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Dont

Drink , and Drive.


Table of Contents
Executive Summery .......................................................................................................... 3 Context and Importance of the Problem ................................................................... 4 Critique of Policy Options ............................................................................................... 6 Policy Recommendations ............................................................................................. 10

A Policy Recommendation for Or Yarok in Battling Drunk Driving



Conclusions ............................. 14 Bibliography ........................... 15 Appendix .................................. 16 Mr. Rommey Hassman Social and Political Marketing December 2012 1

Table of Contents
Executive Summery .......................................................................................................... 3 Context and Importance of the Problem ................................................................... 4 Critique of Policy Options ............................................................................................... 6 Policy Recommendations ............................................................................................. 10 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 14 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................... 15 Appendix ............................................................................................................................ 16

Executive Summery
The dire picture that illustrates the reality on Israeli roads is a most worrisome one. Road traffic accidents mark one of the leading causes of injury and hospitalization among Israeli adults aged 15-29 (NRSA, 2008). In the past decade, alcohol consumption has presented increasing influence on much of the Israeli public, and with it came the alarming prevalence of drunk driving accidents whose persistence cannot be ignored. Or Yarok, a leading Israeli NGO countering road traffic accidents, has certainly not remained ambivalent to this alarming trend, and has indeed established a strong social marketing brand since its inception, bringing awareness of drunk driving as a problem to the Israeli public. Nonetheless, despite its several marketing efforts, Or Yarok has been faced with a resisting level of drunk driving accidents, hinting at a faulty social marketing strategy. This strategy has heavily relied on legal aspects for the abandonment of drunk driving, rather than voluntary compliance, while using undifferentiated marketing techniques that sought to appeal broadly among the segments of the public. This paper suggests that not only should Or Yarok appeal differently to the different population segments, putting more emphasis on higher-risk segments such as young-adults, but also to enhance the Ps of its marketing mix. By enhancing the feasibility of its product, segmenting, prioritizing and tailoring key messages accordingly while stressing the element of price, among other, it is believed that Or Yarok could substantially influence the public in its battle against drunk driving.

Context and Importance of the Problem


Over the past decade, self reported access to and consumption of alcohol in Israel has been on the rise. Two thirds of the population stated they drink outside of home, on average the Israeli public drinks 2.5 times a month, and the average amount of liquor is 1.8 drinks (NRSA1, 2008). Over 43% of New-Drivers and 35% of other Young Drivers (ages 18-22) have reported drinking more than 3 alcoholic drinks the last time they went out (Tomer-Fishman, 2010). Though the numbers of road traffic crashes decreased over time (mostly due to increased seatbelt use and road improvements), this is still one of the major causes of injury and hospitalization in Israel among adults aged 15-29(Jaffe, Savitsky, Zaistev, Hiss and Peleg, 2009). One major obstacle to RTC2 reductions remains drinking and driving. Israeli Law Enforcement reported about 7% of RTC were as a result of alcohol consumption (Tomer-Fishman, 2010). Seemingly, compared with the 20%-40% alcohol related RTC in the rest of the western world (Tomer-Fishman, 2010), Israel is not in a bad position. But is that really so? The only reason for this positive gap is that in Israel little is known about the extent of alcohol involvement in RTC injuries and fatalities. For over two decades, since the legal driving limit was established in 1982, monitoring blood alcohol concentration among drivers has been minimal, likely the result of a lack of public interest and weak law enforcement (Jaffe, Savitsky, Zaistev, Hiss and Peleg, 2009). In recent years, as public advocacy for road safety grew, the performance of random sobriety checks increased and enforcement of alcohol- related driving offenses improved as well. The latter was primarily due to changes in the law and law enforcement as well as different associations such as Or Yarok, Which since its foundation has sparked a genuine revolution in public awareness. A survey conducted a couple of years ago revealed that 96% of the Israeli public acknowledges the problem of drunk driving in Israel, and most of the public is 1 National Road Safety Authority 2 Road Traffic Crashes 4

