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Development of Computer Aided Heat Treatment Planning System for Quenching & Tempering (CHT-q/t) and Industrial Application

of CHT-bf and CHT-cf


M.S Thesis Defense presentation
By Amarjit Kumar Singh Advisor: Prof. Yiming (Kevin) Rong Prof. Diran Apelian Thesis Committee Prof. R .D. Sisson. Jr, Thesis Committee Prof. M. A. Demetriou, Graduate Committee

Outline
Introduction to Heat treatment process Industrial need of a simulation software System design of CHT- q/t Database design Enmeshment of Box shape workpiece Mechanical properties prediction after quenching Case study with CHT- q/t Industrial application of CHT- bf and CHT- cf Summary

Introduction to heat treatment


Heat Treatment may be defined as heating and cooling operations applied to metals and alloys in solid state so as to obtain the desired properties. The main types of heat treatment applied in practice are Annealing Normalization Hardening and Tempering Some of the objectives of heat treatment are summarized as follows: Improvement in ductility Relieving internal stresses Refinement of grain size Increasing hardness or tensile strength Improvement in machinability Improvement in toughness

Industrial need of a heat treating software


Furnaces are widely used for the heat treatment of mass production parts. So to optimize the heat treating process is of great significance. The present simulation softwares, unable to integrate the part load and furnace model with the heat treating process.

Foundation of CHT- q/t


CHT-bf and CHT-cf as the foundation of CHT- q/t for several database and heating module QuenchPAD for the quenchant database.

Challenges for development of CHT- q/t


CHT-q/t needs a complete database, most function modules are database oriented.

Definition of CHT- q/t


CHT-q/t is a software tool to predict the temperature profile of load in batch as well as continuous furnace during heating, quenching and tempering of steel, then to predict the mechanical properties as Quenched & Tempered and finally to optimize the heat treatment process design.
Heat transfer calculation Output Input Phase transformation Temperature vs time of all parts Heat-time profile of each part Fuel flow rate-time profile Properties in load Dynamic cooling result

Part information

Property prediction
Database

Furnace information

Workpiece Material

Load pattern Quenchant information

Furnace Atmosphere Fuel Workpiece geo.

Initial condition

Function flow chart

Workpiece

Furnace

Load pattern

Thermal schedule

DB1 Material & TTT profile DB

Module 1 Workpiece classification & enmeshment Workpiece shape classification Enmeshment by Biot no.

DB2 Furnace DB DB3 Atmosphere DB

Module 2 Heating

Output 1 Heat term & temperatures

Describes the function modules, database and output of CHT- q/t

Module 3 Cooling Heat transfer for gas quenching in same furnace used in heating DB4 Quenchant DB

Heat transfer for gas quenching in different furnace

Output 2 Cooling curve of each workpiece and inside the workpiece

Heat transfer for oil quenching in tank (load with fixture, single workpiece without fixture)

DB5 Quenching properties DB

Module 4 Phase transformation prediction (Austenite to pearlite / bainite / martensite) Comparing cooling curve with TTT diagram to determine microstructure Mapping of microstructure to properties

Output 3 Mechanical Properties after Quenching

Module 5 Tempering Heating below austenizing temperature

Output 4 Heat term & temperatures

DB6 Tempering properties DB

Module 6 Property prediction by empirical equations

Output 5 Mechanical Properties after Tempering

Database design
CHT-q/t needs extensive database to increase its applicability, as most of the modules strongly depend on database. The TTT and quenchant database are the new addition. Material and properties
It comprises of workpiece as well as furnace materials. Considers non-linearity of properties Addition of TTT diagrams for steels

Workpiece shape
13 basic shapes

Furnace
Batch & Continuous furnace for heating Dual chamber furnace, vacuum furnace, quenchant tank for cooling

Atmosphere Fuels Quenchants


Frequently used gas as well as liquid quenchants

1600

TTT database development


In CHT-q/t steels are classified as Carbon steel Alloy steel Tool steel Stainless steel

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000

Steps for the conversion of the TTT diagrams in tabular format Convert in digital format Pick the start and finish curves at temperature duration of 20 deg The value range from Austenitic start to martensitic start Store Ms and Mf values as well

Source: TTT diagrams taken from Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for


Irons and Steels http://nick-gd.chat.ru/index2.htm

TTT Database as shown in CHT- q/t

TTT Database as shown in CHT- q/t User has the option to add or edit the TTT database as well

Quenchant database development for gas quenchant

Relationship between gas pressure and the heat transfer coefficient at 500 degree C and 15m/s

Reference:
Torsten holm, Soren segerberg, Gas quenching branches out, advanced materials and processes, 1996.

