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# MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

## P.1 VECTOR CALCULUS

Vector analysis
A vector field in R
3
is a function
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , , , , F x y z M x y z i N x y z j P x y z k = + +

A two-dimensional vector field thus has the form
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , F x y M x y i N x y j = +

.
Example

Example
The distribution of temperature
( )
( )
3
2 2 2
1
, , T x y z
x y z
=
+ +

in space forms a scalar field while the temperature gradient
( )
( )
( )
3
2 2 2
, ,
1
T T T
T x y z i j k
x y z
x i y j z k
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
= + +
+ +

forms a vector field.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.2 VECTOR CALCULUS

Other examples of vector field are gravitational force field and electromagnetic field.

Examples
(1) A magnetic field B in a region of space

1 2 3
B B i B j B k = + +

(2) The velocity field of water flowing in a pipe, v.

Gravitational field and electromagnetic fields are vector fields.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.3 VECTOR CALCULUS

Vector operator V
Consider the gradient of a scalar field ( ) , , x y z is defined as
i j k
x y z

c c c
V = + +
c c c

Which is an example of a vector field. It gives the magnitude and direction of the
greatest rate of change of at a point ( ) , , x y z .
If we define the vector operator
i j k
x y z
c c c
V + +
c c c

analogous to
d
D
dx
| |

|
\ .
, known as del or (nabla), then we may write
grad = V .
Notice that V is a kind of derivative for a scalar field. There are two types of
derivatives for a vector field which makes use of the operator V.

Divergence of a vector field
If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , , , , F x y z M x y z i N x y z j P x y z k = + +

is a vector field, then its
divergence is defined as
div
M N P
F
x y z
c c c
= + +
c c c

In terms of the operator V we may write
( )
div
F i j k M i N j Pk
x y z
M N P
F
x y z
| | c c c
V = + + + +
|
c c c
\ .
c c c
= + + =
c c c

Note F V

is a scalar function.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.4 VECTOR CALCULUS
Example
The divergence of a vector field
( )
2 3 2 2
, , 2 F x y z x z i y z j xyz k = +

is given be
2 2
div 2 6 2 F F xz y z xyz = V = +

.

Physical interpretation of divergence
The idea of divergence is probably most easily illustrated by considering the motion
of an incompressible fluid (eg. water) in the plane where we take the vector field to be
the velocity
1 2
v v i v j = +

of the fluid.
Consider a small imaginary rectangle of dimension and x y A A with one corner at (x, y)
in the field.

We consider the flow of fluid through this rectangle. The volume of fluid crossing a
surface in unit time is an example of flux. The flux through the top edge out of the
rectangle is
Flux out: ( ) ( )
2
, , v x y y j x v x y y x + A A = + A A

(
1
v is parallel to the top edge and make no contribution)
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.5 VECTOR CALCULUS
Similarly the flux through the other three sides from the rectangle is
Flux out:
Top: ( ) ( )
2
, , v x y y j x v x y y x + A A = + A A

Bottom: ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, , v x y j x v x y x A = A

Right: ( ) ( )
1
, , v x x y i y v x x y y + A A = + A A

Left: ( ) ( ) ( )
1
, , v x y i y v x y y A = A

and the net flux out of the rectangle along xdirection is
( ) ( )
1
1 1
, ,
v
v x x y v x y y x y
x
c
+ A A ~ A A (

c

No contribution from v
2
since it is the velocity components parallel to this side.
Similarly by considering the other two sides along y-direction,
( ) ( )
2
2 2
, ,
v
v x y y v x y x x y
y
c
+ A A ~ A A (

c

we have that the total flux out of the rectangle
1 2
Flux across rectangle boundary
v v
x y
x y
( c c
~ + A A
(
c c

If we consider the flux per unit area and take the limit as the area of the rectangle
shrinks to zero, 0, 0 x y A A , we obtain
1 2
Flux across rectangle boundary
div
rectangoe area
v v
v
x y
c c
= = +
c c

as a measure of the net outward flux per unit volume at the point (x, y). Positive
divergence indicates a source of fluid at the point whilst negative divergence indicates
a sink.

If E

## measures the charge density at a point.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.6 VECTOR CALCULUS
If for a vector field v

, div 0 v =

## over a region is called solenoidal (divergence free) in

that region. A fluid which has a solenoidal velocity field is incompressible, i.e. no net
outflow or inflow of fluid/no electric charge.

Example
Electric field at r

## due to a point charge at the origin is given by

( )
3 3
2 2 2 2
0 0
4 4
Q r Q x i y j z k
E
r
x y z
tc tc
+ +
= =
+ +

( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
3 5 3 5 3 5
0
2 2
3
0
div

4
1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2
=
4 2 2 2
3
= 3
4
E E
Q x y z
x y z
x y z x y z x y z
Q x y z
x y z
r r r r r r
x y
Q
r
tc
tc
tc
= V
( ( (
c c c
( ( (
= + +
( ( (
c c c
+ + + + + +
( ( (

( ( ( | | | | | |
+ + + + +
`
| | | ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . )
+

( )
2
5
=0 except at the origin
z
r
(
+
(
(

Hence E

is solenoidal ( ) 0 r =

## which is consistent with the fact that there is no

charge except at 0 r =

.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.7 VECTOR CALCULUS
Curl of a vector field
Let F M i N j Pk = + +

be a vector field. Then its curl is given by
curl
P N M P N M
F i j k
y z z x x y
| | | | c c c c c c
| |
= + +
| | |
c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .

which is a vector field. It can be also written as
curl
i j k
F F
x y z
M N P
c c c
V = =
c c c

Example
The curl of a vector field
( )
2 3 2 2
, , 2 F x y z x z i y z j xyz k = +

is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3 2 2
2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2
2 3 2 2
curl
2
2 2
4
i j k
F F
x y z
x z y z xyz
xyz y z i xyz x z j y z x z k
y z x z x y
xz y z i x yz j
c c c
= V =
c c c

| | | | c c c c c c | |
= + +
| | |
c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .
= + +

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.8 VECTOR CALCULUS

Physical interpretation of curl
Again we shall illustrate the idea of curl using the motion of an incompressible fluid
with velocity
1 2
v v i v j = +

## in the plane. Consider just the xy plane and a small

imaginary rectangle of sides and x y A A with one corner at (x, y).

