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Course 501

LTE: Long Term Evolution LTE: Long Term Evolution Fourth Generation Wireless Fourth Generation Wireless

December, 2008

Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter

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Course Outline
What is LTE? Spectrum and the Development of Wireless Overview of Competing 4th Generation Systems and Spectrum Structure of the LTE RF signals, uplink and downlink LTE Network Architecture All-IP operation Flat Architecture

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What is LTE?
Fourth generation wireless technologies offer much higher data speeds, much lower latency, more sophisticated Quality-of-Service, lower cost per bit, and simpler/less expensive/more robust network architectures. LTE, Long Term Evolution, is a fourth-generation wireless technology Already supported by most US wireless operators as their choice for fourth generation deployment and migration Two other technologies are also being discussed as potential fourthgeneration wireless technologies WiMAX Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access based on IEEE standard 802.16, several versions implemented by Sprint in initial markets in 4Q2008 UMB Universal Mobile Broadband proposed by Qualcomm, based on enhancements of the 1xEVDO standard, EVDO rev. B and EVDO rev. C. Qualcomm withdrew its proposal in early December, 2008 due to lack of operator interest in implementing it
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Goals of LTE
Reduce operating expenses (OPEX) and capital expenditures (CAPEX) Dramatically increase data speeds and spectral density compared to 3G technologies Substantially reduce latency, to provide superior voice-over IP and other latency-dependent services Flatten the network architecture so only two node types (base stations and gateways) are involved, simplifying management and dimensioning Provide a high degree of automatic configuration for the networka high degree of automatic configuration. Optimize interworking between CDMA and LTE-SAE so CDMA operators can benefit from huge economies of scale and global chipset volumes

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Course 501

Spectrum and the Spectrum and the Development of Wireless Development of Wireless

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Frequencies Used by Wireless Systems Overview of the Radio Spectrum


AM LORAN Marine 3,000,000 i.e., 3x106 Hz CB 30,000,000 i.e., 3x10 Hz

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

2.4

3.0 MHz

Short Wave -- International Broadcast -- Amateur

4
VHF LOW Band

10
FM

12

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 MHz 7
VHF VHF TV 7-13

VHF TV 2-6

30

40

50

60

70

80 90 100

120 140 160 180 200


GPS

700 + Cellular UHF UHF TV 14-59

300,000,000 i.e., 3x108 Hz DCS, PCS, AWS

240

300 MHz

0.3

0.4

0.5

0/6

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

3,000,000,000 i.e., 3x109 Hz

2.4

3.0 GHz

10

12

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 GHz 10
30,000,000,000 i.e., 3x10 Hz

Broadcasting
December, 2008

Land-Mobile Aeronautical Mobile Telephony Terrestrial Microwave Satellite


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IDEN CELL UPLINK

Current Wireless Spectrum in the US


IDEN CELL DNLNK Proposed AWS-2 PCS DownLink AWS DownLink AWS?

700 MHz.

700 MHz

800

900

1700 1800 1900 Frequency, MegaHertz

2000

SAT

2100

2200

Modern wireless began in the 800 MHz. range, when the US FCC reallocated UHF TV channels 70-83 for wireless use and AT&Ts Analog technology AMPS was chosen. Nextel bought many existing 800 MHz. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) systems and converted to Motorolas IDEN technology The FCC allocated 1900 MHz. spectrum for Personal Communications Services, PCS, auctioning the frequencies for over $20 billion dollars With the end of Analog TV broadcasting in 2009, the FCC auctioned former TV channels 52-69 for wireless use, 700 MHz. The FCC also auctioned spectrum near 1700 and 2100 MHz. for Advanced Wireless Services, AWS. Technically speaking, any technology can operate in any band. The choice of technology is largely a business decision.
December, 2008 Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter Page 7

SAT

AWS Uplink

PCS Uplink

North American Cellular Spectrum


Uplink Frequencies (Reverse Path)
824 835 845 849

Downlink Frequencies (Forward Path)


