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Introduction vii 1Fundamentals 1 1.1 Sets, inequalities, absolute value and properties of real numbers 1 1.2 Roots and radicals (surds) 14 1.3 Exponents (indices) 20 1.4 Scientific notation (standard form) 24 1.5 Algebraic expressions 26 1.6 Equations and formulae 35 2Functions 2.1 Definition of a function 2.2 Composite functions 2.3 Inverse functions 2.4 Transformations of functions 3AlgebraicFunctions,EquationsandInequalities 3.1 Polynomial functions 3.2 Quadratic functions 3.3 Zeros, factors and remainders 3.4 Rational functions 3.5 Other equations and inequalities 3.6 Partial fractions 4SequencesandSeries 4.1 Sequences 4.2 Arithmetic sequences 4.3 Geometric sequences 4.4 Series 4.5 Counting principles 4.6 The binomial theorem 4.7 Mathematical induction 5ExponentialandLogarithmicFunctions 5.1 Exponential functions 5.2 Exponential growth and decay 5.3 The number e 5.4 Logarithmic functions 5.5 Exponential and logarithmic equations 6MatrixAlgebra 6.1 Basic definitions 6.2 Matrix operations 6.3 Applications to systems 6.4 Further properties and applications 46 46 57 61 70 90 91 99 112 126 132 144 151 151 155 158 164 174 183 190 206 206 211 216 224 234 246 247 249 256 267

Contents

7TrigonometricFunctionsandEquations 7.1 Angles, circles, arcs and sectors 7.2 The unit circle and trigonometric functions 7.3 Graphs of trigonometric functions 7.4 Trigonometric equations 7.5 Trigonometric identities 7.6 Inverse trigonometric functions

8TriangleTrigonometry 350 8.1 Right triangles and trigonometric functions of acute angles 350 8.2 Trigonometric functions of any angle 361 8.3 The law of sines 369 8.4 The law of cosines 376 8.5 Applications 383 9Vectors 9.1 Vectors as displacements in the plane 9.2 Vector operations 9.3 Unit vectors and direction angles 9.4 Scalar product of two vectors 10ComplexNumbers 10.1 Complex numbers, sums, products and quotients 10.2 The complex plane 10.3 Powers and roots of complex numbers 11Statistics 11.1 Graphical tools 11.2 Measures of central tendency 11.3 Measures of variability 12Probability 12.1 Randomness 12.2 Basic definitions 12.3 Probability assignments 12.4 Operations with events 12.5 Bayes theorem 13DifferentialCalculusI:Fundamentals 13.1 Limits of functions 13.2 The derivative of a function: definition and basic rules 13.3 Maxima and minima first and second derivatives 13.4 Tangents and normals 14Vectors,LinesandPlanes 14.1 Vectors from a geometric viewpoint 14.2 Scalar (dot) product 14.3 Vector (cross) product 398 399 402 409 419 428 429 440 449 463 465 480 486 516 516 519 525 537 552 571 572 580 599 615 626 627 637 644

14.4 Lines in space 14.5 Planes 15 Differential Calculus II: Further Techniques and Applications 15.1 Derivatives of composite functions, products and quotients 15.2 Derivatives of trigonometric and exponential functions 15.3 Implicit differentiation, logarithmic functions and inverse trigonometric functions 15.4 Related rates 15.5 Optimization 16 Integral Calculus 16.1 Anti-derivative 16.2 Methods of integration: integration by parts 16.3 More methods of integration 16.4 Area and definite integral 16.5 Integration by method of partial fractions (Optional) 16.6 Areas 16.7 Volumes with integrals 16.8 Modelling linear motion 16.9 Differential equations (Optional) 17 Probability Distributions 17.1 Random variables 17.2 The binomial distribution 17.3 Poisson distribution 17.4 Continuous distributions 17.5 The normal distribution 18 Mathematical Exploration Internal Assessment 19 Sample Examination Papers 20 Theory of Knowledge Answers Index Options Topic 8 Statistics and probability Topic 9 Sets, relations and groups Topic 10 Calculus Topic 11 Discrete mathematics All accessed through the online e-book (see page ix)

653 670 700 701 716 729 745 753 771 771 781 787 795 809 812 819 826 836 854 854 870 881 889 902 922 932 952 970 1035

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Probability

Assessment statements 5.2 Concepts of trial, outcome, equally likely outcomes, sample space (U) and event. The probability of an event A as P(A) 5 n(A)/n(U). The complementary events as A and A9 (not A); P(A) 1 P(A9) 5 1. Use of Venn diagrams, tree diagrams and tables of outcomes to solve problems. 5.3 Combined events, the formula: P(A B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) 2 P(A B). P(A B) 5 0 for mutually exclusive events. 5.4 Conditional probability; the definition: P(A B) 5 P(A B)/P(B). Independent events; the definition: P(A B) 5 P(A) 5 P(A B9). Use of Bayes theorem for a maximum of three events.