Quenchant database development for liquid quenchant

Heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000

TA-B B-C
Boiling Boiling stage sage

TB-C A-B

Convection stage
1000 0 0 200 400

Vapor blanket stage

600

800

Temperature,

The quenchant database considers the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient in all the three stages i.e. film boiling, bubble boiling and convection stages during liquid quenching

Classification of workpiece
Class Class I Box 2-stacked brick Shapes Class II Cylinder Hollow cylinder Base 2-step shaft 3-step shaft Class III Cone Hollow cone cone Class IV Sphere Class V Torus

Class I

The enmeshment was one dimensional for CHT- bf and CHT- cf The desired output of the hardness value at all the internal locations of part led to the development of 3-dimensional enmeshment.

3-Dimensional enmeshment
Classification of workpiece by Biot number Case 1: Bi .1 Lumped heat capacity model Case 2: Bi > .1 Exact model
Lumped heat capacity model

Input Conditions: The dimensions of the box (D1, D2, & D3). The initial temperatures of the part. Temperature of the quenchant gas.

T Ta = exp[ Bi F0 ] Ti Ta

Where, Ta is the ambient temperature Ti is the initial temperature of part F0 (Fourier number) is F = .t and
0

Lc

k C p

Thus we can get the final temperature T, by using the above equations Conductivity and specific heat as a function of temperature

Bi > .1, exact solution to be used


Input: Dimensions of the box (D1, D2, & D3). Specify the origin as shown in the figure. Input the values n, l ,m The initial temperatures of the part. The time step Ambient or quenchant temperature. Internal nodes
i j 1 (1 to L-1) 2 (1 to L-1) (n-1) (1 to L-1) k (1 to m-1) (1 to m-1) (1 to m-1) i 0 1 n-1 n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (1 to L-1) k 0, m 0, m 0, m 0, m

x =

D1 n

y =

D2 l

z =

D3 m

Boundary nodes
i 0, n 0, n 0,n 0, n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (0 to L-1) k 0 1 m-1 m i 0, n 0, n 0,n 0, n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (0 to L-1) k 0 1 m-1 m

Corner nodes: (0, 0, 0) (n, 0, 0) (0, L, 0) (n, L, 0) (0, 0, m) (n, 0, m) (0, L, m) (n, L, m)

Microstructure evolution and property prediction


Initial condition

Properties to be determined Hardness Ultimate Tensile Strength Yield Strength Approach: Analytical approach for as quenched. Hardness value for all the nodes to get hardness distribution. For other properties equations used, as a function of hardness. The average value of hardness used to determine other properties. Database approach for as tempered.

Workpiece

Furnace

Load pattern

Thermal schedule

DB1 Material & TTT profile DB

Module 1 Workpiece classification & enmeshment Workpiece shape classification Enmeshment by Biot no.

DB2 Furnace DB DB3 Atmosphere DB

Module 2 Heating

Output 1 Heat term & temperatures

Module 3 Cooling Heat transfer for gas quenching in same furnace used in heating DB4 Quenchant DB

Heat transfer for gas quenching in different furnace

Output 2 Cooling curve of each workpiece and inside the workpiece

Heat transfer for oil quenching in tank (load with fixture, single workpiece without fixture)

DB5 Quenching properties DB

Module 4 Phase transformation prediction (Austenite to pearlite / bainite / martensite) Comparing cooling curve with TTT diagram to determine microstructure Mapping of microstructure to properties