aware of the dangers of drunk driving (NRSA, 2008). In fact, 87% of the sample believed that for anyone who drinks and drives the chances for him to be involved in an RTC are high or very high (NRSA, 2008). The survey revealed an even more positive finding that the majority of the public (77%) avoids driving after drinking (NRSA, 2008). The problem is that there is still a significant segment that drives after drinking alcohol, even when already feeling drunk. Almost a quarter of the public (23%) stated they drove after drinking alcohol and 6% reported drinking and driving often, or very often (NRSA, 2008). Indeed, driving after drinking alcohol is allowed in Israel as long as the blood alcohol level is lower than 0.05, but a study on the influence of alcohol on driving abilities found that driving abilities are impaired at almost any level of alcohol (Shinar, 2007). The most worrisome finding from the survey was that people drive even when they already feel drunk. Almost a fifth (17%) of alcohol users (individuals who drank alcohol in the last month) noted they drove while feeling intoxicated, while half of them (8%) did so more than once (NRSA, 2008). This finding is even more troubling in view of the fact that people are not fit to drive even before they feel intoxicated- at the prohibited and dangerous blood alcohol level in Israel many people do not yet feel they are drunk (Shinar, 2007). In 2008, 11% out of those who reported drinking and driving after their last night out had a BAC3 of over 0.05. Only one year later, in 2009, the number was already up to 20%- an increase of 90% in total (TomerFishman, 2010). Thus, even though the public acknowledges the problem and seems well aware of the implications and risks involved, this is not enough. Or Yarok must create an effective campaign to not only raise the publics awareness but to deter the Israeli public from ever drinking and driving again.


3 Blood Alcohol Concentration 5

Critique of Policy Options


The alarming statistics and figures, which depict the prevailing scenario on Israeli roads, emphasize the importance of Or Yaroks social marketing campaigns that call for an immediate behavioral abandonment of drunk driving. Although these campaigns have had a wide reach in awareness as demonstrated through petitions, they ultimately proved to be lacking, as after approximately ten years of Or Yaroks activity, the amount of drunk drivers in all road accidents was strikingly high at 15%(Or Yarok, 2007). This failure further resonated in 2010, when Minister of Transportation, Yisrael Katz, claimed that Or Yarok had falsified data in order to cover their shortcomings, as part of the finger-pointing war that the two have embarked on (Friedman, 2010). When examining Or Yarok as a social brand, its essence seems to be in accord with its environmental needs, having the explicit value of avoiding casualties on the road. Nonetheless when moving on into the personality element of Or Yarok, as outlined by the social brand model, a particular issue arises whereby Or Yarok does not select its clients appropriately a possible source for the difficulty in selling the abandonment of drunk driving. For the analysis of Or Yaroks clients a particular campaign was chosen called If you drink, dont drive4 that presents three adults, seemingly above the age of 30, who have been driving under the influence of alcohol and who suffered the legal consequences. The first issue that arises within the campaign is its problematic appeal, where factors such as the relative old age of the actors (30+), early time of day, and the particular drinking habits that are portrayed, do not concern the entire population that is relevant for the campaigns message. In fact, according to the NRSA young drivers in their early-mid twenties are involved in more accidents caused by alcohol/drug consumption than any other age group of the population (NRSA, 2008). As such the appeal of the campaign appears to have been focused in the wrong direction, where instead of harnessing the attention of the highest-risk population of young-adults, Or Yarok depicted a very particular appeal in its campaign, mainly to the more mature segment, jeopardizing the effectiveness of the campaign. This view is further enhanced by the time of the 4 See Appendix 1 6