Introduction

Now that you have learned to describe a data set in Chapter 11, how can you use sample data to draw conclusions about the populations from which you drew your samples? The techniques we use in drawing conclusions are part of what we call inferential statistics, which is a part of one of the HL options. Inferential statistics uses probability as one of its tools. To use this tool properly, you must first understand how it works. This chapter will introduce you to the language and basic tools of probability. The variables we discussed in Chapter 11 can now be redefined as random variables, whose values depend on the chance selection of the elements in the sample. Using probability as a tool, you will be able to create probability distributions that serve as models for random variables. You can then describe these using a mean and a standard deviation as you did in Chapter 11.

12.1

Randomness

Probability is the study of randomness and uncertainty. The reasoning in statistics rests on asking, How often would this method give a correct answer if I used it very many times? When we produce data by random sampling or by experiments, the laws of probability enable us to answer the question, What would happen if we did this many times?

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What does random mean? In ordinary speech, we use random to denote things that are unpredictable. Events that are random are not perfectly predictable, but they have long-term regularities that we can describe and quantify using probability. In contrast, haphazard events do not necessarily have long-term regularities. Take, for example, the tossing of an unbiased coin and observing the number of heads that appear. This is random behaviour. When you throw the coin, there are only two outcomes, heads or tails. Figure 12.1 shows the results of the first 50 tosses of an experiment that tossed the coin 5000 times. Two sets of trials are shown. The red graph shows the result of the first trial: the first toss was a head followed by a tail, making the proportion of heads to be 0.5. The third toss was also a tail, so the proportion of heads is 0.33, then 0.25. On the other hand, the other set of trials, shown in green, starts with a series of tails, then a head, which raises the proportion to 0.2, etc. The proportion of heads is quite variable at first. However, in the long run, and as the number of tosses increases, the proportion of heads stabilizes around 0.5. We say that 0.5 is the probability of a head.

1 0.9 0.8 Proportion of heads 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 11 21 31 Number of throws 41 51

Please distinguish between random and haphazard (chaos). At first glance they might seem to be the same because neither of their outcomes can be anticipated with certainty.

Figure 12.1

It is important that you know that the proportion of heads in a small number of tosses can be far from the probability. Probability describes only what happens in the long run. How a fair coin lands when it is tossed is an example of a random event. One cannot predict perfectly whether the coin will land heads or tails. However, in repeated tosses, the fraction of times the coin lands heads will tend to settle down to a limit of 50%. The outcome of an individual toss is not perfectly predictable, but the longterm average behaviour is predictable. Thus, it is reasonable to consider the outcome of tossing a fair coin to be random. Imagine the following scenario: I drive every day to school. Shortly before school, there is a traffic light. It appears that it is always red when I get there. I collected data over the course of one year (180 school days) and considered the green light to be a success. Here is a partial table of the collected data.

517

12

Probability

1 red 0

2 green 50

3 red 33.3

4 green 50

5 red 40

6 red 33.3

7 red 28.6

The first day it was red, so the proportion of success is 0% (0 out of 1); the second day it was green, so the frequency is now 50% (1 out of 2); the third day it was red again, so 33.3% (1 out of 3), and so on. As we collect more data, the new measurement becomes a smaller and smaller fraction of the accumulated frequency, so, in the long run, the graph settles to the real chance of finding it green, which in this case is about 30%. The graph is shown below.

Percentage success 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 121 131 141 151 161 171 Number of times

Actually, if you run a simulation for a longer period, you can see that it really stabilizes around 30%. See graph below.

Percentage of success 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 101 201 301 Number of times 401 501

You have to observe here that the randomness in the experiment is not in the traffic light itself, as it is controlled by a timer. In fact, if the system works well, it may turn green at the same time every day. The randomness of the event is the time I arrive at the traffic light.

The French Count Buffon (17071788) tossed a coin 4040 times and received 2048 heads, i.e. a proportion of 50.69%. Also, the English statistician Karl Pearson (18571936) tossed a coin 24 000 times and received 12 012 heads, a 50.05% proportion for heads.

Count Buffon

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If we ask for the probability of finding the traffic light green in the above example, our answer will be about 30%. We base our answer on knowing that, in the long run, the fraction of time that the traffic light was green is 30%. We could also say that the long-run relative frequency of the green light settles down to about 30%.

12.2

Basic definitions

Data is obtained by observing either uncontrolled events in nature or controlled situations in a laboratory. We use the term experiment to describe either method of data collection.

An experiment is the process by which an observation (or measurement) is obtained. A random (chance) experiment is an experiment where there is uncertainty concerning which of two or more possible outcomes will result.

Tossing a coin, rolling a die and observing the number on the top surface, counting cars at a traffic light when it turns green, measuring daily rainfall in a certain area, etc. are a few experiments in this sense of the word. A description of a random phenomenon in the language of mathematics is called a probability model. For example, when we toss a coin, we cannot know the outcome in advance. What do we know? We are willing to say that the outcome will be either heads or tails. Because the coin appears to be balanced, we believe that each of these outcomes has probability 0.50. This description of coin tossing has two parts: A list of possible outcomes. A probability for each outcome. This two-part description is the starting point for a probability model. We will begin by describing the outcomes of a random phenomenon and learn how to assign probabilities to the outcomes by using one of the definitions of probability.