Frequency, MHz Paging, ESMR, etc.
870 880 890 894

A
869

B
891.5

825

846.5

Ownership and Licensing

Frequencies used by A Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Non-Wireline companies Frequencies used by B Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Wireline companies

In each MSA and RSA, eligibility for ownership was restricted A licenses awarded to non-telephone-company applicants only B licenses awarded to existing telephone companies only subsequent sales are unrestricted after system in actual operation
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Development of North America PCS


By 1994, US cellular systems were seriously overloaded and looking for capacity relief The FCC allocated 120 MHz. of spectrum around 1900 MHz. for new wireless telephony known as PCS (Personal Communications Systems), and 20 MHz. for unlicensed services allocation was divided into 6 blocks; 10-year licenses were auctioned to highest bidders PCS Licensing and Auction Details A & B spectrum blocks licensed in 51 MTAs (Major Trading Areas ) Revenue from auction: $7.2 billion (1995) C, D, E, F blocks were licensed in 493 BTAs (Basic Trading Areas) C-block auction revenue: $10.2 B, D-E-F block auction: $2+ B (1996) Auction winners are free to choose any desired technology

51 MTAs 493 BTAs

PCS SPECTRUM ALLOCATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA


A
15 1850 MHz. December, 2008

D
5

B
15

E F
5 5

C
15

unlic. unlic. data voice

A
15

D
5

B
15

E F
5 5

C
15 1990 MHz. Page 9

1910 MHz.

1930 MHz.

Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter

Potential Spectrum for LTE


LTE Potential Spectrum LTE and WIMAX have their own benefits and are suited to address different target market segments; one of the key differentiator is that WiMAX is primarily TDD (Time-Division-Duplex) and will address operators that have unpaired spectrum whereas LTE is FDD (FrequencyDivision-Duplex) and will address operators that have paired spectrum. Time Division Duplexing allows the up-link and down-link to share the same spectrum where as Frequency Division Duplexing allows that the up-link and down-link to transmit on different frequencies. 3GGP LTE standards are planned for completion by beginning of 2008, and the industry believes the first deployments of LTE network are likely to take place at the end of 2009, beginning of 2010. In the section, we will look at the most probable FDD spectrum bands suitable for the future deployment of LTE but bearing in mind the above mentioned schedule and the current level of activity related to spectrum regulation and allocation, it is likely that the information contained in this paper will require regular revision to remain accurate.

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The US 700 MHz. Spectrum and Its Blocks

To satisfy growing demand for wireless data services as well as traditional voice, the FCC has also taken the spectrum formerly used as TV channels 52-69 and allocated them for wireless The TV broadcasters will completely vacate these frequencies when analog television broadcasting ends in February, 2009 At that time, the winning wireless bidders may begin building and operating their networks In many cases, 700 MHz. spectrum will be used as an extension of existing operators networks. In other cases, entirely new service will be provided.
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The 700 MHz. Band in the US


700 MHz In the U.S. this commercial spectrum was auctioned in April 2008. The auction included 62 MHz of spectrum broken into 4 blocks; Lower A (12 MHz), Lower B (12 MHz), Lower E (6 MHz unpaired) , Upper C (22 MHz), Upper D (10 MHz). These bands are highly prized chunks of spectrum and a tremendous resource: the low frequency is efficient and will allow for a network that doesnt require a dense buildout and provides better inbuilding penetration than higher frequency bands. The Digital Television Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005 sets February 17, 2009 as the date that all U.S. TV stations must vacate the 700 MHz spectrum, making it fully available for new services. The upper C block came along with open access rules. In the FCCs context open access means that there would be no locking and no blocking by the network operator. That is, the licensee must allow any device to be connected to the network so long as the devices are compatible with, and do not harm the network (i.e., no locking), and cannot impose restrictions against content, applications, or services that may be accessed over the network (i.e., no blocking). The upper D block did not meet the $1.3 billion reserve price. This spectrum will likely be reauctioned in the future with a new set of requirements that could give rise to a licensee capable of addressing first responders interoperability and broadband requirements. Indications are strong that similar transitions may occur in other parts of the world, possibly allowing global roaming on compatible bands.
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Advanced Wireless Services Spectrum


Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) In September 2006 the FCC completed an auction of AWS licenses (Auction No. 66) in which the winning bidders won a total of 1,087 licenses. In the spirit of the U.S. governments free-market policies, the FCC does not usually mandate that specific technologies be used in specific bands. Therefore, owners of AWS spectrum are free to use it for just about any 2G, 3G or 4G, technology. This spectrum uses 1.710-1.755 GHz for the uplink and 2.110-2.155 GHz for the downlink. 90 MHz of spectrum divided this into six frequency blocks A through F. Blocks A, B, and F are 20 megahertz each and blocks C, D, and E, are 10 megahertz each. The FCC wanted to harmonized its new AWS spectrum as closely as possible with Europes UMTS 2100 band. However, the lower half of Europes UMTS 2100 band almost completely overlaps with the U.S PCS band, so complete harmonization wasnt an option. Given the constraint the FCC harmonized AWS as much as possible with the rest of the world. The upper AWS band lines up with Europes UMTS 2100 base transmit band, and the lower AWS band aligns with Europes GSM 1800 mobile transmit band.
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Advanced Wireless Services: The AWS Spectrum

To further satisfy growing demand for wireless data services as well as traditional voice, the FCC has also allocated more spectrum for wireless in the 1700 and 2100 MHz. ranges The US AWS spectrum lines up with International wireless spectrum allocations, making world wireless handsets more practical than in the past Many AWS licensees will simply use their AWS spectrum to add more capacity to their existing networks; some will use it to introduce their service to new areas
December, 2008 Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter Page 14

AWS Spectrum Blocks

The AWS spectrum is divided into blocks Different wireless operator companies are licensed to use specific blocks in specific areas This is the same arrangement used in original 800 MHz. cellular, 1900 MHz. PCS, and the new 700 MHz. allocations

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AWS Spectrum Winners


The maps at left show the territorial winnings of various wireless operators in the AWS auctions AWS licenses in the various AWS spectrum blocks cover different sized territories; the maps show the combined territory controlled by each winner at the conclusion of the auction

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Global Wireless Frequency Allocations Available for 4G Technologies

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Current Wireless Technologies Current Wireless Technologies and New Directions for 4G and New Directions for 4G

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Multiple Access Methods


FDMA
Power
T im e

FDMA: AMPS & NAMPS


nc y

ue eq Fr

Each user occupies a private Frequency, protected from interference through physical separation from other users on the same frequency

TDMA: IS-136, GSM TDMA


Power
Ti m e

F re

e qu

nc

Each user occupies a specific frequency but only during an assigned time slot. The frequency is used by other users during other time slots.

CDMA
Each user uses a signal on a particular frequency at the same time as many other users, but it can be separated out when receiving because it contains a special code of its own
Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter Page 19

CDMA
Power
Tim

DE CO
e

ue req

nc

December, 2008

Multiple Access Methods


OFDM
Power Frequency
Ti m e

OFDM, OFDMA
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; Orthogonal Frequency Division Muliple Access The signal consists of many (from dozens to thousands) of thin carriers carrying symbols In OFDMA, the symbols are for multiple users OFDM provides dense spectral efficiency and robust resistance to fading, with great flexibility of use

MIMO

MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output An ideal companion to OFDM, MIMO allows exploitation of multiple antennas at the base station and the mobile to effectively multiply the throughput for the base station and users

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A Technical Comparison A Technical Comparison LTE, WiMax, UMB LTE, WiMax, UMB

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LTE
LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 3GPP project to improve UMTS to meet future requirements LTE aims to improve efficiency, reduce costs, improve services, add capability to use newly allocated spectrum, and integrate better with other open Standards LTE itself is not a standard, but part of upcoming UMTS release 8 LTE specific technical goals and details are: 100 Mbit/s downloads, 50 Mbit/s uploads for each 20 MHz. of spectrum used Capacity for at least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell Latency under 5 ms for small IP packets Increased spectrum flexibility, using slices from 1.25 to 20 MHz. depending on availability of spectrum (great for fitting in around an operators existing technology Optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance Co-existence with legacy standards (users calls or data sessions can transparently transfer to LTE where available LTE is an AIPN, All-IP Network
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WiMax Compared with LTE