day depicted in the campaign where drunk-driving is presented in daylight while the drinking culture of young-adults is generally characterized to be at night, typically in bars and other locations outside of the home. It therefore transpires that Or Yarok utilized undifferentiated marketing techniques where a very particular campaign sought to appeal to many population groups, putting emphasis on what is common the issue of drunk driving, while neglecting differentiating nuances. This strategy is a dangerous one as the message of If you drink, dont drive can easily be lost in translation for the many age groups that are presented on the road, and in particular the high risk young-adult age group. In addition, the campaign primarily targets drifters with us, those individuals who understand the problem of drunk driving but are shaky on embracing preventative measures, while neglecting them altogether. The campaign states an implication of drinking and driving, but does not provide an argument as to why drinking and driving is a genuine problem. This may be particularly problematic when certain drifters with them and them may believe the behavior objective has already been met, thinking that drinking and driving does not concern them either because they dont drink and drive, dont drink, or dont drive, and thus are not relevant. Nonetheless this rationale is false as drunk driving can harm these very subgroups by having a drunk driver on the road. Thus the campaign falls short both in selecting its clients and tailoring an effective message to all relevant audience. The product of Or Yarok is unmistakably the desired behavior change of abandoning drunk driving as a whole, in all age groups across the nation, which is sold via social marketing efforts. One of the most challenging aspects of social marketing is that it relies on voluntary compliance rather than legal, economic, or coercive forms of influence, and it is this notion which presents barriers to Or Yarok (Kotler, 2002). According to the RSA one of the leading elements for drunk driving deterrence in Israel is the fear of being caught by the police and receiving legal or financial penalties (Tomer-Fishman, 2010). This view is further radiated in the If you drink, dont drive campaign which rather than calling on the public to voluntarily change the harmful behavior, it exhibits the three adults (who drove under the influence) boarding a bus on which a banner claims: Did you drink and drive? The police will

confiscate your car.5 The problematic nature of this campaign is that it contradicts social marketing norms and appeals to the public using the law, which according to Kotler should be the social marketers last resort when all else fails (Kotler, 2002). The price component of Or Yarok is critical for selling the abandonment of drunk driving to the Israeli public. According to the Social brand model, in order for a behavior change to take effect its yielded benefit must outweigh its cost. However Or Yarok exhibits an inadequate price where cost is dominated by tangible factors such as financial and legal implications, as witnessed in the If you drink, dont drive campaign, while intangible factors such as actual physical risk are put in the back seat. This notion is visible in other Or Yarok campaigns such as the Drunk Driving campaign6 which is of a more explanatory nature, giving facts about the extent of drunk drivers caught by law enforcement and the similar, while neglecting physical hazard altogether. The problem here is twofold; first, by presenting large figures illustrating the prevalence of drunk driving the risk of reign of error may arise as described by Perkins in the Social Norms Approach (Kotler, 2002). The approach outlines that if an individual believes that drunk driving is popular among many and thus the norm, regardless of the accuracy of this perception, he will be more likely to drink and drive despite his own personal feelings. The second problem is that of a weakened benefit verses cost ratio where, by portraying the police confiscating cars and conducting breathalyzer tests, the cost appears to be relatively low in relation to physical endangerment, or worse loosing ones life which could have been alternatively used, making the perceived benefit of avoiding drunk driving relatively weak. Finally, the symbol with which Or Yarok is identified with is rather flimsy, comprising simply the letters of Or Yarok written in green, without a catchy image or slogan. As a result Or Yaroks top-of-mind may be reduced, as the inability to relate to a particular phrase or image as other organizations such as RSA7 allow, may reduce the likelihood of an individual to think of Or Yarok and its message, when considering drinking and driving. 5 See Appendix 2 6 Please see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82EvERjaGwM for more information. 7 See Appendix 3 8

Thus, despite the obvious need for strong social marketing campaigns that harness public awareness for eradicating drunk driving, Or Yarok has presented several shortcomings.