The sample space S of a random experiment (or phenomenon) is the set of all possible outcomes. The notation for sample space could also be U (IB notation) or any other letter.

For example, for one toss of a coin, the sample space is S 5 {heads, tails}, or simply {h, t}

Example 1

Toss a coin twice (or two coins once) and record the results. What is the sample space?

Solution

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Probability

Example 2

Toss a coin twice (or two coins once) and count the number of heads showing. What is the sample space?

Solution

S 5 {0, 1, 2}

A simple event is the outcome we observe in a single repetition (trial) of the experiment.

For example, an experiment is throwing a die and observing the number that appears on the top face. The simple events in this experiment are {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, {5} and {6}. Of course, the set of all these simple events is the sample space of the experiment.

Set theory provides a foundation for all of mathematics. The language of probability is much the same as the language of set theory. Logical statements can be interpreted as statements about sets. This will enable us later to introduce a method of understanding how to set up probability problems that we need to tackle.

We are now ready to define an event. There are several ways of looking at it, which in essence are all the same.

An event is an outcome or a set of outcomes of a random experiment.

With this understanding, we can also look at the event as a subset of the sample space or as a collection of simple events.

Example 3

When rolling a standard six-sided die, what are the sets of event A observe an odd number, and event B observe a number less than 5.

Solution

Event A is the set {1, 3, 5}. Event B is the set {1, 2, 3, 4}. Sometimes it helps to visualize an experiment using some tools of set theory. Basically, there are several similarities between the ideas of set theory and probability, and it is very helpful when we see the connection. A simple but powerful diagram is the Venn diagram. The diagram shows the outcomes of the die rolling experiment.

6 B 4 2 1 3 5 A

In general, in this book, we will use a rectangle to represent the sample space and closed curves to represent events, as shown in Example 3. To understand the definitions more clearly, lets look at the following additional example.

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Example 4

Suppose we choose one card at random from a deck of 52 playing cards, what is the sample space S?

Solution

S 5 {A, 2, K, A, 2, K, A, 2, K, A, 2, K} Some events of interest: K 5 event of king 5{K, K, K, K} H 5 event of heart 5 {A, 2, K} J 5 event of jack or better 5 {J, J, J, J, Q, Q, Q, Q, K, K, K, K, A, A, A, A} Q 5 event of queen 5 {Q, Q, Q, Q}

S A J Q Q Q Q Q J J

J K K

K K K A 4 2 H

Some useful set theory results Set operations have a number of properties, which are basic consequences of the definitions. AB5BA (A9)9 5 A AS5A AS5S A A9 5 [ A A9 5 S

S is the sample space and [ is the empty set. Two mainly valuable properties are known as De Morgans laws, which state that: (A B)9 5 A9 B9 (A B)9 5 A9 B9 And finally A (B C) 5 (A B) (A C) A (B C) 5 (A B) (A C)

Example 5

Toss a coin three times and record the results. Show the event observing two heads as a Venn diagram.

Solution

The sample space is made up of 8 possible outcomes such as hhh, hht, tht, etc.

S

ttt tth hhh hht tht

Observing exactly two heads is an event with three elements: {hht, hth, thh}.

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Probability

In an experiment to check the blood types of patients, the experiment can be thought of as a two-stage experiment: first we identify the type of the blood and then we classify the Rh factor 1 or 2. The simple events in this experiment can be counted using another tool, the tree diagram, which is extremely powerful and helpful in solving probability problems.

Blood type Rh factor Outcome A A B AB O A B B AB AB O O

Our sample space in this experiment is the set {A1, A2, B1, B2, AB1, AB2, O1, O2} as we can read from the last column. This data can also be arranged in a probability table:

Blood type Rh factor Positive Negative A A1 A2 B B1 B2 AB AB1 AB2 O O1 O2

O A B AB O

Example 6

Two tetrahedral dice, one blue and one yellow, are rolled. List the elements of the following events: T 5 {3 appears on at least one die} B 5 {the blue die is a 3} S 5 {sum of the dice is a six}

3 4

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Solution

S 4 B 3 Blue die T

3 Yellow die

T 5 {(1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 3), (4, 3), (3, 4), (3, 2), (3, 1)} B 5 {(1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 3), (4, 3)} S 5 {(2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2)}

In a large school, a student is selected at random. Give a reasonable sample space for answers to each of the following questions: a) Are you left-handed or right-handed? b) What is your height in centimetres? c) How many minutes did you study last night?

