Anda di halaman 1dari 22

Soil erosion

Contents
Argument ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.2 Pollution - General .............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 Soil polution ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.3.1 Natural pollution .......................................................................................................................... 7 1.3.2 Artificial pollution......................................................................................................................... 7 1.3.3 Chemical pollution ....................................................................................................................... 8 2. Soil degradation ........................................................................................................................................ 8 2.1 Land Degradation ................................................................................................................................ 8 2.2 Degradation by erosion..................................................................................................................... 12 2.3 Degradation by overexploatation ..................................................................................................... 12 2.3.1 Deforestation ............................................................................................................................. 12 2.3.2 Overgrazing ................................................................................................................................ 13 2.4 Degradation of the construction of dams and canals ....................................................................... 14 2.5 Degradation by Pollution .................................................................................................................. 14 2.5.2 Pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides ..................................................................... 15 3. Safeguard soil quality .............................................................................................................................. 15 3.1 Safeguards......................................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Factors affecting soil quality ............................................................................................................. 16 4. Land reclamation techniques .................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 The purpose of the activity ............................................................................................................... 17 4.2 Irrigation Systems ............................................................................................................................. 17 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 19 5. Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 19

Argument

Motto: "The most valuable natural wealth is undoubtedly the ground" Jean Dorst

One of the most important components of the biosphere is the soil. Layer soil is loose, soft and brittle, which is found in the surface crust, and with atmosphere together constitute the living environment of plants. Soil degradation is the process that causes destruction of topsoil from the area and the impossibility of his recovery. Anthropogenic action on the soil by clearing, plowing grasslands resulted in the appearance of "bad lands" that there is no more vegetation. The soil is loose from the surface land cover, in which the plants rooted. He is a natural body formed as a result of long processes of pedogenesis and has complex structure. Deforestation leads to nakedness unreasonable soil and disappearance of many species of plants and animals. Industrialization, urbanization and road traffic and led to increased pollution phenomenon. Substances in the air are deposited on the carpet plant, on houses, but end up in human lungs where they are spread through the body causing serious diseases: anemia, various cancers, birth defects. The causes of land degradation due to human activity are: mining, deforestation, drainage,improper plowing , intensive exploitation, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, overgrazing, inappropriate tourism practiced. A major aspect of environmental degradation, limiting the possibilities of feeding the growing population is the irrational use of land, removal of large areas of land from crop production. Environmental protection is a matter of national interest to preserve the ecological balance, preserving and improving the quality of natural factors, to ensure conditions of living and working ever better present and future generations. In addition to the benefits of a life in a world less polluted and more balanced the need for a rational development, is becoming increasingly acute with the global spread of industrialization. Also, the environmental protection can prevent diseases caused by pollution and would not make it to the extinction of plant and animal species.

1. Introduction

1.1 Soil - General

Soil, like air and water, is an environmental factor with significant influence on health. The formation depends on soil quality and protecting water sources, both the surface and especially of the underground. Pollution is particularly evident when the soil. Waste of all kinds have been discharged into the water and air cover land where exactly in crowded places is intense and every square meter multi requested where degraded lands are more fertile just where nature is wanted for her beauty . Another contradiction of civilization: with the ability to create an acceptable living environment, even in space, sanitation is poor soil solution. But solid waste is only one aspect. The soil is subject of action of air and water pollution. Indeed, the ground is the meeting place of the pollutants. Dust in the air and toxic gases into the atmosphere are dissolved by rain back on the ground. Almost all solid waste is stored or disposed of sintering at random on the ground. From cigarettes or bus ticket to the car abandoned, at the drop of oil leaked from the tractor to the country field to the various landfill waste are all direct pollution of the soil. In urban spaces wastes are removed more or less systematically. If them do not get into the water, are stored in certain fields, limiting pollution to lower areas, but there is danger of seepage into the groundwater. Polluting soil elements are grouped into three categories: *biological elements, represented by organisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites), disposed of man and animals, being the most pathogenic. They are part of different waste (household, livestock, industrial); *chemical elements in most of the organic. Their importance is multiple: serve as nutritional support for bacteria, insects and rodents suffering decomposition processes release toxic gas and may be involved in water sources, which it degrades; *physical elements that disturb the soil composition: floods, rain, massive deforestation. In general, heavy particles leads to the streams that come off the ground, forming the''wash''torrents humus layers and carry water with them in soil fertility and, following their bare land is degraded, become laterizate (covered with a crust of iron oxide) or podzolic (without humus), in both cases being unproductive and useless. Water from rain generally act destructively because drip effect which manifests itself mainly in the hilly land. Each simple fold can land in a few years to become a ravine whose depths reach several tens of meters and the converging waters collected across a large pool area. It comes, not only to remove soil erosion but also deep erodation of rock mother. An important cause of soil degradation is the irrigation, or just technical means required to ensure removing the weather. A first aspect of soil pollution is the industrial solid waste. It is estimated that about half of the quantities of industrial raw materials end up as residues and wastes, out of which about one third may be regarded as harmful or toxic. An important part of soil have different chemical pollutants resulting from industrial enterprises and pesticides used in excessive quantities. These substances actually are true poisons, carried by rainwater, gradually accumulate in the soil and roots, and penetrating plant tissues, getting into human food.