Policy Recommendations
Although Or Yarok seems to be a well-established, strong brand in the Israeli social environment, we believe that it must revise the product, personality, and symbol elements of its social brand urgently in order to enhance its vital battle against drunk driving. We recommend that it reexamines and make the necessary modifications in determining its strategies as outlined in 3 out of the 4Ps of the marketing mix model. Product Or Yaroks current efforts have been largely focused on different advertising methods in order to call for the publics abandonment of drunk driving. Nonetheless, In order to produce a clear and effective marketing message, the broad product needs to offer the use of tangible objects and services that support or facilitate behavior change (Kotler, 2002). We recommend that Or Yarok implement a campaign which not only punishes the ones who drink and drive but rewards those who were smart enough not to. This concept was firstly conducted by the municipality of Ramat Hasharon whereby systematic breathalyzer tests were performed within the city between the hours of 10PM to 5AM. Drivers who passed the breathalyzer test (BAC<0.05) were awarded a 50NIS gas coupon and were presented with information regarding drunk driving and its implications. The benefits of such a strategized campaign is that it serves as reinforcement for people at the action stage so that they will be aware of their accomplishments and therefore not vulnerable to relapses (Kotler, 2002). We believe that if this campaign were widespread around the country it would gain much awareness and support and most importantly encourage voluntary compliance to the desired behavior change. Furthermore, Or Yarok can place young volunteers, aged 18-28, in popular bars and clubs, which will hand out breathalyzers, or alternatively help download relevant smartphone applications (such as the breathalyzer app examining whether the user can walk in a straight line, and other driving after drinking apps) creating an interactive marketing experience. Such actions will target Or Yaroks highest risk segment in the most problematic scenery using a fun manner that is likely to make people 10

contemplate and rethink their position and responsibility with regards to this prevailing problem. Such strong presence at high involvement places and the interaction with people will probably earn Or Yarok Top-of-Mind awareness. Price In the case of drunk driving the real price is a non-monetary one associated with the time, effort, energy and physical discomfort put into adopting the behavior, as well as the very dominant psychological risks and losses. Or Yaroks campaigns and general actions should lower costs of both adopting the desired behavior and of abandoning the current one. It is quite obvious why the price of adoption should be perceived as very low when the possible risks are so high and fears of being caught are often communicated. However, the reality is that only 33% of the public estimates the possibility to be caught as high or very high and an even lower percentage (13%) reports being actually caught within the last year (NRSA, 2008). In addition, the consequence of immediate death seems as far fetched. As a result the public is likely to disregard or belittle such entry costs as compared with the more felt like exit costs such as relaxing, having fun and social acceptance. An encouraging finding however was that there is no negative peer pressure against drivers who refrain from drinking (NRSA, 2008) which in fact eliminates yet another exit cost leaving us with two very arbitrary ones. This also assures us that social pressures and norms, that signal refraining from drinking if driving as an acceptable cultural value, do exist and are very prominent. Such reassuring information must be communicated as to decrease non-monetary costs. There is no doubt that the greatest benefit of all, in the behavior we are promoting, is life itself and that it is priceless. As such Or Yarok should emphasize that living your life with fun starts first and foremost by actually living and that it will all be worthless in retrospect if something bad, god forbid, should happen. To do so we believe that Or Yarok should pressure the state of Israel to fund free vouchers to its public transportation night services for teenagers and students, who are within the high-risk segments and are easy to get to, as to make the alternatives seem more available in mind and less timely and costly and communicate that life is indeed priceless.

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We further recommend that Or Yarok work towards increasing and communicating law enforcement presence and actions making the possibility to get caught not only high but also very real to the public. This would cause one possible cost of their current behavior, one that has been very dominant up until now, to increase dramatically and therefore relatively lower the cost and barriers to adapting the desired behavior. Or Yarok must clearly express those lower costs and benefits of the behavior change, as they are essential to the core product. Promotion Despite the wide relevance Or Yaroks encapsulates in its appeal, the manner by which its desired behavior change is promoted must be urgently revised to a more differentiated approach. As with any marketing campaign, the key for its success lies within the selected target audience, otherwise known as clients in the personality element, whereby segments will need to be prioritized, allocating the limited amount of resources to the most effective and efficient segments (Kotler, 2002). As such, Or Yarok must firstly segment its audience according to the severity of the problem, by appealing more to the segment that presents a higher risk of drunk driving. Seeing as young adults are the highest risk population segment, Or Yarok should create campaigns that explicitly tailor the key message accordingly, in terms of the age of the actors in the campaign, displayed environment (bars, clubs, etc.), late time of day, among other factors. Furthermore, Or Yarok should consider using additional mediums for campaign publicity; rather than using only TV campaigns, Or Yarok should consider enhancing its involvement in the social networks arena, whereby not only could it create more of a viral buzz around its campaigns, but also meet the young adults at their own turf, where they are most active. Nonetheless by no means should Or Yarok target young adults solely. Or Yarok should create a variety of campaigns targeting several adult groups of other ages, as well as other members of the general public, otherwise known as them, who may either be an ordinary passerby crossing the street, or the passenger of a car driven by a drunkard, among others. It should be noted, that rarely is a market segmented using only one variable, and as a results each segment should be further profiled