2 We throw a coin and a standard six-sided die and we record the number and the face that appear in that order. For example, (5, h) represents a 5 on the die and a head on the coin. Find the sample space. 3 We draw cards from a deck of 52 playing cards. a) List the sample space if we draw one card at a time. b) List the sample space if we draw two cards at a time. c) How many outcomes do you have in each of the experiments above? 4 Tim carried out an experiment where he tossed 20 coins together and observed the number of heads showing. He repeated this experiment 10 times and got the following results: 11, 9, 10, 8, 13, 9, 6, 7, 10, 11 a) Use Tims data to get the probability of obtaining a head. b) He tossed the 20 coins for the 11th time. How many heads should he expect to get? c) He tossed the coins 1000 times. How many heads should he expect to see? 5 In the game Dungeons and Dragons, a four-sided die with sides marked with 1, 2, 3 and 4 spots is used. The intelligence of the player is determined by rolling the die twice and adding 1 to the sum of the spots. a) What is the sample space for rolling the die twice? (Record the spots on the 1st and 2nd throws.) b) What is the sample space for the intelligence of the player?

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Probability

6 A box contains three balls, blue, green and yellow. You run an experiment where you draw a ball, look at its colour and then replace it and draw a second ball. a) What is the sample space of this experiment? b) What is the event of drawing yellow first? c) What is the event of drawing the same colour twice? 7 Repeat the same exercise as in question 6 above, without replacing the first ball. 8 Nick flips a coin three times and each time he notes whether it is heads or tails. a) What is the sample space of this experiment? b) What is the event that heads occur more often than tails? 9 Franz lives in Vienna. He and his family decided that their next vacation will be to either Italy or Hungary. If they go to Italy, they can fly, drive or take the train. If they go to Hungary, they will drive or take a boat. Letting the outcome of the experiment be the location of their vacation and their mode of travel, list all the points in the sample space. Also list the sample space of the event fly to destination. 10 A hospital codes patients according to whether they have health insurance or no insurance, and according to their condition. The condition of the patient is rated as good (g), fair (f ), serious (s), or critical (c). The clerk at the front desk marks 0, for non-insured patients, and 1 for insured, and uses one of the letters for the condition. So, (1, c) means an insured patient with critical condition. a) List the sample space of this experiment. b) What is the event not insured, in serious or critical condition? c) What is the event patient in good or fair condition? d) What is the event patient has insurance? 11 A social study investigates people for different characteristics. One part of the study classifies people according to gender (G1 5 female, G2 5 male), drinking habits (K1 5 abstain, K2 5 drinks occasionally, K3 5 drinks frequently), and marital status (M1 5 married, M2 5 single, M3 5 divorced, M4 5 widowed). a) List the elements of an appropriate sample space for observing a person in this study. b) Define the following events: A 5 the person is a male, B 5 the person drinks, and C 5 the person is single List the elements of each A, B and C. c) Interpret the following events in the context of this situation: A B; A C; C9; A B C; A9 B. 12 Cars leaving the highway can take a right turn (R), left turn (L), or go straight (S). You are collecting data on traffic patterns at this intersection and you group your observations by taking four cars at a time every 5 minutes. a) List a few outcomes in your sample space U. How many are there? b) List the outcomes in the event that all cars go in the same direction. c) List the outcomes that only two cars turn right. d) List the outcomes that only two cars go in the same direction. 13 You are collecting data on traffic at an intersection for cars leaving a highway. Your task is to collect information about the size of the vehicle: truck (T), bus (B), car (C). You also have to record whether the driver has the safety belt on (SY) or no safety belt (SN), as well as whether the headlights are on (O) or off (F). a) List the outcomes of your sample space, U. b) List the outcomes of the event SY that the driver has the safety belt on.

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c) List the outcomes of the event C that the vehicle you are recording is a car. d) List the outcomes of the event in C SY,C9, and C SY. 14 Many electric systems use a built in back-up system so that the equipment using the system will work even if some parts fail. Such a system is given in the diagram below.

B A C

Two parts of this system are installed in parallel, so that the system will work if at least one of them works. If we code a working system by 1 and a failing system by 0, then one of the outcomes would be (1, 0, 1), which means parts A and C work while B failed. a) List the outcomes of your sample space, U. b) List the outcomes of the event Xthat exactly 2 of the parts work. c) List the outcomes of the event Y that at least 2 of the parts work? d) List the outcomes of the event Z that the system functions. e) List the outcomes of the events: Z9, X Z, X Z, Y Z, andY Z. 15 Your school library has 5 copies of George Polyas HowToSolveIt book. Copies 1 and 2 are first-edition, and copies 3, 4 and 5 are second edition. You are searching for a first-edition book, and you will stop when you find a copy. For example, if you find copy 2 immediately, then the outcome is 2. Outcome 542 represents the outcome that a first edition was found on the third attempt. a) List the outcomes of your sample space, U. b) List the outcomes of the event A that two books must be searched. c) List the outcomes of the event Bthat at least two books must be searched. d) List the outcomes of the event Cthat copy 1 is found.