We have
( )
( ) ( )
1
flow along top edge length of the side velocity component along this side
,
= ,
v x y y x
v x y y i x
=
= + A A
+ A A

flow along bottom edge = ( )
1
, v x y x A
sum of flow along the top and bottom

( ) ( )
1 1
1
, , v x y v x y y x
v
x y
y
+ A A (

c
~ A A
c

Similarly, the sum of flows along the right and left is

2
v
x y
x
c
~ A A
c

The total circulation (net flow around a closed path ) around the rectangle is
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.9 VECTOR CALCULUS

2 1
v v
x y
x y
| | c c
~ A A
|
c c
\ .

If we consider circulation per unit area and take the limit as the area of the rectangle
shrinks to zero we have

2 1
v v
x y
| | c c

|
c c
\ .

If this quantity is positive/negative/zero a small paddle wheel placed in the fluid at the
point P would rotate anticlockwise/clockwise/remain stationary.
By analogy with a rigid body rotating about an axis with angular velocity e for which
the angular velocity vector is en , where n is a unit vector along the axis of rotation,
we may associate with the rotational effect of the fluid a vector

2 1
curl
v v
k v
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .

This is the third component of curl v

.

2 1
0
v v
x y
| | c c
>
|
c c
\ .
( < 0 ) at (x, y, z)
fluid tends to rotate about k

## anticlockwise (clockwise) at (x, y, z).

curl 0 v =

no rotation.
(If this is true over a region, then the vector field is said to be irrotational over the
region)

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.10 VECTOR CALCULUS
Similarly by considering flow in 3-dimensions we may derive the full expression for
curl v

which gives a measure of the rotational effect of the fluid flow at a point.
curl v

gives the direction of the axis about which the fluid rotates most
rapidly.
curl v

## measures the speed of the rotation.

If ( ) , , H x y z

## measures the current density at (x, y, z).

Example
Consider a current-carrying conductor with circular cross-section of radius R. Then
the magnetic field ( ) , , H x y z

is
2
2
outside conductor
2
inside conductor
2
y i x j
r
H
y i x j
R
t
t
+

=

+

where
( )
1 2
2 2
r x y = + .
Outside conductor, we have
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
curl
0
2 2
1 2 1 2
0 0 0
2 2 2 2
i j k
H
x y z
y x
x y x y
x y
i j k
r r r r
t t
t t t t
c c c
=
c c c

+ +
| |
= + + + =
|
\ .

The current density is zero in magnitude.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.11 VECTOR CALCULUS
Inside conductor, we have
2 2
2
curl
0
2 2
1
i j k
H
x y z
y x
R R
k
R
J
t t
t
c c c
=
c c c

=
=

## - the current density in the conductor.

For a vector field v

, if curl 0 v =

then v

is said to be irrotational.
The magnetic field outside the conductor is irrotational.

Important identities involving V:
1.
( )
0 F V V =

; div curl 0 F =

Let F M i N j Pk = + +

, then
P N M P N M
F i j k
y z z x x y
| | | | c c c c c c
| |
V = + +
| | |
c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .

Hence,
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
E
P N M P N M
x y z y z x z x y
P P M M N N
x y y x y z z y z x x z
V V
| | | | c c c c c c c c c | |
= + +
| | |
c c c c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .
| | | | | | c c c c c c
= + +
| | |
c c c c c c c c c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
=

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.12 VECTOR CALCULUS
2. 0 f VV =

2 2 2 2 2 2
0
i j k
f
x y z
f f f
x y z
f f f f f f
i j k
y z z y z x x z x y y x
c c c
VV =
c c c
c c c
c c c
| | | | | | c c c c c c
= + +
| | |
c c c c c c c c c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
=

The converse of this result is also true i.e. that every irrotational vector field is the
gradient of some scalar field, and has important applications in electromagnetism and
fluid dynamics.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.13 VECTOR CALCULUS
Vector Integration
Line integrals
Here we define a single integral that is more general than the single integral
( )
b
a
f x dx
}

Instead of integrating a function over an interval [a, b], we integrate over a curve in
space. Such an integral is called a line integral although the term curve integral
would be more appropriate.

Before introducing the definitions of line integrals we first look at certain forms of
curve in space. Let
( ) ( ) ( ) r x t i y t j z t k = + +

t e [a, b]
describe a smooth curve in space.
In this course, we only work with smooth or piecewise smooth curves. In particular,
curves are considered to have directions, that is, they are directed or oriented.

Example
Vector functions can be used for describing vectors in 3D space over time.
If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r t x t i y t j z t k = + +

## is the position vector of a moving point,

where t represents time.
When t varies from t = a to t = b, ( ) r t

## traces out a path or curve in space.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.14 VECTOR CALCULUS

The derivative of the vector function

( ) ( )
0
0
lim
lim
t
t
r t t r t
dr
dt t
r
t
o
o
o
o
o
o

+
=
=

Represents the velocity of the point and is seen to be a vector tangential to the path of
the point. Similarly
2
2
d r
dt

## represents the acceleration of the point.

Example
A particle moves such that its position
vector at time t is
( ) 2cos3 3sin3
t
r t e i t j t k

= + +

Determine its velocity and acceleration
at time t = 0.