1.2 Pollution - General


Pollution is a change in biotic and abiotic environmental factors, the action of pollutants, which is a waste 4

of human activity. Pollutants are chemicals (pesticides, oil, gas, heavy metals, etc.), physical factors (noise, heat, ionizing radiation, etc.) or biological (pathogens). As a consequence of human activity , pollution has grown with the increase in numbers of mankind, human needs growth and development of new technologies. Often, between the entry of pollutants into the environment and their effects is a gap in time and space, the gap is due to the way in which the ecological processes. Pollution, in all its forms (physical, chemical, biological)affects ecosystems as a whole and also communities of organisms. Over time, attention has been given to a particular chemical pollution, because its effects are most obvious. For example, marine aquatic ecosystems are subjected to intense pollution with heavy metals, synthetic organic compounds and petroleum residues. The effects of such pollution are exacerbated by prolonged retention time of these compounds difficult or not degradable, resulting in accumulation and rapid increase in concentration. As a result, have already made at the world level a series of measures to limit this adverse phenomenon, affecting biodiversity in all its forms. A particular type of genetic pollution is pollution that results from genetic manipulation of organisms, made using genetic engineering. The purpose of this is genetic or improvement of morphological and physiological characteristics or induction of resistance to various chemicals, environmental abiotic factors on pests and pathogens. Plants are often the target of genetic alterations in an effort to increase tolerance to some chemicals such as herbicides or heavy metals, increasing resistance to diseases or pests, adaptation to extreme environmental conditions and improvement of productive characteristics. (See Annex 1 - 2 photo) Soil damaged by excavation has affects, being the most serious deterioration of the soil, as in the case of the mining industry, for example in the mining basin of Oltenia. Suitability of land affected by this type of pollution has decreased by 1-3 classes, so some of these areas have become virtually unproductive.

1.3 Soil polution


Soil pollution means any action that causes disruption of normal functioning of soil as a living environment in the various natural ecosystems and man-made (anthropogenic) disturbance manifested by physical degradation, chemical, biological, soil, adversely affecting its fertility, the capacity of bioproductive to qualitatively and quantitatively. Synthetic index of soil pollution resulting effect is represented either by reducing the quantity or quality of crop production (harvest) or by the costs necessary to maintain bio-productive capacity (yield) in the event the previous quantitative and qualitative parameters of pollution. In any ecosystem that includes the soil it has two essential functions: storage and provider of nutrients and water, on the one hand and container and transformer of residues and waste, on the other hand thus having the role of regulator of ecosystem and of purifying the environment. With all their vital functions is to provide food, although a source is limited, recoverable, and the soil was subjected to more and more requests from other sectors outside of agriculture and forestry, which makes the area affected annually . The greatest loss is due to erosion, which destroyed about 430 million ha of 5