12.3

Probability assignments

There are a few theories of probability that assign meaning to statements like the probability that A occurs is p%. In this book, we will primarily examine only the relative frequency theory. In essence, we will follow the idea that probability is the long-run proportion of repetitions on which an event occurs. This allows us to merge two concepts into one. Equally likely outcomes In the theory of equally likely outcomes, probability has to do with symmetries and the indistinguishability of outcomes. If a given experiment or trial has n possible outcomes among which there is no preference, they are equally likely. The probability of each outcome 100% 1 is then _____ or __. For example, if a coin is balanced well, there is no n n reason for it to land heads in preference to tails when it is tossed, so,

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Probability

accordingly, the probability that the coin lands heads is equal to the 100% probability that it lands tails, and both are _____ 5 50%. Similarly, if 2 a die is fair, the chance that when it is rolled it lands with the side with 1 100% 1 on top is the same as the chance that it shows 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6: _____ or __. 6 6 In the theory of equally likely outcomes, probabilities are between 0% and 100%. If an event consists of more than one possible outcome, the chance of the event is the number of ways it can occur divided by the total number of things that could occur. For example, the chance that a die lands showing an even number on top is the number of ways it could land showing an even number (2, 4 or 6) divided by the total number of things that could occur (6, namely showing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6). Frequency theory In the frequency theory, probability is the limit of the relative frequency with which an event occurs in repeated trials. Relative frequencies are always between 0% and 100%. According to the frequency theory of probability, the probability that A occurs is p% means that if you repeat the experiment over and over again, independently and under essentially identical conditions, the percentage of the time that A occurs will converge to p. For example, to say that the chance a coin lands heads is 50% means that if you toss the coin over and over again, independently, the ratio of the number of times the coin lands heads to the total number of tosses approaches a limiting value of 50%, as the number of tosses grows. Because the ratio of heads to tosses is always between 0% and 100%, when the probability exists it must be between 0% and 100%. Using Venn diagrams and the equally likely concept, we can say that the probability of any event is the number of elements in an event A divided by the total number of elements in the sample space S. This is equivalent to n(A) saying: P(A) 5 ____, where n(A) represents the number of outcomes in A n(S ) and n(S) represents the total number of outcomes. So, in Example 5, the 3 probability of observing exactly two heads is: P(2 heads) 5 _. 8

In all theories, probability is on a scale of 0% to 100%. Probability and chance are synonymous.

Probability rules

Regardless of which theory we subscribe to, the probability rules apply.

Rule 1

No matter how little a chance you think an event has, there is no such thing as negative probability.

Any probability is a number between 0 and 1, i.e. the probability P(A) of any event A satisfies 0 < P(A) < 1. If the probability of any event is 0, the event never occurs. Likewise, if the probability is 1, it always occurs. In rolling a standard die, it is impossible to get the number 9, so P(9) 5 0. Also, the probability of observing any integer between 1 and 6, inclusive, is 1.

Rule 2

No matter how large a chance you think an event has, there is no such thing as a probability larger than 1!

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All possible outcomes together must have a probability of 1, i.e. the probability of the sample space S is 1: P(S ) 5 1. Informally, this is sometimes called the something has to happen rule.

Rule 3 If two events have no outcomes in common, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities. Two events that have no outcomes in common, and hence can never occur together, are called disjoint events or mutually exclusive events.

P(A or B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) This is the addition rule for mutually exclusive events. For example, in tossing three coins, the events of getting exactly two heads or exactly two tails are disjoint, and hence the probability of getting exactly 3 3 6 3 two heads or two tails is _ 1 _ 5 _ 5 _. 4 8 8 8

S B

tth hhh htt tht

A

hth

hht thh

ttt

Additionally, we can always add the probabilities of outcomes because they are always disjoint. A trial cannot come out in two different ways at the same time. This will give you a way to check whether the probabilities you assigned are legitimate.

Rule 4 Suppose that the probability that you receive a 7 on your IB exam is 0.2, then the probability of not receiving a 7 on the exam is 0.8. The event that contains the outcomes not in A is called the complement of A, and is denoted by A9.

You have to be careful with these rules. By the something has to happen rule, the total of the probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. This is so because they are disjoint, and their sum covers all the elements of the sample space. Suppose someone reports the following probabilities for students in your high school (4 years). If the probability that a grade 1, 2, 3 or 4 student is chosen at random from the high school is 0.24, 0.24, 0.25 and 0.19 respectively, with no other possibilities, you should know immediately that there is something wrong. These probabilities add up to 0.92. Similarly, if someone claims that these probabilities are 0.24, 0.28, 0.25, 0.26 respectively, there is also something wrong. These probabilities add up to 1.03, which is more than 1.

Example 7

Data for traffic violations was collected in a certain country and a summary is given below:

Age group Probability 1820 years 0.06 2129 years 0.47 3039 years 0.29 Over 40 years 0.18

What is the probability that the offender is a) in the youngest age group, b) between 21 and 40, and c) younger than 40?