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LTE Key Air Interface Features


Downlink: OFDM / OFDMA Allows simple receivers in the terminal in case of large bandwidth #subcarriers scales with bandwidth (76 ... 1201) frequency selective scheduling in DL (i.e. OFDMA) Adaptive modulation and coding (up to 64-QAM) Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) A FFT-based transmission scheme like OFDM, but with better PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) The total bandwidth is divided into a small number of frequency blocks to be assigned to the UEs (e.g., 15 blocks for a 5 MHz bandwidth) Uses Guard Interval (Cyclic Prefix) for easy Frequency Domain Equalisation (FDE) at receiver

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Deployment Timeframe of LTE and WiMax

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UMB
Radio Access Network EV-DO Rev. A One Carrier EV-DO Rev. B Two Carriers EV-DO Rev. B Three Carriers EV-DO Rev. C UMB 20 MHz Required Spectrum 1.25 MHz 2.5 MHz 3.75 MHz 20 MHz Peak Forward Link Throughput 3.1 Mb/s 6.2 Mb/s 9.3 Mb/s 275 Mb/s Peak Reverse Link Throughput 1.8 Mb/s 3.6 Mb/s 5.4 Mb/s 75 Mb/s

1xEVDO rev. A works on one carrier, and 1xEVDO rev. B uses multiple carriers in parallel for higher speeds. UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband, 1xEV-DO rev. C) attempts to compete with LTE and Wimax by using a transmission format very similar to LTE. Due to prevalent lack of UMB interest from operators, Qualcom in November 2008 abandoned its UMB proposal and all development UMB Summary Uses OFDMA, FDD, scalable bandwidth 1.25-20 MHz Data speeds >275 Mbit/s downlink and >75 Mbit/s uplink FL advanced antenna techniques, MIMO, SDMA and Beamforming Low-overhead signaling and RL CDMA control channels Inter-technology and L1/L2 handoffs, independent Fwd/Rev Handoffs Dead!
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LTE: Long-Term Evolution LTE: Long-Term Evolution

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The LTE Air Interface: The LTE Air Interface: Forward Link (Downlink) Forward Link (Downlink)

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The LTE Downlink Signal


The LTE signal (also known as E-UTRA) uses OFDMA modulation for the downlink and Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for the uplink An OFDM signal consists of dozens to thousands of very thin carriers, spaced through available spectrum each carries a part of the signal the number of carriers can be adjusted to fit in the available spectrum OFDM has a Link spectral efficiency greater than CDMA Using QPSK, 1QAM, and 64QAM modulation along with MIMO, EUTRA is much more efficient than WCDMA with HSDPA and HSUPA. LTE Downlink Signal Specifics OFDM subcarrier spacing is 15 kHz and the maximum number of carriers is 2048 2048 carriers fill 30.7 MHz., 72 subcarriers fill 1.08 MHz. Mobiles must be capable of receiving 2048 subcarriers but BTS can transmit as few as 72 carriers when available spectrum is restricted Time slots are 0.5 ms, subframes 1.0 ms, a radio frame is 10 ms long MIMO is applied both for single users and for multi-users to boost cell throughput
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Type 1 Frames: For Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)

The forward link is transmitted continuously because it has its own frequency This frequency division duplex mode is the most commonly used mode for large LTE systems

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Type 2 - TDD

The forward link is transmitted discontinuously, alternating with the reverse link on the same frequency This arrangement allows effective LTE operation in a small amount of spectrum, but does limit the capacity of the system

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Downlink OFDM Modulation

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Elements and Blocks

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Physical Resource Block Parameters

A resource block is normally 12 OFDM carriers, spaced 15 kHz. apart so the block occupies 180 KHz. The number of resource blocks varies depending on the amount of spectrum available for the LTE signal to occupy. It ranges from 6 blocks for a 1.4 MHz. wide signal, to 100 blocks for 20 MHz.