The velocity of the particle is given by
( ) 6sin3 9cos3
t
dr
v t e i t j t k
dt

= = +

At time t = 0, we have
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.15 VECTOR CALCULUS

( ) 0 velocity at time = 0
9
v t
i k
=
= +

with magnitude 82 and along the direction
9
82
i k +

. The acceleration is given by
( )
2
2
18cos3 27sin3
t
dv d r
a t e i t j t k
dx dx

= = =

At time t = 0, we have
( ) 0 18 a i j =

with magnitude 325 and along the direction
18
325
i j

.

Let us return to definitions of line integrals.
Suppose C is a smooth curve which describes a wire and that the mass density
(mass/unit length) at any point (x, y, z) on C is f (x, y, z). To calculate the mass of C
we divide the curve C into n sections and we can approximate the mass by
mass of C ~ ( )
1
, ,
n
k k k k
k
f x y z s
=
A

If f (x, y, z) is continuous at every point on C and that { } max 0
k
s A as n , then
we have
( ) ( )
1
lim , , , ,
n
k k k k
n
k
C
f x y z s f x y z ds

=
A =

}

which is called the line integral of f over C. Since ( ) ( ) ( ) r x t i y t j z t k = + +

and
hence

2 2 2
dr dx dy dz ds
dt dt dt dt dt
| | | | | |
= + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.16 VECTOR CALCULUS
Thus,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , , ,
, ,
b
C a
b
a
dr
f x y z ds f x t y t z t dt
dt
f x t y t z t x t y t z t dt
=
' ' ' = + +
} }
}

For piecewise continuous curves, we can divide the path into a number of continuous
smooth curves, C
1
, C
2
, ., C
n
where the end point of C
i
is the starting point of C
i+1
.
The overall integral is given by
1 2 n
C C C C
f ds f ds f ds f ds = + + +
} } } }

Example
Let C be the line segment from (0,0,0) to (1,-3,2). Find
( )
2
2
C
x y z ds +
}

We parameterize C by
3 2 r t i t j t k = +

0 t 1
This implies
( )
2
2 2
1 3 2 14
dr ds
dt dt
= + + = =

and hence

( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
2
0
3
2 3 2 2 14 14
2
C
x y z ds t t t dt
(
+ = + =

} }

Note: reversing the direction of parametrisation does not change the value of
C
f ds
}
.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.17 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Reverse the direction,
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 3 1 2 1 r t i t j t k = +

0 t 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
2
0
3
2 1 9 1 4 1 14 14
2
C
x y z ds t t t dt
(
+ = + =

} }

as before.

When f(x, y, z) 1, then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ,
b
C C a
f x y z ds ds x t y t z t dt ' ' ' = = + +
} } }

gives the arc length of the curve C from t = a to t = b.

Example
Consider a circular helix once again
cos sin r a t i a t j ct k = + +

The length of one coil is
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
sin cos 2 a t a t c dt a c dt a c
t t
t + + = + = +
} }

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.18 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
A thin wire is bent in the shape of the semicircle of radius a described by the upper
half of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
. if the density of the wire at a point is proportional to its
distance from the x-axis, find the mass.
Solution:
The density of the wire at a point is proportional to its distance from the x-axis, eg
ky =
The upper half of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
can be defined as
( ) cos sin , 0 r t a t i a t j t t = + s s

dr
a
dt
=

( )
( )
0
2
0
2
0
2
mass sin
sin
cos

C
kyds k a t adt
a k tdt
a k t
a k
t
t
t
= =
=
=
=
} }
}
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.19 VECTOR CALCULUS
Another type of line integrals work integrals
Another form of line integrals is directly related to the work done of moving a particle
in a force field. Under a force F, the work done W for moving along a straight line
from A to B is given by
W F AB =
For a force field ( ) , , F x y z

## , we consider work done along a path in space.

Consider a vector field ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
, , , , , , , , F x y z F x y z i F x y z j F x y z k = + +

and a
smooth curve C. Let A and B be two points on the curve C.
Divide AB into N small segments. Let the k-th segment be from
1
to
k k
P P

(position
vector
1
to
k k
r r

). At
k
P let the vector field be ( ) , ,
k k k
F x y z

What is the work done by the force for moving a particle from
1
to
k k
P P

?
Force vector ( ) , ,
k k k
F x y z

Unit tangent vector ( ) , ,
k k k
T x y z

(magnitude = 1, direction along the tangent at ( ) , ,
k k k
x y z )
The work done from
1
to
k k
P P

is approximately given by
( ) ( ) , , , ,
k k k k k k k
F x y z s T x y z ( A

where
k
s A is the arc length between
1
to
k k
P P

## . The approximation of the work done

along C is
( ) ( )
1
, , , ,
n
k k k k k k k
k
F x y z T x y z s
=
( A

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.20 VECTOR CALCULUS
as { } , max 0
k
n s A . The scalar line integral of F

along C is defined to be
work = ( ) ( ) , , , ,
C
F x y z T x y z ds
}

where
( ) , ,
dr dr
T x y z
dt dt
=

.
Since
( ) , ,
dr dr
T x y z
dt dt
=

We have
( ) , , T x y z dr dr =

( ) , , T x y z ds dr =

Thus
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , ,
k k k
C C
F x y z T x y z ds F x y z dr =
} }

The above integral requires C to be oriented.
Notice that reversing the direction of the integration changes the value of
C
F dr
}

.
If we take curve C as opposite to the orientation of C, then since the tangent vector at
any point on C is the negative of the tangent vector at the same point on C, we have
C C
F dr F dr

=
} }

By convention, anticlockwise around a closed path is taken as positive for plane
curves. Furthermore, if
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.21 VECTOR CALCULUS
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r t x t i y t j z t k = + +

Then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
dr t x t i y t j z t k dt ' ' ' = + +

and we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , ,
b
C a
dr
F x y z dr F x t y t z t dt
dt
=
} }

and yet another form is obtained if
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , , , , F x y z M x y z i N x y z j P x y z k = + +

and with ( ) ( ) ( ) dr dx t i dy t j dz t k = + +

,
then ( ) , ,
C C
F x y z dr Mdx Ndy Pdz = + +
} }

These are the many forms of line integrals could take.