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Probability

Solution

Each probability is between 0 and 1, and the probabilities add up to 1. Therefore, this is a legitimate assignment of probabilities. a) The probability that the offender is in the youngest group is 6%. b) The probability that the driver is in the group 21 to 39 years is 0.47 1 0.29 5 0.76. c) The probability that a driver is younger than 40 years is 1 2 0.18 5 0.82.

Example 8

It is a striking fact that when people create codes for their cellphones, the first digits follow distributions very similar to the following one:

First digit Probability 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.009 0.300 0.174 0.122 0.096 0.078 0.067 0.058 0.051 0.045

a) Find the probabilities of the following three events: A 5 {first digit is 1} B 5 {first digit is more than 5} C 5 {first digit is an odd number} b) Find the probability that the first digit is (i)1 or greater than 5, (ii) not 1, and (iii) an odd number or a number larger than 5.

Solution

a) From the table: P(A) 5 0.300 P(B) 5 P(6) 1 P(7) 1 P(8) 1 P(9) 5 0.067 1 0.058 1 0.051 1 0.045 5 0.221 P(C ) 5 P(1) 1 P(3) 1 P(5) 1 P(7) 1P(9) 5 0.300 1 0.122 1 0.078 1 0.058 1 0.045 5 0.603 b) (i) Since A and B are mutually exclusive, by the addition rule, the probability that the first digit is 1 or greater than 5 is P(A or B ) 5 0.300 1 0. 221 5 0.521. (ii) Using the complement rule, the probability that the first digit is not 1 is P(A9) 5 1 2 P(A) 5 1 2 0.300 5 0.700. (iii) The probability that the first digit is an odd number or a number larger than 5:

Hint: Notice here that P(B or C) is not the sum of P(B) and P(C) because B and C are not disjoint.

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P(B or C ) 5 P(1) 1 P(3) 1 P(5) 1 P(6) 1 P(7) 1 P(8) 1 P(9) 5 0.300 1 0.122 1 0.078 1 0.067 1 0.058 1 0.051 1 0.045 5 0.721

In some cases we are able to assume that individual outcomes are equally likely because of some balance in the experiment. Tossing a balanced coin renders heads or tails equally likely, with each having a probability of 50%, and rolling a standard balanced die gives the numbers from 1 to 6 as 1 equally likely, with each having a probability of _. 6 Suppose in Example 8 we consider all the digits to be equally likely to happen, then our table would be:

First digit Probability 0 0.1 1 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1 4 0.1 5 0.1 6 0.1 7 0.1 8 0.1 9 0.1

P(A) 5 0.1 P(B) 5 P(6) 1 P(7) 1 P(8) 1 P(9) 5 4 3 0.1 5 0.4 P(C ) 5 P(1) 1 P(3) 1 P(5) 1 P(7) 1 P(9) 5 5 3 0.1 5 0.5 Also, by the complement rule, the probability that the first digit is not 1 is P(A9) 5 1 2 P(A) 5 1 2 0.1 5 0.9. 2-dimensional grids are also very helpful tools that are used to visualize 2-stage or sequential probability models. For example, consider rolling a normal unbiased cubical die twice. Here are some events and how to use the grid in calculating their probabilities:

P (at least one six) 6 5 Second roll 4 3 P (same number) 2 1

6 36 11 36

3 4 First roll

If we are interested in the probability that at least one roll shows a 6, we count the points on the column corresponding to 6 on the first roll and the points on the row corresponding to 6 on the second roll observing naturally that the point in the corner should not be counted twice. If we are interested in the number showing on both rolls to be the same, then we count the points on the diagonal as shown. Finally, if we are interested in the probability that the first roll shows a number larger than the second roll, then we pick the points below the diagonal.

15 Hence, P(first number . second number) 5 __. 36

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Probability

Geometric probability

Some cases give rise to interpreting events as areas in the plane. Take for example shooting at a circular target at random. What is the probability of hitting the central part?

R

R 4

The probability of hitting the central part is given by R 2 p __ 4 1 P 5 ______ 5 ___. 16 pR2

Example 9

( )

Lydia and Rania agreed to meet at the museum quarter between 12:00 and 13:00. The first person to arrive will wait 15 minutes. If the second person does not show up, the first person will leave and they meet afterwards. Assuming that their arrivals are at random, what is the probability that they meet?

Solution

If Lydia arrives x minutes after 12:00 and Rania arrives y minutes after 12:00, then the condition for them to meet is |x 2 y | < 15, and x < 60, y < 60. Geometrically, the outcomes of their encounter region is given in the shaded region in the diagram right.

1 1 The area for each triangle is _ bh 5 _ (45)2, 2 2 2 2 so, the shaded area is 60 2 45 .

60

1 2 2 (45)

15

1 2 2 (45)

15

60

The probability they meet is 602 2 452 7 therefore ________ 5 ___. 16 602

In an experiment where all outcomes are equally likely, the theoretical probability of an event A is given by n(A) P(A) 5 ____ n(S) where n(A) is the number of outcomes that make up the event A, and n(S) is the total number of outcomes in the sample space.