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Generic Frame Sequences

Each OFDM symbol begins with a cyclic prefix, of duration below:

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Downlink Resource Elements

One download slot normally consists of seven OFDM symbol periods on each of the individual subcarriers of the OFDM signal One symbol on one subcarrier is called a Resource Element For transmission to a user, the OFDM eNB scheduler allocates a certain number of subcarriers to carry the user data. Those subcarriers for the period of one downlink slot are called a Resource Block.

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Downlink Physical Resources and Mapping

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Example of Downlink Control Signal Mapping


This figure shows a typical example of mapping the various downlink control signals to the slots and resource elements which hold them

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LTE Physical Channels

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LTE Physical Signals

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An LTE Inter-eNB Handover

Notice that there is a trigger based on UE measurements Handover execution involves an interruption in throughput which is typically 60 ms. The handover is arranged essentially between the two eNBs, with the AGW implementing a path switch as the final step, and releasing the original eNB Handover in LTE is hard, since the eNBs are on different frequencies in a frequency plan much like GSM or IDEN
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SISO, MISO, SIMO, MIMO


Single-Input Single-Output is the default mode for radio links over the years, and the baseline for further comparisons. Multiple-Input Single Output provides transmit diversity (recall CDMA2000 OTD). It reduces the total transmit power required, but does not increase data rate. Its also a delicious Japanese soup. Single-Input Multiple Output is receive diversity. It reduces the necessary SNR but does not increase data rate. Its rumored to be named in honor of Dr. Ernest Simo, noted CDMA expert. Multiple-Input Multiple Output is highly effective, using the differences in path characteristics to provide a new dimension to hold additional signals and increase the total data speed.
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SU-MIMO, MU-MIMO, Co-MIMO


Single-User MIMO allows the single user to gain throughput by having multiple essentially independent paths for data Multi-User MIMO allows multiple users on the reverse link to transmit simultaneously to the eNB, increasing system capacity Cooperative MIMO allows a user to receive its signal from multiple eNBs in combination, increasing reliability and throughput

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The LTE Air Interface: The LTE Air Interface: Reverse Link (Uplink) Reverse Link (Uplink)

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The LTE Uplink Signal


LTE Uplink Signal Specifics The uplink uses SC-FDMA multiplexing, and QPSK or 16QAM (64QAM optional) modulation. SC-FDMA has a low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) Each mobile has at least one transmitter. If virtual MIMO / Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is introduced the data rate in the uplink direction can be increased depending on the number of antennas at the base station (1 to 4) With this technology more than one mobile can reuse the same resources

December, 2008

Course 501 LTE (c)2008 Scott Baxter

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Differences between OFDMA and SC-FDMA As Used on the LTE Downlink and Uplink

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Differences Between OFDM and OFDMA

In OFDM, users are assigned fractions of the total subcarriers available for fractions of the available time In OFDMA, users are assigned to carriers on a dynamic real-time basis aimed at maximizing throughput It is simpler to allow users to share the signal

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UL SC-FDMA Subcarrier Options

On the reverse link, there are two ways to assign subcarrier frequencies to UEs One is Localized Subcarriers, which gives one user a single block of adjacent carriers this can be vulnerable to selective fading, but frequency control is not as critical The other is Distributed Subcarriers this provides superior protection against selective fading this requires very precise frequency control to avoid interference
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Uplink Physical Resources and Mapping

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Uplink Format PUCCH 0 or 1

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LTE Network Architecture: LTE Network Architecture:


System Architecture Evolution (SAE) System Architecture Evolution (SAE)

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System Architecture Evolution Objectives


New core network architecture to support high-throughput / low latency LTE access system Simplified network architecture All-IP network All services via PS domain only, No CS domain Support mobility between multiple heterogeneous access systems 2G/3G, LTE, non 3GPP access systems (e.g. WLAN, WiMAX) Inter-3GPP handover (GPRS <> E-UTRAN): Using GTP-C based interface for exchange of Radio info/context to prepare handover Inter 3GPP non-3GPP mobility: Evaluation of host based (MIPv4, MIPv6, DSMIPv6) and network based (NetLMM, PMIPv4, PMIPv6) protocols
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SAE Architecture: Baseline