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and narrowed by another variable (Kotler, 2002). For example, Or Yarok may further profile its young adults market on the basis of driving experience, appealing to new drivers differently than those on the road for years. Another part of the social brand model Or Yarok should consider revising, which is associated with its promotion strategy, is its symbol. Or Yarok should seek to create a catchy slogan with which it could be identified among all segments, while introducing a logo that captures the message visually. Thus Or Yaroks promotion methods must entail further promotional factors that via a proper segmentation of the market, form an enhanced presentation of Or Yaroks key message. Lastly, In Israel little is known about the extent of drunk driving and alcohol involvement in RTC injuries and fatalities since there is no systematic collection of BAC and thus no reliable method to assess prevalence. This lack of information prevents Or Yarok from establishing a clear goal that is meaningful to campaign efforts and that will be feasible to measure. In order for Or Yarok to better understand the actual product, learn more about their target audiences knowledge, beliefs, current behavior, and most especially the impact of the desired behavior, they must reinforce surveillance, routine toxicological testing, various occasional surveys and create sobriety checkpoints, especially at relevant places and time of day/week/year as part of an evaluation and monitoring strategy.


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Conclusions
It is beyond doubt that the problem of drunk driving in Israel is of great severity, which must be attended urgently before further deterioration, via social marketing efforts. Or Yarok has indeed expended such marketing efforts in calling for the publics abandonment of drunk driving, nevertheless these efforts were only partially effective due to an imprecise selection of target audience and an inadequate presentation of its product, among others. Or Yarok should seek to fine-tune its marketing mix strategies based on the above recommendations so as to allow its social brand to provide effective tools in this vital battle.

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Bibliography
Or Yarok. "Driving Under the influence, Or Yaroks Standpoint." Or Yarok. . Oct 2007. Web. 30 Dec 2011. <http://www.oryarok.org.il/webfiles/audio_files/taktzir.pdf>. Friedman, Ron. "Road safety advocates slam failure to reduce traffic deaths." National News. The Jerusalem Post, 28 Dec 2010. Web. 30 Dec 2011. <http://www.jpost.com/NationalNews/Article.aspx?id=201212>. NRSA. "The Involvement of Young Adults in Road Accidents." Viewpoints in Road Safety. National Road Safety Authority (NRSA), 2008. Web. 30 Dec 2011. <http://www.rsa.gov.il/CommitmentDay/Documents/yedion/Gilayon4.pdf>. Kotler, Philip, Ned Roberto, and Nancy Lee. Social Marketing. 2nd. SAGE Publications, 2002. 5-181. Print. Tomer-Fishman, Tamar. "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in Israel 2010." The Central Informative Unit of RSA. Road Safety Authority (RSA), 2010. Web. 31 Dec 2011. <http://www.rsa.gov.il/AlcoholAndDriving/Documents/studydoc/AlcoholDrivingSur vey2010final.pdf>. Jaffe PhD, Dena H., Bella Savitsky MPH, Konstantin Zaistev MD, Jehuda Hiss MD, and Kobi Peleg PhD. "Alcohol and Driver Fatalities in Israel: An Examination of the Current Problem." Rpt. in ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Vol. 11. Tel Hashomer: Gertner, 2009. 725-29. IMAJ. Web. Shinar, David. "Alcohol and Driving." Traffic Safety and Human Behavior. England: Elsevier: Oxford, 2007. Print.

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Appendix
1. 2. Please see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmHVjJOqKjU for full video 3.

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