land in different countries around the world. Due to the inefficient use of irrigation water, missing of adequate drainage or poor quality water, are currently affected by salinity of large areas of land. After a poor guide for 10-20 years, the soil becomes massive structure that breaks up into blocks on drying and becomes impermeable to air and water to moistern. The improvement is very difficult. Irrational expansion of urbanization, industrial platforms, passageways, etc.., by the occupation of vast land, often among those with very fertile soils, particularly favorable to agriculture, are all causes of reducing planted or cultivated areas. Undesirable effects on soil quality have it municipal waste and residues from industry, commerce and agriculture, which amounted annually worldwide, about 5 billion tons of mineral substances, 32 billion m3 of industrial waste water, 250 million tons of dust, 70,000 000 tonnes of toxic gas, waste from animal heads, etc. 3 billion. Special problems are raised by solid waste and residues; is widely recognized that their release, in addition to chemicals used in agriculture, are most important source of soil pollution, including significant areas of employment of land. For example: in one year, 10,000 people produce so as to cover 1 ha landfill with a thick layer of 1 m. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, copper, zinc, nickel, arsenic, selenium, etc.) from various sources and reached on the ground in various ways, can accumulate in the soil, where plants go into harm. Undoubtedly, pesticides are and will continue to be an enormous human support. However, in solving environmental problems, other pesticides have created yet undetermined size. Unanticipated consequences of long-term uses of pesticides have led to severe damage of various forms of life. Some problems are related to soil pollution and use in large quantities every year, of chemical fertilizers. Thus, superphosphates contain a number of impurities (metals and toxic metalozi) which, together, constitute a very serious potential risk of soil pollution. A special problem raises nitrogen fertilizers. Another form of soil pollution, more important in crowded areas (settlements, industrial growth of livestock, etc.) is the soil pollution by harmful biological agents, represented by pathogenic microorganisms and handed man removed from direct contact with the ground consumption of contaminated food or contaminated soil obtained, the human pathogens transmitted by direct contact with soil contaminated with excretions from infected animals and naturally occurring pathogens found in soil. Interest in environmental pollution has increased for the entire population of the globe, various institutions and organizations, some multipurpose other specialized publications, focused on pollution issues. There is no life without soil. The soil formed over millions of years can be destroyed by erosion in a few days. A third of the planet's soil is seriously damaged, which has fatal consequences on nature. If pollution is evident in soil is the third environmental factor that must be protected as well as water and air. Residues of all kinds who have been discharged into the water and air cover land, the immediate surroundings of human life, just in crowded places where every square meter is intense and multiple required , degraded agricultural lands where they are most fertile just out nature where it is most wanted for her beauty. Rock covering the earth was turned by the wind, rain and ice into tiny particles that based on size and quality are called sand, clay or mud. Soil is the venue of the pollutants: particulate air and toxic gases in the atmosphere is dissolved by rain back into the soil. Polluted rivers flooded or irrigated areas infects almost all solid residues, are stored sintering or just randomly thrown on the ground. From cigarettes or tram ticket up to the car abandoned at the drop of oil leaked from the tractor running on the field, they are 6

all direct pollution of the soil. Soil is the layer thickness of 20-30 cm from the surface crust (topsoil) which together with the adjacent atmosphere, is the living environment of plants. Ecological importance of soil resulting from the fact that: - Is closely connected with the climate of a region in configuration, structure and nature; - Influence the quality of groundwater sources and surface water; - Respond directly related to vegetation growth and development and indirect human food pollution; - Is an important factor in socio-economic development of human settlements; One kilogram of soil contains: * ~ 0.78 kg of mineral substances; 1. ~ 0.04 kg air; 2. ~ 0.18 kg water (dissolved) Containing soil minerals: * ~ 1% rock; 1. ~ 99% earth ground (clay, sandy clay), sand (quartz, mica, feldspar, carbonates, iron oxides); Soil organic substances contain: * ~ 81% humus; 1. ~ 10% of plant roots; 2. ~ 9% land flora and fauna characteristics; Humus layer formation is a slow process and requires sustained several stages. Humus soil is an important component of plant and animal remains represented by decayed synthesized by bacteria and fungi.

1.3.1 Natural pollution Has secondary importance while the contribution of anthropogenic pollutants is becoming more serious: a) deleted volcanic gases, solid particles that are transported long distances by wind and air currents; b) soil erosion caused by wind or rain, it becomes more intense as it is devoid of vegetation, soil, slope or an area with a rich river system; c) plant and animal waste decomposition releases from a number of polluting gaseous substances. Pollen and fungal aerosols may be natural to the human population adversely affect health.

1.3.2 Artificial pollution Originally polluting products were readily biodegradable organic and nature of bacteria and fungi. As industrial development and population explosion occurred biodegradable waste for which no enzymes exist in nature able to decompose. Pollution is the artificial nature: physical (noise, radiation, heat), chemical, biological (pathogens, viruses, bacteria, fungi). 7

1.3.3 Chemical pollution Chemical pollution of the soil affects about 0.9 million ha, of which 0.2 million ha of excessive pollution, adverse effects are particularly strong on pollution by heavy metals (especially Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) and sulfur dioxide . Oil pollution and salt water from oil exploitation and transport is present Suitability of land affected by this type of pollution has decreased by 1-3 classes, so some of these areas have become virtually unproductive. Soil cover solid waste and waste caused sealing of many ha of agricultural land and meadows. Direct economic damage due to the restrictions on agricultural production is estimated by reducing it by about 20% per year. Effects of soil pollution: Reduces soil fertility; Plants underdevelopment; Decreased amounts of O2; Erosion; Death of plants and animals in the soil.