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SAE Architecture Interfaces (1)


S1-U S1 Interface User Plane S1-U reference point (LTE SAE) Reference point between EUTRAN and SGW for the per-bearer
user plane tunneling and inter-eNB path switching during handover. The transport protocol over this interface is GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User plane (GTP-U) S2a interface (LTE SAE) It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between trusted non-3GPP IP access and the Gateway. S2a is based on Proxy Mobile IP. To enable access via trusted non-3GPP IP accesses that do not support PMIP, S2a also supports Client Mobile IPv4 FA mode S2b interface (LTE SAE) Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between evolved Packet Data Gateway (ePDG) and the PDN GW. It is based on Proxy Mobile IP.

S2c interface
(LTE SAE) Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between UE and the PDN GW. This reference point is implemented over trusted and/or untrusted non-3GPP Access and/or 3GPP access. This protocol is based on Client Mobile IP co-located mode S3 interface (LTE SAE) The interface between SGSN and MME and it enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active state. It is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSNs S4 interface (LTE SAE) Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between SGSN and the SGW and is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN.

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SAE Architecture Interfaces (2)


S5 interface (LTE SAE) Provides user plane tunneling and tunnel management between
SGW and PDN GW. It is used for SGW relocation due to UE mobility and if the SGW needs to connect to a non-collocated PDN GW for the required PDN connectivity. Two variants of this interface are being standardized depending on the protocol used, namely, GTP and the IETF based Proxy Mobile IP solution (LTE SAE) Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor. It is FFS whether a standardized S5a exists or whether MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor are combined into one entity. (LTE SAE) Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor. It is FFS whether a standardized S5b exists or whether 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor are combined into one entity. (LTE SAE) Enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface). (LTE SAE) Enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface) between MME and HSS (LTE SAE) Provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) Rules Function (PCRF) to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) in the PDN GW. This interface is based on the Gx interface

S5a interface

S5b interface

S6 interface S6a interface S7 interface

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LTE SAE Network Element Functions


The LTE SAE network is greatly simplified compared to the GPRS-EDGE-HSPA networks with their SGSNs and GGSNs In the LTE SAE, there are only two main elements: aGW gateways, which perform header compression, ciphering, and AAA/bearer control functions. eNB evolved node Bs, which handle all layer 1 and 2 radio protocols and radio resource control

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UMTS HSPA vs LTE-SAE Network Architectures


This figure compares the network architecture of an LTE SAE with the architecture of the earlier UMTS HSPA networks

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Integration of LTE, EVDO and HSPA

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LTE/SAE Network Functional Elements: eRAN


Evolved Radio Access Network (RAN) Consists of a single node, eNodeB (eNB) interfacing with the UE The eNB hosts these layers: PHYsical (PHY) Medium Access Control (MAC) Radio Link Control (RLC) Packet Data Control Protocol (PDCP) The eNB also performs these functions: includes user-plane header-compression and encryption. Radio Resource Control (RRC) functionality (control plane) Radio resource management, admission control, scheduling enforcement of negotiated UL QoS cell information broadcast ciphering/deciphering of user and control plane data compression/decompression of DL/UL user plane packet headers
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LTE/SAE Network Functional Elements: SGW


Serving Gateway (SGW) The SGW provides these functions: routes and forwards user data packets acts as mobility anchor for the user plane plane during intereNB handovers acts as anchor for mobility between LTE and other 3GPP technologies (terminates S4 interface, relays traffic between 2G/3G systems and PDN GW) For idle state UEs, SGW terminates the DL data path triggers paging when DL data arrives for the UE. Manages/stores UE contexts (parameters of IP bearer service, network internal routing information) Performs replication of the traffic in case of lawful interception.
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LTE/SAE Network Functional Elements: MME