Example
A particle moves upward along a circular helix C
cos sin r t i t j t k = + +

0 t 2t
under the force field
F zy i zx j xy k = + +

Find the work done by the force.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.22 VECTOR CALCULUS
Here we have ( ) ( ) ( ) cos , sin , x t t y t t z t t = = = , thus
sin cos
dr
t i t j k
dt
= + +

Therefore
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
0
2
2 2
0
2
2 2 2
0
, ,
sin cos cos sin
1 1
sin 2
2 2
C
dr
W F dr F x t y t z t dt
dt
t t t t t t dt
t t
t
t
t
t
= =
= + +
(
= + =
(

} }
}

It is quite obvious that when the path is reversed, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
2
, , 2
dr
F x t y t z t dt
dt
t
t =
}

.

Example (Work done is dependent on the path taken.)
Using the previous example above, but this time the particle moves along a straight
line C' with the same initial and terminal points.
For such a straight line, we have
( ) : C r t i t k ' = +

for 0 t 2t
Here ( ) ( ) ( ) 1, 0, and
dr
x t y t z t t k
dt
= = = =

. Consequently,
( )
2 2
0 0
0 0 0 W F dr i t j k kdt
t t
= = + + =
} }

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.23 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Evaluate
2
2
C
y dx xydy +
}
from the origin (0,0,0,) to the point (4, 2, 0) along the paths:
(i) a straight line,
(ii) the parabola,
2
y x = ,
(iii) part of the x-axis and then the line x = 4.

This is equivalent to evaluating
C
F dr
}

where
2
2 F y i xy j = +

1)
1
1
:
2
C y x =
This implies
1
2
dy
dx
= along the path
1
1
2
2
2 4
0
2
1
2
2
16
2 2
C
C
y dx xydy
y dx xy dx
x x
x dx
+
| |
= +
|
\ .
| | | |
= + =
| |
\ . \ .
}
}
}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.24 VECTOR CALCULUS
2)
2
2
: C y x =
This implies 2 1
dy
y
dx
= along the path
2
2
2
4
0
2
1
2
2
2 16
C
C
y dx xydy
xdx x dx
xdx
+
| |
= +
|
\ .
= =
}
}
}

3)
3
: C
3
2
4 2
2
0 0
2
0
2
0 2 0 0 0 2 4
8 16
C
y dx xydy
dx x y y dy
ydy
+
= + + +
= =
}
} }
}

The results are equal on 3 different paths! Is the result just a coincidence? Unlikely!
If a field F

is such that
AB
F dr
}

is independent of the path from A to B, then F

is
said to be a conservative field.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.25 VECTOR CALCULUS
Fundamental theorem of line integrals
For functions of one variable, we have
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx f b f a ' =
}

for one-dimensional integration. This is known as the Fundamental theorem of
Calculus.
Let C be an oriented curve with initial point ( )
0 0 0
, , x y z and terminal point ( )
1 1 1
, , x y z .
Let f(x, y, z) be a function that is differentiable at every point on C, and assume that
grad f is continuous on C. Then we have
( ) ( )
1 1 1 0 0 0
grad , , , ,
C C
f dr f dr f x y z f x y z = V =
} }

We first consider the case in which C is smooth and let
( ) ( ) ( ) r x t i y t j z t k = + +

be a smooth parametrisation of C with a t b s s . Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 0 0 0
grad grad , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
b
C a
b
a
dr
f dr f x t y t z t dt
dt
f f f
x t y t z t dt
x y z
f x b y b z b f x a y a z a
f x y z f x y z
=
c c c
' ' ' = + +
c c c
=
=
} }
}

where the second last step was obtained using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
Hence the result.
If the curve C is piecewise smooth such C can be decomposed into C
1
and C
2
which
are smooth, then
1 2
C C C
f dr f dr f dr V = V + V
} } }

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.26 VECTOR CALCULUS
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
0 0 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 0
, , , , , , , ,
, , , ,
C C
f dr f dr
f x y z f x y z f x y z f x y z
f x y z f x y z
V + V
' ' ' ' ' ' = + ( (

=
} }

as above. The result is known as the Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals and is
the reminiscent of the formula
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx f b f a ' =
}

for functions of one variable.

Example
Let C be a piecewise smooth curve from (1, -2, 3) to (1, 0, 0) and F

the gravitational
field of a point mass m at the origin where
( )
( )
3 3
2 2 2 2
Gm Gm
F x i y j z k r
r
x y z
= + + =
+ +

where r xi y j z k = + +

## on a unit point mass that

traverses C.
Consider
( )
2 2 2
, ,
Gm Gm
f x y z
r
x y z
= =
+ +

we have
1 1 1
3 3 3 3
f Gm r i r j r k
x y z
x y z Gm
Gm i j k r F
r r r r
| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .
| |
= = = |
|
\ .

Hence ( ) ( )
1
1, 0, 0 1, 2, 3 1
14
C
W F dr f f Gm
| |
= = =
|
\ .
}

Note: f(x, y, z) is called a gravitational potential, unique up to a scalar constant.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.27 VECTOR CALCULUS

Conservative vector fields
In general, if F f = V

## , then f is called a scalar potential of the vector field F

.
In physics, it is conventional to take f such that F f = V

## as the scalar potential.

Another way to describe the fundamental theorem of line integrals is that if F

is
continuous and has a scalar potential f, then

C
F dr
}

is independent of path where C lies entirely in a region such that f F V =

.