2. Soil degradation

2.1 Land Degradation


What is soil degradation? Soil degradation means reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity. It is caused by land use (anthropogenic factor), a natural process or a combination of natural processes. The causes of land degradation are either natural or related directly or indirectly to human activity. Soil is considered a result of unhygienic habits or improper practice, due to the random removal and disposal of residues resulting from human activity, industrial waste or misuse of chemicals in agriculture. The soil is subject to pollution as the other elements of the environment, but it is harder to recover compared to water and air, because the self-purification processes are much slower. It is considered imperative that the identification and estimation of soil pollution intensity to be 8

considered its capital position, that support and environment for terrestrial plants, a primary crop production in the human existence itself. The man began to understand that progress especially in recent decades human society gradually turned into instruments of destruction, with disastrous effects on nature. With the advent of human civilization emerged and brutal human intervention through rational exploitation of nature and pollution affect the environment by industrial activities, agricultural waste. The greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acid rain, have demonstrated the increasingly dramatic in recent years. Soil characteristics are directly related to agricultural productivity. Agriculture chemical processing leads to excessive soil disturbance that balance and accumulation in soil and groundwater of minerals (eg nitrites that affect human and animal methemoglobinizant destroy atmospheric nitrogen fixing bacteria). Pesticides, non-biodegradable in most centers along food chains, is toxic to plants and animals. Also, pests become resistant to pesticides, and requires the creation of new synthetic substances, efficient but more toxic to the environment. In nature, energy exists in various forms: mechanical, thermal, electrical, nuclear. Covering energy consumption continues to increase determines a continuing to discover new sources of energy, finding ways to protect non-renewable sources, natural sources, control of emissions of CO2. Coal, oil and natural gas are non renewable and conventional. Energy effects have been felt due to increased growth in production and consumption of energy, always followed by adverse environmental and human health. Burning solid fuels contributes essentially to the contribution of air pollution by sulfur and nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, carbon monoxide and suspension that is released along with other elements harmful to human health. Pollution not only due to the continuous increase of solid fuel combustion in power stations or industry because of motor vehicles and household energy consumption and population. Acidification is the process by which the earth's surface is "poverty" in an ongoing basis and undergoes increased acidity, leading to degradation and damage to water and related ecosystems. Forecasts show that soil acidification produce significant damage particularly on agriculture. Methods to combat its effects exists, but the costs are very high. The impact is felt most strongly on agriculture, which particularly affect the poor. Statistics indicate an overall degradation of 2,000 million hectares of land, an area equivalent to one third of the global agricultural area and the area occupied by forest. Over 300 million hectares are at a level of degradation so that it is considered that the phenomenon is irreversible. Production of energy (including biomass and biogas) are major causes of soil degradation, on the contrary it can play a positive role in stopping the phenomenon. For example the introduction of modern energy production from biomass could act on the market price of biomass and makes it profitable for the restoration of areas affected by the degradation of productive potential and turning them into so-called "energy farms" with critical pollution . Soil contamination level depends on the rain regime. They wash in the general atmosphere of pollutants and deposited them on the ground, but also wash and soil, helping the circulation of pollutants to the envoys. It should however be noted that the rains favors and depth of soil contamination. To some extent depends on soil and vegetation pollution they cover, and the nature of the soil. This is very important to follow the persistence of pesticides and artificial fertilizers on agricultural land. Economic interest and environmental protection requires that both fertilizers and pesticides to remain as firmly in the ground. In fact, some of them is taken by the wind, another is washed by rain, and the rest is 9

broken down over time due to oxidation in air or the action of enzymes secreted by bacteria in soil. The following table presents some data related to persistence in soil of some common insecticides. Since the movement of pesticides and fertilizers were given the place that the environment is a serious risk of environmental pollution, have tried to increase their persistence by means of chemical additives. For instance persistent heptachlor in soil was increased: -By 18% by adding mineral oil lubricant; -With 52% by adding Piccopale resin; -With 30% polystyrene by adding alkylate; -By 29% by adding aromatic plasticizer.