The new ideas we want to discuss here involve the calculation of n(A) and n(S). Such calculations will involve what you learned in Chapter 4 about counting principles.

530

Example 10

In a group of 18 students, eight are females. What is the probability of choosing five students a) with all girls? b) with three girls and two boys? c) with at least one boy?

Solution

The total number of outcomes is the number of ways we can choose 5 out of the 18 students. So n(S ) 5 18 5 8586. 5 a) This event will require that we pick our group from among the 8 girls. So, 56 n(A) 5 8 5 56 P(A) 5 ____ 5 0.0065. 5 8568 b) This event will require that we pick three out of the 8 girls, and at the same time, we pick 2 out of the 10 boys. So, using the multiplication principle, 2520 n(B) 5 8 10 5 56.45 5 2520 P(B) 5 ____ 5 0.294. 3 2 8568 8 Note: Did you observe that 5 5 8 ? Why? 3 c) This event can be approached in two ways: To have at least 1 boy means that we can have 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 boys. These are mutually exclusive, so the probability in question is the sum 8 8 (10 )(8 ) 1 (10 )(3 ) 1 (10 )(2 ) 1 (10 )(8 ) 1 (10 )(8 ) ____ 5 0 4 1 1 4 2 3 P(C ) 5 5 8512 5 0.9935 8568 18 ( 5 ) To recognize that at least 1 boy is the complement of no boys at all, i.e. 0 boys or all 5 girls. P(C ) 5 1 2 P(A) 5 1 2 0.0065 5 0.9935.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Example 11

A deck of playing cards has 52 cards. In a game, the player is given five cards. Find the probability of the player having a) three cards of one denomination and two cards of another (three 7s and two Js for example).

531

12

Probability

This game can be played at two stages, First, the player is given five cards, and then he/she can decide to exchange some of the cards. (The cards exchanged are discarded and not returned to the deck!) A player was given the following hand: Q, Q, Q, 4, 9. She decided to change the last two cards. Find the probability of the player having b) three cards of one denomination and two cards of another c) four queens.

Solution

a) The sample space consists of all possible 5-card hands that can be given out: n(S ) 5 52 5 2 598 960 5

( )

Call the event of interest A. As there are 13 denominations in the deck of cards then there are 13 choices for the first required denomination. Once a denomination is chosen, say 9, then there are 4 ways of choosing 3 cards out of the four. Using the 3 multiplication rule, there are 13 4 ways of choosing 3 cards of the 3 first denomination. We are now left with 12 possible denominations for the second one, each can give us 4 ways of getting two of the 2 cards, and hence using the multiplication rule, there are 12 4 ways 2 of choosing the cards for the second denomination. Again using the multiplication rule we will have 13 4 12 4 5 3744 ways of 3 2 choosing the first and second denominations.

( )

( )

( )

( )

[ ( ) ][ ( ) ]

The requested probability is then 3744 P(A) 5 _______ 0.001 44. 2 598 960 b) Since we have 3 queens, then we need only look for 2 cards of a different denomination. Now, there are only 47 cards left in the deck because we had 5 already. So the sample space has n(S ) 5 47 5 1081 2 ways of getting the rest of the 5 cards. The other cards could be two 4s, two 9s or two of the rest of the 10 denominations.

( )

We have 3 5 3 ways of getting two 4s since 4 is already discarded. 2 We also have 3 5 3 ways to get two 9s. Or, for each of the other 10 2 denominations (no Q, no 4 and no 9), we have 4 5 6 different ways 2 of getting two of them, i.e. we have 10 4 5 60 different ways of 2 getting two cards of the same denomination other than Q, 4 or 9.

( )

( )

( )

( )

So, the total number of ways of getting two cards of the same denomination is 3 1 3 1 60 5 66 ways. n(A) 66 So, the required probability is P(A) 5 ____ 5 ____ 0.0611. n(S ) 1081

532

c) To have 4 Qs we only have to look for one, and there is only one way of getting the missing Q. That leaves us with one card to be chosen from the 46 cards left. 46 ways! 46 Therefore, P(A) 5 ____ 0.0426. 1081

Exercise 12.3

1 In a simple experiment, chips with integers 120 inclusive were placed in a box and one chip was picked at random. a) What is the probability that the number drawn is a multiple of 3? b) What is the probability that the number drawn is not a multiple of 4? 2 The probability an event A happens is 0.37. a) What is the probability that it does not happen? b) What is the probability that it may or may not happen? 3 You are playing with an ordinary deck of 52 cards by drawing cards at random and looking at them. a) Find the probability that the card you draw is (i) the ace of hearts (ii) the ace of hearts or any spade (iii) an ace or any heart (iv) not a face card. b) Now you draw the ten of diamonds, put it on the table and draw a second card. What is the probability that the second card is (i) the ace of hearts? (ii) not a face card? c) Now you draw the ten of diamonds, return it to the deck and draw a second card. What is the probability that the second card is (i) the ace of hearts? (ii) not a face card? 4 On Monday morning, my class wanted to know how many hours students spent studying on Sunday night. They stopped schoolmates at random as they arrived and asked each, How many hours did you study last night? Here are the answers of the sample they chose on Monday, 14 January, 2008. Number of hours Number of students 0 4 1 12 2 8 3 3 4 2 5 1