Output 3 Mechanical Properties after Quenching

Module 5 Tempering Heating below austenizing temperature

Output 4 Heat term & temperatures

DB6 Tempering properties DB

Module 6 Property prediction by empirical equations

Output 5 Mechanical Properties after Tempering

Hardness
Microstructure after quenching
The kinetics of the growth of ferrite and pearlite are described using the Avrami-Johnson-Mehl equation where, w : volume fraction of austenite transformed b,n : coefficient and exponent of the austenite transformation kinetics, t : time ln (1 ws ) ts : start time log[ln (1 w ) / ln (1 w )]
tf : finish time
ws

w = 1 exp b.(t t s )

n=

= 0.01 w f = 0.99

log t s (T ) / t f (T )

b=

t s (T )

wM = (1 wP wB )* (1 exp( .011.(M s T )))

Reference: V. C. Prantil, M. L. Callabresi and J. F. Lathrop, Simulating


Distortion and Residual Stresses in Carburized Thin Strips, vol. 125, April 2003

Hardness Calculation
A continuous cooling curve is divided into constant temperature steps with appropriate times . It is assumed that the horizontal parts of this step function cause a transformation comparable to the transformation occurring at the individual temperatures in the isothermal TTT-diagram. By an iteration of the transformation steps the final microstructure is derived.

step function

Temperature T

HV A

real course of cooling

P HV HV B

M
Time t

Time log t

Regression Analysis
Hardness=f(C%, Martensite%) The equations of the form: H= ax2 +bx+c, x--- C% The equation at 50% Martensite y = -19.0476 x^2 + 64x + 20.1448 The equation at 80% Martensite y = 7.14286 x^2 + 50.6429x + 25.6529 Similarly, generating the HRC value for all the martensitic percentage points

Reference:
http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/Stefan_Waner/RealWorld/newgraph/regressi onframes.html

Ultimate tensile strength


UTS=a*HB+b Brinell hardness is used Aim is to find constants a and b. Value of constants for stainless steel
Class Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic Martensitic Designation and Grade AISI Type 201 AISI 300-series AISI 300-series AISI 400-series AISI 400-series Hardness Range (250-400) HB (140-180) HB (190-370) HB (140-190) HB (156-595) HB Ultimate tensile strength U.T.S = 606 HB - 31600 U.T.S = 457 HB + 16910 U.T.S = 534 HB - 16280 U.T.S = 430 HB + 6530 U.T.S = 508 HB - 3900

Validation for low alloy steel (5140) having hardness of 167 HB. UTS calculated by the mentioned equation comes to be 572.278 Mpa And the UTS of a specimen having hardness 167 HB should be 573 Mpa Reference: Mechanical properties of Work Materials, Edmund Isakov Validation source: http://www.efunda.com/materials/alloys/alloy_home/steels.cfm

Hardness Conversion tables


Conversion of HRC to HB
Rockwell Hardness Numbers (HRC) from 20 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 to 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 66 HB = 5.329 HRC + 119.6 HB = 6.984 HRC + 76.1 HB = 8.379 HRC + 33.7 HB = 8.872 HRC + 16.0 HB = 10.025 HRC - 30.8 HB = 12.473 HRC - 142.6 HB = 15.962 HRC - 318.7 HB = 19.038 HRC - 489.4 HB = 17.602 HRC - 403.8 Equations to convert Rockwell hardness (HRC) to Brinell Hardness (HB)

Conversion of HV to HB
Vickers Hardness Number (HV) from 85 150 200 250 300 400 500 to 149 199 249 299 399 499 670 HB = 0.959 HV - 0.8 HB = 0.949 HV + 0.9 HB = 0.954 HV - 0.7 HB = 0.922 HV + 7.3 HB = 0.944 HV +1.2 HB = 0.909 HV + 15.1 HB = 0.940 HV - 0.2 Equations to convert Vickers hardness (HV) into Brinell Hardness (HB)

Reference: Mechanical properties of Work Materials, Edmund Isakov

Calculation of Yield Strength


s = k b
The materials are classified into three categories, plain carbon, low alloy and alloy steel. For plain carbon steel k is between 0.6 to 0.65, for low alloy steel k is 0.65 to 0.75, and alloy steel k is 0.84 to 0.86. The value of k has been further refined and added in the database for each grade of steel. k = Yield strength / U.T.S