-By 21% by the addition of heavy aromatic petroleum fractions. Experience has shown that the persistence of pesticides is dependent on the nature of the ground: it is smaller in richer soils containing inorganic (sand, clay) than in organic substances. Soil degradation is the removal of humus layer and / or amend it. Due to heat and heavy rains, the rock is rapidly decomposed in the tropics and thus form a very thick base and 50 meters. In regions of moderate soil fertility is rarely deeper than a meter. Exceptions are Mississippi River banks, where deposits can reach and depth of 30 meters. Regardless of depth in most soil layer closest to the most fertile area, which is most affected by erosion. Degradation process is the result of two main phenomena: 1. increased surface area for agricultural and construction; 2. deforestation, continued growth of the arable area and the demand for firewood, construction (furniture), pulp industry; Soil erosion occurs due to wind and water action. A drop of rain fallen on the ground can break ground in all directions. As a result of this phenomenon in case of heavy rainfall, the soil is pushed to the valleys. Wind erosion occurs more rarely and even then only in dry regions. Its effect is much more worrying, because in one hour wind can move a quantity of soil water could be moved in a few years. Several million tons of earth were moved by the wind. Even today, a top layer 150 feet off the ground is carried by winds. In the tropics the soil is displaced by the flood-like rains, which can significantly disrupt the ecological balance. If trees in mountainous regions, tropical forests are cleared, the rain will wash the top layer of soil found along the way will be flooded valleys and pastures, villages and roads. Irrigation channels established in developing countries are quickly filled with silt and become unusable. Tourism is a beautiful and clean job search, an opportunity for physical and mental comfort in nature, but camping inside as outside, to produce deviations from health and education. Superficial layers, the very first millimeters of the soil have a great capacity for mineralization of organic matter and vigorous action to destroy pathogens. Water is the dissolution and driving. Microorganisms provide plant nutrients degrading organic pollutants. The soil, unlike the
10

atmosphere and water, has no power to disperse, causing degradation is immediate and irreversible. Any surface must be compromised to remind us that in order to form three inches of soil are naturally 300-1000 years of the required physico-chemical and biological processes, and a 20 cm arable layer is formed in 7000 years. The warning is even more severely for actions change the planet's surface, leading to soil degradation by erosion. Huge volumes of silt in rivers and streams worsen their quality. If the soil is a pollutant subject to aggression, always will be investigated and the underground aquifer, which may be contaminated by pollutant transfer from soil surface to depth. However, an aquifer and contamination with a toxic substance, which penetrates deep soil contamination can occur through evaporation and capillary rise of water pollution. At ground level, oils smother vegetation, pollute the atmosphere through evaporation and presents a potential risk of explosion and fire. After the general technical principles for remediation of soil are distinguished: Physical methods: based on physical restraint of pollutants in the contaminated environment or in isolation (seals, hydraulic lock), stabilization, based physical extraction of pollutants in the environment contaminated by excavation, pumping, washing, flotation, air injection pressure etc. Chemical Methods: the separation, destruction or pollutants into less harmful forms (chemical extraction, oxidation, reduction, and precipitation ) Thermal Methods: destroy, or immobilize pollutants extracted by subjecting the contaminated material at high temperatures (incineration, thermal desorption and vitrification); Biological methods: biodegradation of pollutants is under the action of microorganisms (bioreactor biodegradation in bulk, in situ biodegradation, bioventring site, biosparging's) methods biolixiviere and bioaccumulation of pollutants; Soil as a gift of nature, although this invaluable disappears at an alarming rate. This is called erosion and shifting soil animals can erode soil and thus unintentionally threaten their own habitat. In the past, Farn Islands seal population lived and one of Alce (Alca Tord), the birds were plucked grass to build nests, and seals, rolling in the mud and thus destroyed the upper soil layer. Seals have been deliberately driven out and succeeded in scaring as their colony on the island and rescuing birds and herbivorous animals contribute to soil erosion, especially in regions where they are kept on small pastures, fenced. Goats can produce significant damage in hilly regions. In a few countries have introduced laws to limit the growth of goats to protect vegetation. Infertile steppe formation of the Mediterranean can be explained in particular by increasing the proportion of goats in an area much larger than the possibilities.

11

Nature is clearly in front of an ecological decline, the anthropogenic factor was decisive role as a factor of damage by means of direct, indirect, multiple and complex, close or distant.

2.2 Degradation by erosion


Erosion - as a form of degradation of soil or rocks, is due to actions rain, wind and man through agricultural work, destroyed soil texture on bare in front of solar radiation and depleted natural plant associations. Man, through misuse of land has led to a decrease in water holding capacity in soil. It evaporates or is running on the surface, causing frequent floods, because it lacks tree vegetation layer to "cushion" the effects of strong precipitation. This erosion is due to pollution by pesticides and chemical fertilizers, acid rain, massive cutting forests, poor soil, which over time degrades the texture. Landslides are also very devastating. Erosion has affected the whole world in the last century 20 million km2 of cultivated land, 28% of their area. As measures to avoid erosion, man has used since ancient times, especially in Asia, limited cultivation terraces retain water ditches, plowing the furrows, contour following, always cover the soil with a layer of plant debris or crops to restore the chemical balance in the soil.