Thus, if C is closed oriented curve which is composed of C
1
and C
2
then we have

1 2
C C C
F dr F dr F dr = +
} } }

The property of the independence of path implies that
( ) ( )
1 2
C C
F dr f B f A F dr = =
} }

where f F V =

.
If there exists f such that F f = V

, then
0
C
F dr =
}

where C is any closed path within the domain of F

.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.28 VECTOR CALCULUS

Vector fields which have such property are called conservative fields. Gravitational
field and electromagnetic field are conservative. Another way to describe
conservative is such that

AB
F dr
}

is independent of path from A to B.

It is important to realize that the property of path independence does not apply to the
line integral
( ) , ,
C
f x y z ds
}

in general. In particular, as seen earlier, it does not involve orientation.

Example
Show that
2
2 F y i xy j = +

is conservative field and hence evaluate

C
F dr
}

along any path C from (0, 0) to (4, 2).
F

is conservative if F | = V

## , that is, solving | from

2
y
x
| c
=
c
and 2xy
y
| c
=
c

Thus we first have

2
y
x
| c
=
c
( )
2
y x f y | = +
where f(y) is an arbitrary function in y.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.29 VECTOR CALCULUS
( ) 2xy f y
y
| c
' = +
c

Since 2xy
y
| c
=
c
, we have ( ) 0 f y ' =
( ) const. f y =
Finally, we have

2
const. y x | = +
Hence
( ) ( ) 4, 2 0, 0 16
C
F dr | | = =
}

where C is any path with starting point (0, 0) and finishing point (4, 2).

In many situations, before starting out to find a potential function, we would like to
know if a given vector field is likely to have a potential function at all. The above
example showed a way to achieve this is by constructing a potential function while
there is no guarantee that it could be found. The natural question to ask is then how do
we determine whether a given vector field F

is conservative or not?

To answer this question, we start from the fact that if F

is conservative, that is
F f = V

, then we have
curf 0 F F f = V = VV =

It is natural to ask if the converse of this statement also true? That is: Does 0 F V =

imply F

definition of F

## falls into a certain category.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.30 VECTOR CALCULUS
A region D in the plane or in space is simply connected if all closed curves in D can
be continuous shrunk down to a point in D while staying within D.
If a connected region D in the plane or in space has no holes in it, it is simply
connected.
Let F

## be a vector field defined on a simply connected domain in the plane or space,

then
curf 0 is conservative F F =

Example
Suppose ( ) ( ) 2 3 cos F x i z j z k = +

is defined for every point in space. Show that
F

is not conservative.
curl 0
2 3 cos
i j k
F i
x y z
x z z
c c c
= = =
c c c

Since curf 0 F = , hence F

is not conservative.

The test curf 0 F =

## can be rewritten in a differential form. Suppose

0 F Mi Nj Pk = + + =

, then
curl 0
P N P M N M
F i j k
y z x z x y
| | | | c c c c c c
| |
= + =
| | |
c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .

If and only if

P N
y z
c c
=
c c
,
P M
x z
c c
=
c c
,
N M
x y
c c
=
c c

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.31 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Show that the field
( ) ( )
2 2
( , , ) F x y z x yz i y xz j xy k = + + + +

is conservative and hence evaluate

}

C
dr F
along any path from (1,1,1) to (1,2,3).
Solution:
Let
2 2
, , and M x yz N y xz P xy = + = + = . It is easy to check
, , and
P N M P N M
y z z x x y
c c c c c c
= = =
c c c c c c

The vector field u

is conservative.
Let u grad i j k
x y z
| | |
|
c c c
= = + +
c c c

2
x
M x yz | = + =
( ) ( )
3
2
,
3
x
x yz dx xyz g y z | = + = + +
}

2
y
g
N y xz xz
y
|
c
= + = = +
c

2
g
y
y
c
=
c
( )
3
3
y
g h z = +
( )
z
P xy xy h z | ' = = = + ( ) 0 h z ' = ( ) const h z =
i.e.
3 3
3 3
x y
xyz c | = + + +
u | = V

## the vector field u

is conservative.
Hence,
( ) ( )
22
1, 2, 3 0, 0, 0
3
C
F dr | | = =
}
.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.32 VECTOR CALCULUS

Thus, we can summaries the foregoing results as follows:
F

is conservative on D F f = V

on D
0
C
F dr =
}

## over any closed path C in D.

curl 0 F F = V =

On the other hand,
curl 0 F F = V =

and simple connected domain D F

is conservative on D.

Finally, it is important to realize that on a domain D which is not simply connected,
0 F V =

## does not provide a definite answer for the conservativeness of the F

.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.33 VECTOR CALCULUS

Surface area and surface integrals
A line integral generalizes the ordinary definite integral; In a similar way, a surface
integral generalizes a double integral

Let E be a surface ( ) , , 0 h x y z = in space with a projection onto the xy-plane
corresponding to the region R. We assume that E is smooth, that is, its gradient h V is
a continuous function and never vanishes on E. Suppose at each point on the surface,
a quantity is determined according to the continuous scalar function ( ) , , g x y z . For
example, ( ) , , g x y z may represents the mass density of the surface and our task is to
find the mass of the surface. This can be approximated by
( )
1
, ,
n
k k k k
k
g x y z S
=
A

As before, we let n and { } max 0
k
k
S A .
Then we have
( ) ( )
0
1
, , lim , ,
n
k k k k
n
k
g x y z dS g x y z S

=
E
= A

}}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.34 VECTOR CALCULUS

This is known as the surface integral of g(x, y, z) over E and when g(x, y, z) 1, the
integral gives the surface area of E.