Mobility Management Entity (MME) The key control-node for the LTE access-network. Responsible for idle mode UE tracking and paging including retransmissions Bearer activation/deactivation Chooses SGW for UE at initial attach and intra-LTE HO to new CN Authenticates user (by interacting with the HSS) Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signaling terminates at the MME Generates/allocates temporary identities for UEs. Checks UE authorization to camp on this PLMN Enforces UE roaming restrictions Is termination point for ciphering/integrity protection for NAS signaling Handles security key management. Performs Lawful interception of signaling Provides control plane function for mobility between LTE and 2G/3G access networks, terminating the S3 interface from the SGSN. Terminates S6a interface towards the home HSS for roaming UEs.
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LTE/SAE Network Functional Elements: PDN GW


Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW) PDN GW roles and functions: Provides UE connectivity to external packet data networks as point of exit and entry of traffic for the UE Supports UE simultaneous connectivity with more than one PDN GW for accessing multiple PDNs Performs policy enforcement Packet filtering for each user Charging support Lawful Interception and packet screening Acts as mobility anchor between 3GPP and non-3GPP technologies such as WiMAX, 3GPP2 (CDMA 1X and EvDO).

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LTE SAE Network Key Features (1)


EPS to EPC Key feature of the EPS is the separation of the network entity that performs control-plane functionality (MME) from the network entity that performs bearer-plane functionality (SGW) with a well-defined open interface between them (S11). Since E-UTRAN will provide higher bandwidths to enable new services as well as to improve existing ones, separation of MME from SGW implies that SGW can be based on a platform optimized for high bandwidth packet processing, where as the MME is based on a platform optimized for signaling transactions. This enables selection of more cost-effective platforms for, as well as independent scaling of, each of these two elements. Service providers can also choose optimized topological locations of SGWs within the network independent of the locations of MMEs in order to optimize bandwidth reduce latencies and avoid concentrated points of failure.
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LTE SAE Network Key Features (2)


S1-flex Mechanism The S1-flex concept provides support for network redundancy and load sharing of traffic across network elements in the CN, the MME and the SGW, by creating pools of MMEs and SGWs and allowing each eNB to be connected to multiple MMEs and SGWs in a pool.

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LTE Progress Milestones


2006 at ITU trade fair in Hong Kong, by Siemens: First demonstration of LTE HDTV streaming (>30 Mbit/s) video supervision Mobile IP-based handover between the LTE radio demonstrator and the commercially available HSDPA radio system Researchers at Nokia Siemens Networks/Heinrich Hertz Institute demonstrated LTE with 100 Mbit/s Uplink transfer speeds February 2007 at 3G World Congress - Nortel publicly demonstrated the first complete LTE air interface implementation including OFDM-MIMO, SC-FDMA and multi-user MIMO uplink Verizon Wireless plans to begin LTE trials in 2008.

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WiMAX Specifics WiMAX Specifics

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WiMax
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard Provides MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) broadband connectivity also known as the IEEE WirelessMAN air interface. WiMAX-based systems can have ranges up to 30 miles. The 802.16d standard of extending 802.16 supports three physical layers (PHYs). The mandatory PHY mode is 256-point FFT Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The other two PHY modes are Single Carrier (SC) and 2048 OFDMA mode For interest, the corresponding European standardthe ETSI HiperMAN standarddefines a single PHY mode identical to the 256 OFDM modes in the 802.16d standard.

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WiMax Technical Details


WiMAX can be used over many different frequency ranges 10GHz to 66GHz under 802.16. 802.16a covers 2GHz-to-11GHz WiMAX range can reach 30 miles with a typical cell radius of 46 miles. WiMAX's channel sizes range from 1.5 to 20MHz, offer corresponding data rates Rates from 1.5Mbps to 70Mbps on a single channel one carrier can support thousands of users WiMAX supports ATM, IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, and VLAN services facilitates many service possibilities in voice and data WiMAX could be used as a backhaul technology to connect 802.11 wireless LANs and commercial hotspots with the Internet WiMax systems would be deployed much like cellular systems.

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WiMax Reference Network

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