Reference: http://www.efunda.com/materials/alloys/alloy_home/steels.cfm

Implementation Case Study 1 at American Heat Treating, CT

Furnace: VFS Vacuum Furnace Load : 5 baskets arranged load

Material: Alloy Steel 4340 Weight: 0.3 lbs

Case Study 1 at American Heat Treating, CT


Quench Gas Atmosphere Nitrogen Quench Pressure 2 bar Blower HP 160

Process

Atmosphere Content Vacuum

Temperature (F) 70-1000

Time (mins)

Heating

From room temp. 180 120 50 40

Soaking Soaking Soaking Quenching

Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Nitrogen (2 bar)

1000 1750 1950 200

Case Study 1 at American Heat Treating, CT


2500

TC1(top) TC2 TC3 TC4 TC5

2000

1500

TC6 TC7 TC8 TC9 TC10

1000

500

TC11 TC12(BOT) CALC_S

0 0 100 200 300 400 500

CALC_F

Comparison of calculated and measured results

Case Study 2 at Bodycote, Worcester, MA

Furnace Abar Vacuum Furace

Workpiece Stainless steel Quench Gas Atmosphere Nitrogen Quench Pressure 2 bar Blower HP 200
Process Atmosphere Content Vacuum Vacuum Nitrogen (2 bar) Temperature (F) 70-1900 1900 200 Time (mins)

Heating Soaking Quenching

from room temp. 200 200

Case Study 2 at Bodycote, Worcester, MA


Measured & Calculated results
2500

2000 Temperature (F) Meas. slow Meas. fast Calc. furnace Set Point Calc. fast Calc. fast

1500

1000

500

0 0 100 200 300 Time (mins) 400 500 600

Case Study 2 at Bodycote, Worcester, MA


Dynamic cooling results

Summary and future work


Discusses the function and domain of CHT- q/t CHT- q/t designed to meet industrial need, close contact with industries kept to review their needs and implement the idea. The basic advantages lies in short computation time, easy to use and the ability to integrate the part load and furnace model with the complete heat treatment process. Database development (especially TTT and quenchant database) Development and validation of property prediction module Validation of the new interface as well as cooling module in industry.

Future work
More case studies required to validate the system Enhance database for TTT diagram and quenchant Analytical approach to find convective heat transfer coefficient Analytical approach to find properties after tempering

Industrial Applications of CHT- bf


Case studies performed at Bodycote Thermal Processing, Worcester Objective
To study the effects of change in the load quantity and giving recommendations for the thermal schedule redesign. To study the effect of change in load arrangement and determination of optimal load pattern from the calculated temperature values. To determine the pre-heat required to reach the set point temperature and hence to determine cycle time. Scheduling of jobs in furnace after determining exact cycle time. To study the effect of part orientation on the quality and distortion and hence to determine best suited load orientation.

Furnace name

Pit furnace, 416 Vertical Electric 5x8 45 x 60 2500 F 1000 120 kw or 409416.58 BTU/hr Air No preheat No [ ] Yes [ x] Yes Material Horse power Diameter Height Speed Weight Rate of cooling water [ x ] No [ ] No 303 2 14 4.5 1140 R.P.M 35 0 Graphite, 50lbs Alloy, 100lbs Alloy, 1000lbs

Pit Furnace

Body Shape (E.g. vertical, Horizontal) Heating type (E.g. direct/indirect fired, electric) External size(LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Work space (LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Maximum Operating Temperature Minimum Operating Temperature Connected heat input Atmosphere content Air preheated temperature Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace Recirculation Fan (one fan at top)

Furnace Accessories data (weight and material)

Heating elements Supports Others

Case study 1 at Pit furnace


Workpiece Information

Work piece Name Work piece Material Work piece weight

R. H. Handles 1137 2

Load Pattern

Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (diameter , height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs

Basket Round Solid 300 lbs 35, 25 Arranged 181 362

Arrangement of load pattern


Quantity in each ring Row Ring (Row)1 Ring 2 Ring 3 Ring 4 Ring 5 Quantity 23 22 21 20 19 Row Ring 6 Ring 7 Ring 8 Ring 9 Ring 10 Quantity 18 17 16 14 11

Comparison of result (soaking time: 305 min)


Temperature-Time chart
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 Time (min) 300 400

Temp (F)

Part (slow) Part (fast) Furnace

Conclusion: Part Temperature remains almost constant after 180 mins. The optimum cycle time prior to heat treating can be determined.