However, notice that is h(x, y, z) = 0 = z f(x, y)

We have cos dR dxdy dS = = (absolute value is added since may be greater than
2 t ), where dR is the area of projected region and dS the area of surface (part of E).

It can be easily seen that
cos n k =

where n

## is the unit normal at ( ) , ,

k k k
x y z . The unit normal n

is given by

2
2
1
f f
i j k
h x y
n
h
f f
x y
c c
+
V c c
= =
V
| | c c
| |
+ +
| |
c c
\ .
\ .

This implies that

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.35 VECTOR CALCULUS

2
2
1
cos
1
n k
f f
x y
= =
| | c c
| |
+ +
| |
c c
\ .
\ .

and thus

2
2
1
1
cos
f f
dS dxdy dxdy
x y
| |
| | c c | |
|
= = + +
| |
| c c
\ .
\ .
\ .

This gives
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
, , , , , 1
R
f f
g x y z dS g x y f x y dxdy
x y
E
| |
| | c c
| |
|
= + +
| |
c c |
\ .
\ .
\ .
}} }}

Example
Evaluate xyzdS
E
}}
where E is the portion of the cone
2 2 2
z x y = + between planes z =
1 and z = 4.

In this case,

2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 2
f f x y
x y x y x y
| | c c
| |
+ + = + + =
| |
c c + +
\ .
\ .

Thus

( )
2 2
2
R
xyzdS xy x y dxdy
E
= +
}} }}

This integral is easily evaluated using polar coordinates. We have

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.36 VECTOR CALCULUS

( )
( )( )
2 2
4 2
1 0
4 2
4
1 0
2
cos sin 2
2 cos sin
0
R
xy x y dxdy
r r r rdrd
r dr d
t
t
u u u
u u u
+
=
=
=
}}
} }
} }

Notice that in the above case, the unit normal n

## always has a direction which is point

upward since its z-component is positive and is equal to 1. In other words, we have defined
an upward unit for the surface. In the case where E is given by h(x, y, z) = 0, that is, with z
defined implicitly as a function of x and y, then

2
2 2
h h h
i j k
h x y z
n
h
h h h
x y z
c c c
+ +
V c c c
= =
V
| | c c c | | | |
+ +
| | |
c c c
\ . \ .
\ .

and hence we have,

2
2 2
cos
h
z
n k
h h h
x y z

c
c
= =
| | c c c
| | | |
+ +
| | |
c c c
\ . \ .
\ .

and

2 2 2
1
cos
x y z
z
h h h
h
+ +
=

This result is useful if we are required to calculate the surface integral on E when it is given
as an implicit function.

Upward 0
2
t
< < 0
h
z
c
>
c

Downward
2
t
t < < 0
h
z
c
<
c

2 2 2
1
cos
x y z
z
h h h
h
+ +
=
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.37 VECTOR CALCULUS
Notice that all these are for projection on the xy-plane only. In some applications, it may be
more convenient to project a surface on other planes.

Example
Evaluate ( ) x y z dS
E
+ +
}}
, where E is the portion of the plane 1 x y + = in the first octant
for which 0 1 z s s .

We consider projecting E onto the xz-plane
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
0 0
1 1
1 2
3 2
2
x z
R
x y z dS x x z f f dxdz
z dxdz
E
+ + = + + + +
= +
=
}} }}
} }

where y = f(x, z) = 1 x.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.38 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Evaluate
( ) xy z dS

+
}}

where E is the part of the plane 2x y + z = 3 above the triangle bounded by the lines y = 0,
x = 1 and y = x.
Solution:
Let ( ) , , 2 3 f x y z x y z = + = .
2
f f f
f i j k i j k
x x x
c c c
V = + + = +
c c c

, 4 1 1 6 f V = + + = .

( )
1
2
6
f
n i j k
f
V
= = +
V

,
1
6
n k =

1
6 dS dxdy dxdy
n k
= =

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 6
R
xy z dS xy x y dxdy

+ = + + +
}} }}

where R is the triangle bounded by the lines y = 0, x = 1 and y = x.

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1
0 0
2 2
1
0
0
3 2
1
2
0
4 2
2 3 6
6 3 2
6 3 2
2 2
6 3 2
2 2
3
6
8 2
R
x
y x
y
xy z dS xy x y dxdy
xy x y dydx
xy y
y xy dx
x x
x x dx
x x

=
=
+ = + + +
= + +
| |
= + +
|
\ .
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= +
}} }}
} }
}
}
1
3 3
0
2
3 6
9
6
8
x x | |
+
|
\ .
=

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.39 VECTOR CALCULUS

Flux integrals
We have seen earlier that the line integral ( ) , ,
C
f x y z ds
}
of a function f over a curve C was
first defined. Then another type of line integrals relating to a vector field F

given by
C
F dr
}

is subsequently defined. Now that we have defined a form of surface integral
( ) , , g x y z dS
E
}}
of a function g over a surface, we shall define a type of surface integral
relating to a vector field.

If F

is a continuous vector field defined over a surface E (orientable), we call the integral
over E of F n

, the scalar component of F

in the direction of n

, the flux of F

across E in
the positive direction. That is,
F ndS
E

}}

The quantity ndS

## can also be written as dS

, and hence
F ndS F dS
E E
=
}} }}

If F

is a velocity field of a flow, then the flux integral gives the net rate at which the fluid
is crossing E in the positive direction.