2.3 Degradation by overexploatation

2.3.1 Deforestation

Woods is the determining factor in maintaining ecological balance, climate and water, representing an ecosystem with regenerative capacity of 3-5 times higher than any other natural ecosystem. Massive cuts in the last 80 years, especially after World War led to a reduction in the area of nine million hectares from 6.3 million ha of forests, of which 5.5% are now affected by pollution and pests. Forest vegetation help reduce leakage of the surface, keeping litter, the herbaceous vegetation cover and water retention. The litter is the main source for the return of mineral elements in soil and organic matter. Massive deforestation for recovery of wood is a key issue of land degradation through erosion, especially on sloping land. In 1975 the annual world wood production was 2.4 billion m3. Due to
12

this fact by destructive human intervention, which calls for wood as fuel, construction, industrial or agricultural lands required for the release. In the world are countries like Spain and Greece wich has reduced forest cover to 15%. Tropical forests in Africa were reduced by two thirds and necessary areas for plantations of cocoa and other exotic plants. In North America, due to massive cuts in Canadian pine NV California have produced numerous floods with hundreds of thousands of hectares of land destroyed. While we have made with softwood and eucalyptus afforestation in various parts of the world, these forests have not arranged artificial or age diversity, plant species and environmental categories, many interspecific relationships and ecological stability ensured in a hundred years. It is known that in the future need for wood will increase by 17% and tropical forests are likely to disappear at the beginning of this millennium. To maintain the protective coating of the ecosphere, which is protected from erosion and aridity, the UN has taken steps to protect forests at global level, to preserve soil, water, purification of air and improved climate. Forest has the function of recreation and a source of ozone to humans.

2.3.2 Overgrazing

Destruction of vegetation cover in an ecosystem process occurs as a result of intensive grazing by herbivorous animals. In the Argentine pampas limit the capacity of natural pastures vite/km2 amounts to 14,000 kg. In the Texas prairie vite/km2 11,000 kg, and savanna in Kenya vite(cattle)/km2 only 3500 kg. If these limits are exceeded, autoregulation occurs in wild animal populations predator activity, increases the frequency of diseases and parasites, as phytophagous insect populations are in relative balance with the environment, undergoing oscillations in the light of its fluctuations. In domestic animals, which remain outside the ecological factors and anthropogenic factor subject, overcrowding is exacerbated passions and denudation of the biota, which loses its possibilities for regeneration. Domestic animals kept in confined areas, the ground breaking, it leads to soil compaction and crushing plant cover. Such vegetation gradually disappears on certain areas which are subject to gradual erosion and degradation. For example, the island of St. Helena, the Portuguese introduced goats in 1513, in 1909 was completely destroyed flora. The same situation eroded soils, arid and vegetation destroyed by accidental embossing occurs in the Apennines - Italy, the plateau of Castile - Spain, the Middle East - Syria, Iran and North America. Currently there is widespread concern around the globe to rescue the suprapunare vegetation. In this context fall planting of forest belts, or locking of the soil in Northern Africa (Tunis, Morocco) by various species of Tamarix articulate, and Accacia Cyanpiphylla Accacia Cyclops, which resist drought and high temperatures.
13

2.4 Degradation of the construction of dams and canals


To ensure safe drinking water, irrigation, communication means, power generation, the man spoke in aquatic ecosystems by building canals and dams. These constructions lead to flooding of alluvial land and change the quantitative and qualitative composition of local flora and fauna. In some cases, new lakes are sources of diseases by developing many parasite. Thus the development of aquatic vegetation in irrigation canals, fed by the dam at Aswan in Egypt, leading to installation of the intermediate host gastropods bilhariozei agents, such as trematodes Schistosoma hematobium and S. Manson. Here malaria vectors appear as onchicercozei causing blindness.

2.5 Degradation by Pollution


Pollution - process of changing biotic and abiotic environmental factors in the environment of pollutants by type of waste from human activity. Soil pollution is caused by dust and harmful gases from the air, waste waters from industrial or domestic waste, especially chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture. Artificial pollution first appeared with the development of urban settlements, under the influence of anthropogenic factor. Initially there were fewer polluting products, such as organic and easily degraded by environmental microorganisms (bacteria and fungi).