a) Find the probability that a student spent less than three hours studying Sunday night. b) Find the probability that a student studied for two or three hours. c) Find the probability that a student studied less than six hours. 5 We throw a coin and a standard six-sided die and we record the number and the face that appear. Find a) the probability of having a number larger than 3 b) the probability that we receive a head and a 6. 6 A die is constructed in a way that a 1 has the chance to occur twice as often as any other number. a) Find the probability that a 5 appears. b) Find the probability an odd number will occur.

533

12

Probability

7 You are given two fair dice to roll in an experiment. a) Your first task is to report the numbers you observe. (i) What is the sample space of your experiment? (ii) What is the probability that the two numbers are the same? (iii) What is the probability that the two numbers differ by 2? (iv) What is the probability that the two numbers are not the same? b) In a second stage, your task is to report the sum of the numbers that appear. (i) What is the probability that the sum is 1? (ii) What is the probability that the sum is 9? (iii) What is the probability that the sum is 8? (iv) What is the probability that the sum is 13? 8 The blood types of people can be one of four types: O, A, B or AB. The distribution of people with these types differs from one group of people to another. Here are the distributions of blood types for randomly chosen people in the US, China and Russia. Blood type Country US China Russia O 0.43 0.36 0.39 A 0.41 0.27 0.34 B 0.12 0.26 ? AB ? 0.11 0.09

a) What is the probability of type AB in the US? b) Dirk lives in the US and has type B blood. What is the probability that a randomly chosen US citizen can donate blood to Dirk? (Type B can only receive from O and B.) c) What is the probability of randomly choosing an American and a Chinese (independently) with type O blood? d) What is the probability of randomly choosing an American, a Chinese and a Russian (independently) with type O blood? e) What is the probability of randomly choosing an American, a Chinese and a Russian (independently) with the same blood type? 9 In each of the following situations, state whether or not the given assignment of probabilities to individual outcomes is legitimate. Give reasons for your answer. a) A die is loaded such that the probability of each face is according to the following assignment (x is the number of spots on the upper face and P(x) is its probability.)

x

P(x)

1 0

2

1 _ 6

3

1 _ 3

4

1 _ 3

5

1 _ 6

6 0

b) A student at your school categorized in terms of gender and whether they are diploma candidates or not. P(female, diploma candidate) 5 0.57, P(female, not a diploma candidate) 5 0.23, P(male, diploma candidate) 5 0.43, P(male, not a diploma candidate) 5 0.18. c) Draw a card from a deck of 52 cards (x is the suit of the card and P(x) is its probability).

x

P(x)

Hearts 12 ___ 52

Spades 15 ___ 52

Diamonds 12 ___ 52

Clubs 13 ___ 52

534

10 In Switzerland, there are three official mother tongues, German, French and Italian. You choose a Swiss at random and ask, What is your mother tongue? Here is the distribution of responses: Language Probability German 0.58 French 0.24 Italian 0.12 Other ?

a) What is the probability that a Swiss persons mother tongue is not one of the official ones? b) What is the probability that a Swiss persons mother tongue is not German? c) What is the probability that you choose two Swiss independent of each other and they both have German mother tongue? d) What is the probability that you choose two Swiss independent of each other and they both have the same mother tongue? 11 The majority of email messages are now spam. Choose a spam email message at random. Here is the distribution of topics: Topic Probability Adult 0.165 Financial 0.142 Health 0.075 Leisure 0.081 Products 0.209 Scams 0.145

a) What is the probability of choosing a spam message that does not concern these topics? Parents are usually concerned with spam messages with adult content and scams. b) What is the probability that a randomly chosen spam email falls into one of the other categories? n (x 1 1 ) _______, where x is also a positive 12 Consider n to be a positive integer. Let f(x) 5 n (x) integer. Determine the values of x (in terms of n) for which f(x) < 1. 13 Determine n in each of the following cases: a) (n) 5 190 b) (n) 5 (n) 4 2 8 14 An experiment involves rolling a pair of dice, 1 white and 1 red, and recording the numbers that come up. Find the probability a) that the sum is greater than 8 b) that a number greater than 4 appears on the white die c) that at most a total of 5 appears. 15 Three books are picked from a shelf containing 5 novels, 3 science books and a thesaurus. What is the probability that a) the thesaurus is selected? b) two novels and a science book are selected? 16 Five cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the set contains a) 3 kings b) 4 hearts and 1 diamond. 17 A class consists of 10 girls and 12 boys. A team of 6 members is to be chosen at random. What is the probability that the team contains a) one boy? b) more boys than girls?

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