Comparison of result (Reduced soaking time: 180 min)


Temperature-Time chart
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 50 100 Time (min) 150 200

Temp (F)

Part (slow) Part (fast) furnace

Case study 2

Work piece Name Work piece Material Work piece weight

Hitchiner part no. 87296 & 87292 17-4 stainless steel Two types of part(same material) present in the load 1. Qty = 300 2. Qty = 903 Wt. = 41 Wt. = 45 Thus average workpiece wt = 0.0715

Load pattern

Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (diameter , height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs

Basket Round Solid 300 lbs 35, 25 Random (300 + 903)/2 = 601 (41 + 45)/2 = 43

Comparison of Result
Actual result
2500 2000 Temp (F) 1500 1000 500 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (min) Temp (furnace) Temp (slow) Temp (fast)

Conclusion: Great opportunity to reduce the cycle time

Furnace name

All case, 405 Horizontal Indirect gas fired

All case furnace

Body Shape (E.g. vertical, Horizontal) Heating type (E.g. direct/indirect fired, electric) External size(LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Work space (WidthLength Height) or (diameter Height) Maximum Heating Minimum Operating Temperature Fuel (combustion air) Connected heat input Atmosphere content Air preheated temperature (F) Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace Opening area (inch2) Recirculation Fan

5.5 4.7 4.8 ft 30-48-30

1800 1400 Natural gas 1000000, 60000 Btu/hr Endothermic (RX) with enriching gas, dilution air and ammonia additions 850 15 [ ] Yes 900 [x ] Yes Material Horse power Diameter Height Speed Weight Rate of cooling water [ ] No 330 5 10 inches 14.5 inches 1800 R.P.M 200 2 G.P.M (one fan at top) [ x ] No

Case study on all case furnace (with connected heat input 600,000 Btu/hr)

Work piece Name Work piece Material Work piece weight

Hitchiner 243860 8620 0.2312 lbs

Load Pattern
Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (Length, width, height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Rows Columns Layers of fixtures in furnace Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs Basket Rectangular Net like 45 lbs 29, 23, 4 Random 1x2x5 607 140.4 lbs

Result
Load takes around 65 minutes to reach the set point temperature, although the time allotted to reach the set point temperature is 30 minutes. In all case furnace, 10 fixtures are used for the part load and generally the parts are randomly placed in the fixture, leaving no room to change the part load design.

Result by CHT-bf (same load in furnace with higher heat input i.e increasing the connected heat input to 1 million Btu/hr) The time required by the load to reach
set point temperature reduced from 65 to 40 minutes, as we increased the connected heat input from 600,000 Btu/hr to 1000000 Btu/hr, thus saving around 25 minutes. Conclusion: The cycle time can be reduced. Conclusion about All case furnace: Connected heat input is the most important parameter for the All-case furnaces. We can determine suitable all case furnace for a specific load by CHT-bf

Application, Advantages and limitation of CHT- bf


Determination of pre-heat and cycle time Helps in deciding appropriate furnace Designing optimum load and its arrangement Determination of required heat input of the furnace Low computation time make it highly applicable in industry User friendly interface and stability further increases its applicability

Limitation
Scheduling more than one type of parts of different geometry and material, we have to take average dimension and a closely resembling material. This may affect the result. Needs improvement for random load pattern Part load may require some assumptions Only applicable for heating process Needs a furnace efficiency parameter

Industrial Application of CHT- cf


Case studies performed at Bodycote Thermal Processing, Waterbury, CT

Objective
To study the effects of change in the load quantity and giving recommendations for the thermal schedule redesign. To study the effect of change in load arrangement, determination of optimal load pattern from the calculated temperature values. To study the effect of part orientation on the quality and distortion and hence to determine best suited load orientation. To study the effect of belt speed and gross productivity on the thermal profile of parts and hence determine optimum belt speed and load capacity to maximize productivity.