2.5.1 Acid rain

Acid rain is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which in the presence of water vapor under the influence of ultraviolet radiation is converted into highly toxic acids corresponding to: sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Since 1950 he reported in Norway, the decrease in fish production of over 200 existing lakes, an impoverishment of soil nutrients and bulk dry forests. Enigma was solved until 1960, when it turned out that rainwater contains acids, with harmful effects on animals. The harmful effects of acid rain are:

14

- Washing the soil of nutrients, vital tree (Ca, Mg, K) - Existing aluminum salts in the soil mineral acids is set free water contained in precipitation and may compete with As, to attach the fine roots of trees, reducing their supply and slowing growth in Ca. - Reductorilor destruction of soil by water of low pH and high concentration of precipitation in Al, prevents or reduces the mineralization processes, through which, be returned to the mineral elements needed trees for organic synthesis.

2.5.2 Pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides

Excess chemical processing lowers the production potential. Another consequence is the accumulation in soil and groundwater of minerals - nitrates - in harmful concentrations. Chemical fertilizers for a long time may stop the recycling of organic matter in cultivated soils, seriously threatening their fertility. Increasing quantities of fertilizers and soil humus. This results in deterioration of soil structure, thereby contributing to the decline of absorbent clayhumulos complex. Highly toxic pesticides can also degrade soil biocoenosis, but there are differing views in this regard. It is known that pesticides can harm wildlife reached the ground which contributes to the incorporation of organic matter in soil. Of these, the first frames that suffer a major role in ensuring soil fertility Other products that pollute the soil are solid wastes from mining, metallurgical and slag from power plants, waste from animal farms, waste from food industry waste. Irrational by storage, these products occupy large areas of land or other economic interest.

3. Safeguard soil quality

3.1 Safeguards
Providing world population, rapidly growing industry with products and processed food, raw materials, necessarily requires that all resources on the ground to be protected and recovered fully, with greater efficiency and economic efficiency as high.
15

For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the best land management measures to prevent and control degradation phenomena, in order to maintain and enhance fertility, that their productive capacity. Precisely for this purpose, most recently in our country, Minister of Agriculture and Food has introduced technical standards for the protection of soil quality binding on all owners of agricultural land on the prevention of soil degradation due to excess water, srturrii side, water erosion and wind, soil physical degradation, degradation of soil acidification due to the systematic application of increasing doses of nitrogen fertilizer with the potential for acidification, the emergence of escese or weaknesses in some nutrients, contamination by various substances and harmful organisms. At the same purpose, to know the trend of development of soil quality by decision makers at various levels, must be made regularly track the quality status of soils, effects of forecasts and warnings about possible adverse or danger of soil degradation.

3.2 Factors affecting soil quality

Erosion by water is present on 6.3 million ha, of which 2.3 million anti-erosion works in strongly damaged at most, this along with landslides (about 0.7 million ha) causes loss of soil of 41.5 t / ha / year. Wind erosion occurs on about 0.4 million ha, the risk of extension, knowing that in recent years, some forests were cleared and protective curtains in areas to this degradation process. The contents of frame on top of the soil affects about 0.3 million ha. Soil salinization affects almost 0.6 million ha, with a worsening trend in the irrigated or drained and exploited, or other areas with potential secondary salinization, an additional 0.6 million ha. Deterioration of soil structure and compaction occurs on about 6.5 million ha; primary compaction is present on about 2 million ha of arable land and tend the soil surface crust formation, on about 2.3 million ha . Agrochemical status, analyzed on 66% of the agricultural land,has the following negative aspects: -strong acidity and moderate soil about 3.4 million ha of agricultural land and moderate-strong alkalinity 0.2 million ha of agricultural land; -insurance poor to very poor soil phosphorus on the phone about 6.3 million ha of agricultural land; -poor insurance mobile potassium soil on about 0.8 million ha of agricultural land; -ensuring low soil nitrogen on about 5.1 million ha of agricultural land; -ensuring very low to low soil humus on about 7.5 million ha of agricultural land; -significant deficiencies in micro-areas, especially zinc deficiencies, affected the corn crop on about 1.5 million ha. After MAFF data, the total apparent consumption of fertilizer (N, P2O5, K2O) continuously decreased since 1986, from 1.295 million tons to 293 tons in 1998 and a slight increase in 1999 (305,000 tons active substance). Accordingly, the total consumption of N, P, K kg / ha in the same period fell from 86 kg / ha 16

to 21 kg / ha in 1999. This decrease is reflected in the corresponding soil dynamics, increasing areas with very low content of N, P, K.