Example
Suppose E is the part of the paraboloid
2 2
1 z x y = that lies above the xy-plane and is
oriented by the normal directed upward. Assume that the velocity field of fluid with
constant density is given by
( ) , , 2 v x y z xi y j z k = + +

Determine the rate of mass flow through E in the direction of n

.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.40 VECTOR CALCULUS

The required level surface is given by ( )
2 2
, , 1 h x y z z x y = + + , the total flux passed
through the parabolic surface is given by
v ndS
E

}}

where

2 2 2 2
2 2
1 4 4 1
x y
x y
f i f j k
h xi y j k
n
h
f f x y
+
V + +
= = =
V
+ + + +

where n

## point upward as required.

The net mass flow out across E is given by
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.41 VECTOR CALCULUS

( )
*
*
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
4 4 1
2 2 2
2
2
x y z
v ndS dS
x y
x y z dxdy
dxdy

t
E E
E
E
+ +
=
+ +
= + +
=
=
}} }}
}}
}}

Example
Compute the flux of the vector field
4 F z i x j y k = +

by the flux integral F ndS
E

}}

, where E is the portion of the surface
2
2 z x y = + + cut off
by the planes x = 0, y = 0 and x + y = 1.
Solution:
Let ( ) ( )
2
, , 2 h x y z z x y = + + .
( ) , , 2
h h h
h x y z i j k xi j k
x y z
c c c
V = + + = +
c c c

2
2
4 1 1
h xi j k
n
h
x
V +
= =
V
+ +

and
( )
2 2
2 2 4
4
4 2 4 2
xi j k xz x y
F n z i x j y k
x x
+
= + =
+ +

2 2 2
2
4 2
x y z
z
h h h
dS dxdy x dxdy
h
+ +
= = +
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.42 VECTOR CALCULUS

( )
2
2
2
2 4
4 2
2 4
4 2
4 2
2 4
R
R
xz x y
F ndS dS
x
xz x y
x dxdy
x
xz x y dxdy
E E

=
+

= +
+
=
}} }}
}}
}}

where R is the project region of the surface
2
2 z x y = + + cut off by the planes x = 0, y = 0
and x + y = 1.
The boundary of R is bounded by the lines x = 0, y = 0 and x + y = 1.
( ) { }
, : 0 1 , 0 1 R x y y x x = s s s s

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1 1
2
0 0
1 1
3
0 0
1 1
3 2 2
0 0
2 4
4 2
2 4
2 2 4
2 2 5 4
2 5 2

R
x
x
x
y
xz x y
F ndS dS
x
xz x y dxdy
x x y x y dydx
x xy x y dydx
x y xy xy y dx
E E

=

=
+
=
= + +
=
=
}} }}
}}
} }
} }
}

( )
1
4 3 2
0
1
4 2 5 3
0
2 3 5 2 2
3 2 5
2
4 5 3
3 2 5 101
1 2
4 5 3 60
x x x x dx
x x x x x
= +
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= + + =
}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.43 VECTOR CALCULUS

Parametric surfaces
Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , R u v x u v i y u v j z u v k = + +

be a vector from
2
R to
3
R depending on two
variables u and v, where ( ) , x u v , ( ) , y u v and ( ) , z u v are continuous in a specified
domain D. Then the vector function ( ) , R u v is called a parametric surface.

Example
(1) Represent the paraboloid
2 2
z x y = + parametrically
Solution:
Option I:
Set and x u y v = = . The parametric surface can be written as
( ) ( )
2 2
, R u v u i v j u v k = + + +

.
Option II:
Use cylindrical polar coordinates
cos
sin
x r
y r
z z
u
u
=
=
=

0, 0 2 , r z u t > s < < <
Set cos and sin x r y r u u = = . We obtain
2
z r = .

The parametric surface can be written as
( )
2
, cos sin R u v r i r j r k u u = + +

.
(2) Represent the cone
2 2
, 0 1 z x y z = + s s in parametric surface.
Solution:
Use cylindrical polar coordinates
cos
sin
x r
y r
z z
u
u
=
=
=

0, 0 2 , r z u t > s < < <
The cone can be written as
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.44 VECTOR CALCULUS
( ) , cos sin , 0 1, 0 R r r i r j r k r u u u u t = + + s s s s

.
(3) Represent the sphere
2 2 2 2
x y z a + + = with radius a and centre ( ) 0, 0, 0 in
parametric surface.
Solution:
Use spherical polar coordinates
sin cos
sin sin
cos
x r
y r
z r
u |
u |
u
=
=
=

0, 0 , 0 2 r u t | t > s < s <
The sphere with radius a can be written as
( ) , sin cos sin sin cos R a i a j a k u | u | u | u = + +

.

The partial derivatives of R with respect to u and v:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , ,
u
x y z
R u v u v i u v j u v k
u u u
c c c
= + +
c c c

and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , ,
v
x y z
R u v u v i u v j u v k
v v v
c c c
= + +
c c c

will lie on the tangent plane of the surface at the point ( )
0 0
, u v

Recall that
(1) Definition of cross product
If and a b

sin v if 0, 0
0 otherwise
a b a b
a b
u

= =

where v

## is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing and a b

such that
, , v a b

form a right-handed triple, and u is the angle between and a b

.
(2) If
1 2 3
a a i a j a k = + +

and
1 2 3
b b i b j b k = + +

,
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.45 VECTOR CALCULUS

1 2 3
1 2 3
i j k
a b a a a
b b b
=

(3) sin area of parallelogram with sides and a b a b a b u = =

Hence
u v
i j k
x y z
R R
u u u
x y z
v v v
c c c
=
c c c
c c c
c c c

is a normal vector to the smooth parametric surface and
surface area
u v
S D
dS R R dA = =
}} }}

Example
Evaluate xyzdS
E
}}
where E is the portion of the cone
2 2 2
z x y = + between planes z = 1
and z = 4.

