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Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators

Simulation Input and Output Data

Instructional Objectives
Discuss reservoir simulation applications List the types of data input to simulators Discuss the sources of different input data Define what values are computed in a typical simulation run (solved for by simulator) List possible output data from simulators Discuss post-processing

Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators


``To Give the Appearance Of...''

What Is Reservoir Simulation?

Reservoir simulation is the representation of petroleum reservoir performance using a model.

Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators

Applications of Reservoir Simulation

You can produce your reservoir once in

reality but you can produce it several

hundred times on your computer !

Example Applications
Determine the performance of an oil reservoir under natural depletion, water injection or gas injection. Compare flank waterflooding to pattern waterflooding. Determine the effects of well location, spacing and producing rate on recovery. Determine the working gas and peak-day deliverability for a gas storage field. Estimate lease-line drainage in heterogeneous oil or gas fields.

Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators

Grid or Strata (Rock) Properties

Geometrical (Structural) Properties Elevation (structure map) Gross interval thickness Reservoir limits Discontinuities (faults) Formation Properties Porosity Permeability (3 directional permeability) Net to Gross Pore volume and transmissibility multipliers

Black Oil PVT Properties

Oil: Formation volume factor Viscosity Solution gas oil ratio Gas: Formation volume factor Viscosity Water: Formation volume factor Viscosity Compressibility Surface densities Rock Compressibility (could be alternatively input in rock properties) Compositional simulation requires the input of EOS parameters

Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators

Rock-Fluid Properties
Relative permeability Capillary pressure Also called multi-phase flow properties

Well Data
Well location and completion data Well bottom-hole location and orientation Well bore radius Perforation interval Permeability thickness product for well Skin factor Well constant Well control information Production data by phase Pressure data (static, bottom-hole flowing, THP) Production control mode (wells can also be controlled by sophisticated well management routines that allow for field or group control)

Inputs and Outputs for Reservoir Simulators

Simulator and Run Control Data

Solution controls Formulation of equations Solver Tolerances for solution (pressure and saturations) Time step controls Economical or facilities controls for scenario modeled (e.g. minimum production rates, minimum bottom hole or THP, maximum water cut or GOR, etc)

Simulator Output
Computed Values: Grid block pressure Grid block saturations Production rates and bottom hole pressure for wells (can also compute these values for every connection) Simulators can also output solution performance statistics and input data Post Processing: Huge amount of data output is possible Post processing programs are capable of producing 2D graphs, 2D maps, and 3D volumes