  • - Spacing d

The number of elements in the array is then: N = (l/d) +1

The method is the same as for the line source; Δ, θ m , and b m are calculated.

M AF(θ) a = ∑ f θ ( ) m m M = − ⎧ ⎡
M
AF(θ) a =
f θ
(
)
m
m M
= −
⎡ kl
⎤ ⎫
sin
(cos
θ
cos
θ
m
2
⎦ ⎪
f
=
b
m
m
kl
(cos
θ
cos
θ
m
2

Plot AF(θ) a vs θ and AF(θ) d vs θ

Matlab function: WoodArray.m

3 a) SF θ desired = ( ) sin ( θ )
3
a)
SF θ desired =
(
)
sin
(
θ
)
3 b) SF ( θ ) desired = cos ( θ )
3
b)
SF ( θ ) desired =
cos
(
θ
)

Figure7: Space Factor Plot vs θ – Woodward Method for Linear Array for different desired Pattern

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Taylor Line Source (one parameter):

Given: - length = l

- Ro = 1 st Side Lobe level in dB

Calculate R 0 = 10^(R 0 indB/20)

and B with R 0 =

4.603 *

sinh(π B )

B

π

The space Factor can be calculated with the following formula:

⎡ 2 2 ⎤ sinh ( π B − u ) 2 2 SF ( θ
2
2
sinh
(
π
B − u
)
2
2
SF
(
θ
)
=
for
u
≤ (πB )
2
2
(
π
B − u
)
2
2
sin
u
(
π
B
)
2
2
for
u
≥ (πB )
2
2
u
− (
π
B
)
πl
With
u =
cos(θ )
λ
Matlab file: TaylorOneParameter.m
• Taylor Line Source (one parameter): Given: - length = l - Ro = 1 Side
• Taylor Line Source (one parameter): Given: - length = l - Ro = 1 Side

Figure8: Taylor Line Source plot for different side Lobe level

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Analysis of Results:

The output results give significant results, and the plots are correct.

This tool still needs some improvements:

  • - The Taylor Line Source with Tschebyscheff error has not been implemented yet.

  • - The schelkunoff’s Method does not accept multiple nulls as input parameters. (The .m function does accept separately one table as a parameter but has not been implemented in the graphical interface).

This tool is still a nice example for the different Antenna Synthesis Method, and the

modifications shouldn’t be too difficult to make.

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