4. Land reclamation techniques


Given the food requirements of the human population and the normal functioning of the soil is execution: along with other scientific and technical areas, land ecology and land improvement techniques contribute to the preservation and improvement of agricultural land characteristics. Development of agriculture production to ensure that soil conservation is very high, the application of scientific measures and land classification agricultural workers work.

4.1 The purpose of the activity


Land Improvements is a set of technical and biological processes used to exploit the benefit of land unsuitable for agriculture or low-productive for creating and maintaining a favorable ratio of land and soil water deficiency or excess water and prevent soil erosion. Qualification of land reclamation workers, according to their purpose: -Tackling the lack of water in the soil by irrigation; -Fighting excess water through adjustments, dams, drainage and drainage; -Soil erosion; -Increasing soil fertility of low productivity by combating salinization and acidification by clearing and leveling. -Land reclamation works are used for a long time (especially dams, drainage and drainages), requires high costs for construction and complexity.

4.2 Irrigation Systems


Irrigation systems are complex abstraction works for a given source, bringing water to the land to be irrigated, watering the land, and the collection and removal of excess water. Irrigation systems are large systems that serve large areas of agricultural land (eg dry areas in southern Romania and in Dobrogea) systems, or local character. Large systems are composed of several parts: -water intake, water intake facility; -collection and distribution network: channels of earth, concrete gutters, pipes; 17

-surface irrigation facilities, irrigation channels and drains, small dams to keep the land irrigated -collection and disposal network: acquiring open channels excess water; -various hydraulic structures: weirs, pipelines crossing etc. Although absolutely necessary, irrigation causes negative effects. Some of it is land salinization. It is known that the river water used for irrigation, has the same chemical composition as compared with rainwater. Salts contained in soil is gradually deposited on the surface ,are removed by evaporation and filed. Slowly, slowly, the soil becomes salty, unfit for agricultural crop. Water can be avoided if the irrigation system is operating normally, not only for irrigation but also to remove excess water. Negative effects can be controlled if the technical rules with great exactness. Water used for irrigation can come from a polluted river or pond and then additional problems relate mostly to the status of groundwater. If the rules corresponding irrigation soil absorption capacity for a theoretically homogeneous soil, water containing pollutants should release them in the spaces between the grains. In many cases, practical, and the soil irrigated overload has suffered as a result of increasing accumulation of substances such as nitrates or nitrites. So far, in Romania as in other countries with large agriculture, a centralized, dominate irrigation networks (sprinkler or surface) with distribution by rotation to different cultures. What is the irrigation system? Pipes (tubes) underground: - By which water reaches the sprinkler; Sprinklers: - During irrigation amounts they automatically (water pressure) above the ground and after irrigation termination automatically retire at ground level; - When the system is not in use they do not mind mowing the lawn or sports activities; - During the operation are visible; - Retire after working at ground level; Electronic control system: - Irrigation of land at the time made and precisely determined quantity of water; - In case of power failure keeps a battery system using the program; - The system is automatic and works without supervision; Solenoid: - Operates at 24 volts, the valve opens and closes, so irrigation starts and stops; - Impulse control is received from the control panel; Rain sensor: - Which avoids using irrigation during rain; Advantages of the system: The irrigation is accomplishing a nice atmosphere, increases the amount of housing, dust in the 18

atmosphere is retain and air is purifyed resulting in a temperature recreation. Uniform growth of plants is achieved through irrigation .

Conclusions
In conclusion, if we want to eat as healthy as possible, we must fight for be far from this "chaos", called soil pollution because with pollution we will "pollute" ourselves. Soil, air and water, is an environmental factor with significant influence on health. The formation and protection of water sources depends on soil quality, both the surface and especially of the underground. Indeed, the ground is the venue of the pollutants. Dust in the air and toxic gases into the atmosphere are dissolved by rain back on the ground. Almost all solid waste is stored or disposed of sintering at random on the ground. It is considered imperative that the identification and estimation of soil pollution intensity to be considered its capital position, that support and environment for terrestrial plants, a primary crop production in the human existence itself. The man began to understand that progress, especially in recent decades human society gradually turned into instruments of destruction, with disastrous effects on nature. If we all want to live in a healthy environment, we need to stop polluting the soil.

5. Bibliography
Matthew E., human ecosystems, University Publishing House, Bucharest, 1988. S. Visan, S. Cretu, Alpopi C. Environment. Pollution and protection, Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 1998.

Soil erosion 19

Waste disposal on land

20

Drought

Landslides

21

Deforestation

22