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# Internal Combustion Engines MAK 493E

## Ideal Air Standard Cycles

Introduction Comparison between thermodynamic and mechanical cycles Performance parameters imep, bmep, mechanical efficiency, indicated eff., volumetric eff. Ideal cycles and thermal efficiencies Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Dual cycle Comparison of cycles Deviations from actual engine cycles

## Ideal Air Standard Cycles

Refferences : Heywood, J.B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill Book Comp, New York, 1988. Pages 161 183 Sorubay, C., Ergeneman, M., Arslan, E., Safgnl, B., ten Yanmal Motorlar, Birsen Yaynevi, stanbul, 2002 (3. Bask) Pages 3 23 and 38 - 41 Stone, R., Introduction to IC Engines, Macmillan, London, 1994. Pages 33 - 34

Assumptions
Air standard cycles, serve as introduction to the more detailed and accurate models of IC engines provide insight into some of the important parameters that effect engine performance Assumptions; Neglect heat transfer to and from cylinder walls, Replace combustion process by a heat addition process that occurs at constant volume (in Otto cycle) or at constant pressure (in Diesel cycle), Do not consider gas exchange process, Assume cylinder charge as a perfect gas (cp and cv are assumed constant) which is pure air.

Otto Cycle
The Otto cycle is used as a basis of comparison for SI engines The cycle consists of four processes, 12 isentropic compression from V1 to V2 23 addition of heat Q23 at constant volume 34 isentropic expansion to the original volume 41 rejection of heat Q41 at constant volume

Otto Cycle

Otto Cycle
Work done during the cycle, 1-2-3-4 is,

Wcycle = p dV = T ds
Constant volume heat input to the cycle per unit mass of working fluid
T3

Q23 =

c
T1

dT = cv (T3 T2 )

Constant volume heat extraction from the cycle per unit mass

T2

## Q41 = cv dT = - cv (T1 T4 ) = cv (T4 T1 )

T4

Otto Cycle
1st law of thermodynamics

dE = dQ dW
dE = 0

Thermal efficiency

t -otto = t -otto =

## work done W = Q23 heat input Q23 Q41 Q = 1 41 Q23 Q23 T4 T1 T3 T2

t -otto = 1

Otto Cycle
Initial pressure p1 and temperature T1 using and

p1V1k = p2V2k
pV = mRT
k

## for an adiabatic compression from ideal gas law

V p2 = p1 1 V 2
compression ratio

V T2 = T1 1 V 2

k 1

k=

cp cv

V1 V2

(sktrma oran)

T2 = T1 k 1

Otto Cycle
from 2

## 3 , constant volume heat addition

p3V3 = mRT3
T3 = T2 p3 p2
pressure ratio (basn art oran)

p2V2 = mRT2

V2 = V3

defining

p3 p2

T3 = T1 k 1

Otto Cycle
from 3

p4V4k = p3V3k
p4V4 V4k 1 = p3V3 V3k 1
From ideal gas law

p4V4 = mRT4

p3V3 = mRT3

V4 V1 = = V3 V2

T4V4k 1 = T3V3k 1

T4 =

k 1

T3

T4 = T1

Thermal Efficiency
Thermal efficiency of Otto cycle is given by,

t -otto = 1

T4 T1 T3 T2

## placing the temperatures T2, T3 and T4 in terms of T1

t otto = 1

k 1

Thermal Efficiency

Diesel Cycle

Diesel Cycle
Work done during the cycle, 1-2-3-4 is,

Wcycle = p dV = T ds
Constant pressure heat input to the cycle per unit mass of working fluid
T3

Q23 =

c
T1

dT = c p (T3 T2 )

Constant volume heat extraction from the cycle per unit mass

T2

## Q41 = cv dT = - cv (T1 T4 ) = cv (T4 T1 )

T4

Diesel Cycle
1st law of thermodynamics

dE = dQ dW
dE = 0

Thermal efficiency

t-diesel = t-diesel =

W work done = Q23 heat input Q23 Q41 Q = 1 41 Q23 Q23 T4 T1 k (T3 T2 )

t-diesel = 1

Diesel Cycle
T2 = T1 k 1
T3 = T2 V3 = T1 k 1 V2

T4 =

T3 k 1

k 1

= T1 k

Diesel Cycle
Defining cut-off ratio or load ratio (hacim art oran)

V3 V2

Thermal Efficiency
Thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle is given by,

t -diesel = 1

T4 T1 T3 T2

## placing the temperatures T2, T3 and T4 in terms of T1

t diesel = 1

k 1

k 1 k ( 1)

Thermal Efficiency

As the value of increases ( heat addition is extended towards expansion) the efficiency is reduced due to additional heat required to compansate the expansion

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Dual Cycle

Dual Cycle
Work done during the cycle, 1-2-3-3-4 is,

Wcycle = p dV = T ds
Constant volume heat input followed by constant pressure heat input to the cycle per unit mass of working fluid

## Q23 = cv (T3' T2 ) + c p (T3 T3' )

Constant volume heat extraction from the cycle per unit mass

## Q41 = cv dT = - cv (T1 T4 ) = cv (T4 T1 )

T4

T1

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Dual Cycle
Thermal efficiency

t-dual = 1

## cv (T4 T )1 cv (T3' T2 ) + c p (T3 T3' )

Dual Cycle
T2 = T1 k 1

T3' = T1 k 1

T3 = T1 k 1

T4 = T1 k

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Thermal Efficiency
Thermal efficiency of Dual cycle is given by,

t dual = 1

k 1

k 1 1 + k ( 1)

Putting

=1 =1

## Otto cycle thermal efficiency Diesel cycle thermal efficiency

is obtained

Thermal Efficiency
Otto cycle

th Otto = 1
Diesel cycle

k 1 k 1 k ( 1)

th Diesel = 1
Dual cycle

k 1

th Dual = 1

k 1

k 1 1 + k ( 1)

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## Comparison of Ideal Cycles

For > 1 and k > 1

k 1 k ( 1)
therefore t-otto > t-diesel

## for a constant value of compression ratio

Also

t-otto > t-dual > t-diesel efficiency of Dual cycle lies between Otto and Diesel cycles according to the value of

## Comparison of Ideal Cycles

In real engines, SI engines have a compression ratio between 10:1 to 12:1 this value is limited due to engine knock CI engines have compression ratio higher than 14:1 to provide temperature and pressure required for self ignition of the fuel compression ratio of 16:1 to 18:1 is sufficient for efficiency, but used for improving ignition quality high compression ratio increases thermal and mechanical stresses

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