Mesh Belt Furnace

Body Shape Heating type External size(Width Height) Or (diameter ) (in) Work space (Width Height) Or (diameter ) (in) Moving belt/conveyor width (in) Moving belt/conveyor unit weight Belt or conveyor return Opening area of the entrance zone (in2) Opening area of the end zone (in2) Fuel Air preheated temperature (F) Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace

[ ]pipe

[x]box

[ ]Direct [x]indirect fired [ ]electric 90 x 96 56 x 56 54 (lbs/in2) 0.27 [x] internal 324 0 Natural gas 900 15 [ ] Yes [x ] No [ ] external

Furnace efficiency % (based on furnace age) 90 Z o ne


Connecte d heat input

(Btu/hr ) 300000 875000 700000 525000

Len gth (in)

Atmos phere content

Zone temperat ure (F) 500 1600 1600 1600

Fan Hors e powe r (HP) 0 0 1 5

Wall Insulatio n height (in) 0 0 0 0

Through metal area (in2) 0 0 0 0

1 2 3 4

136 72 72 50

Air Air Air Air

Case study 1

Gross productivity Name Material Weight XHD005 screw 1020 carbon steel 0.04 lbs Actual load width Height of layers Workpiece length Workpiece width Workpiece height

600 lbs/hr 54 inch 0.25 inch 0.25 inch 0.25 inch 0.156 inch

Result by CHT-cf & Measured result


Measured result
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 80

Temp (F)

Channel 5 (Left) Channel 1 (Right) Channel 3 (center)

Comparison of Actual & Measured result


CHT-cf calculated and Thermocouple measured
2000 Temp_setpoint 1500 Temp (F) 1000 500 0 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 80 Temp_furnace Temp_load_fast Temp_load_slow Temp_load_slowest Channel 5 (Left) Channel 1 (Right) Channel 3 (Center)

Experimental result closely matches with the result given by CHT-cf The thermal profile of the part remains almost same irrespective of its location.

Case study 2 (demonstrating different load patterns)

Work piece Name Work piece Material Work piece weight (lbs)

14004 standard screw 1020 carbon steel 0.02

Gross productivity (lbs/hr) Actual load width (in) Height of layers (in) Workpiece length Workpiece width Workpiece height

600 54 0.375 2 2 0.125

Random load

Arranged load

Manual load arrangement Arranged load clubbing 15 parts as 1. Weight, part load pattern changed accordingly

Improvement in result

Uniformity of thermal profile in load Better quality achieved (confirmed by the quality department)

Application and advantages of CHT- cf


The affect of part load arrangement can be studied using CHT-cf, prior to running the actual load. As shown in the case studies uniformity of temperature can be achieved by choosing arranged load pattern. Orientation of parts: We can judge the part orientation, which gives uniformity in temperature The affect of belt speed on the thermal profile of parts can be studied, and the optimum belt speed (i.e cycle time ) can be determined. Furnace Planning: CHT-cf can help us in determining the important parameters required for the furnace, e.g connected heat input required for each zones, which can help in deciding the number of burners required for each zones.

Limitation of CHT-cf
In the Atmosphere content, only atmosphere name can be mentioned. No option to quantify the atmosphere content. While simulating the part load by CHT-cf, distortion of parts are not considered, while in actual industrial practice the cycle time, production rate and load pattern arrangement are mostly considered keeping in view the final quality and distortion. Need to make the program stable and user friendly. Sometimes it gives some extra profiles in the temperature-time chart.

Summary
Several case studies validated with experimental results (using thermocouple) Accuracy of the temperature profiles predicted by CHT-bf and CHT-cf Judgment and approximation required in defining part load Described the methods to troubleshoot CHT-bf and CHT-cf Discussed in detail all the features i.e, database management Case studies and the experience helped in development of CHT- q/t as well

Motivation to work closely with industries

Thanks for your attention QUESTIONS ?