Solution
Consider the cylindrical polar coordinates cos , sin , x r y r z z u u = = = . The parametric
surface is given by
( ) , cos sin R r r i r j r k u u u = + +

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.46 VECTOR CALCULUS
The two partial derivatives
sin cos 0 R r i r j k
u
u u = + +

and
cos sin
r
R i j k u u = + +

and the normal vector

sin cos 0
cos sin 1
cos sin
r
i j k
R R r r
r i r j rk
u
u u
u u
u u
=
= +

and
2 2 2 2 2
cos sin
cos sin
2
r
R R r i r j rk
r r r
r
u
u u
u u
= +
= + +
=

The surface integral
( )( )
4 2
4
1 0
cos sin 2
2 cos sin
0
D
xyzdS r r r r dA
r d dr
t
u u
u u u
E
=
=
=
}} }}
} }

Example
Suppose E is the part of the paraboloid
2 2
1 z x y = that lies above the xy-plane and is
oriented by the normal directed upward. Assume that the velocity field of fluid with
constant density is given by ( ) , , 2 v x y z xi y j z k = + +

## . Determine the rate of mass flow

through E in the direction of n

.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.47 VECTOR CALCULUS

The parametric surface is given by
( ) ( )
2
, cos sin 1 R r r i r j r k u u u = + +

The two partial derivatives
sin cos 0 R r i r j k
u
u u = + +

and cos sin 2
r
R i j r k u u = +

and the normal vector

2 2
sin cos 0
cos sin 2
2 cos 2 sin
r
i j k
R R r r
r
r i r j rk
u
u u
u u
u u
=

=

and
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
4 2
2 cos 2 sin
2 cos 2 sin
4
r
R R r i r j rk
r r r
r r
u
u u
u u
=
= + +
= +

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.48 VECTOR CALCULUS
The upward normal direction

2 2
4 2
2 cos 2 sin
4
r i r j rk
n
r r
u u + +
=
+

The normal component of v

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
4 2
3 2 3 2 2
4 2
4 2
2 cos 2 sin
cos sin 2 1
4
2 cos 2 sin 2 1

4
2

4
r i r j rk
v n r i r j r k
r r
r r r r
r r
r
r r
u u
u u
u u
| |
+ +
= + +
|
+
\ .
+ +
=
+
=
+

The net mass flow out across E is given by

2 1
4 2
4 2 0 0
2 1
0 0
2
0
2
4
4
2

2
r
v ndS r r drd
r r
rdrd
d
t
t
t
u
u
u
t
E
= +
+
=
=
=
}} } }
} }
}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.49 VECTOR CALCULUS
Greens Theorem

Greens theorem in divergence form
Let C be a simple, closed, positively oriented curve in the plane. A 2 D region R with
boundary C with a 2D vector field given by
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , F x y M x y i N x y j = +

,
then
div
C C R R
M N
F nds Mdy Ndx dxdy F dR
x y
| | c c
= = + =
|
c c
\ .
} } }} }}

.
where n

## is the outward-pointing normal vector on C.

Greens theorem in curl form
Let C be a simple, closed, positively oriented curve in the plane. A 2 D region R with
boundary C with a 2D vector field given by
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , F x y M x y i N x y j = +

,
then curl
C C R R
N M
F dr Mdx Ndy dxdy F dR
x y
| | c c
= + = =
|
c c
\ .
} } }} }}

.
We now give a proof for the second (curl) form:

C R
N M
Mdx Ndy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.50 VECTOR CALCULUS
Assume region R is simple, since it is simple, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
, : , R x y g x y f x a x b = s s s s
Boundary C consists of
1 2 3 4
, , , C C C C
1 2 3 4
1 3
0 0
C C C C C
C C
M dx M dx M dx M dx M dx
M dx M dx
= + + +
= + + +
} } } } }
} }

Since x is constant along these paths.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
, ,
, ,
,
b a
C a b
b
a
f x
b
a g x
R
M dx M x g x dx M x f x dx
M x f x M x g x dx
M x y
dydx
y
M
dR
y
= +
( =

c
=
c
c
=
c
} } }
}
} }
}}

Similarly, by treating region R as an x-simple set, we obtain
C R
N
Ndy dR
x
c
=
c
} }}

C R
N M
Mdx Ndy dR
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

This shows that Greens theorem holds for a simple region. In general, a region can be
described by a union of simple regions.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.51 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Evaluate the integral
2
C
xydy y dx
}
around the square C cut from the first quadrant by the
line x = 1 and y = 1.
Using the divergence form of Greens theorem, we take
M xy = ,
2
N y = ,
We have
( )
1 1
2
0 0
3
2 3
2
C R R
M N
xydy y dx dxdy y y dxdy ydxdy
x y
| | c c
= + = + = =
|
c c
\ .
} }} }} } }
.

The result can be extended to more general regions which may not be simple or simple
connected.

Split into region shown which are simple
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.52 VECTOR CALCULUS

Along the common boundary B
0
B
F T ds =
}

, 0
B
F n ds =
}

Such cancellations occur along all common boundaries, hence the effective boundary of
region R composes of 3 closed curves

The orientation is such that while you trace along the curve, the domain R is on the left
hand side.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.53 VECTOR CALCULUS
Example
Verify the curl form of Greens theorem on the annular ring

For the vector field

2 2 2 2
y x
F i j
x y x y
= +
+ +

Boundary of R consists of

1
: cos , sin , 0 2 C x t y t t t = = s s
: cos , sin , 0 2
h
C x h y h u u u t = = s s
Recall that

C R
N M
Mdx Ndy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

( )( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2 x y y y
M y N
y y x y x x y
+ +
| | c c c
= = =
|
c c + c +
\ .

Hence
0
R
N M
dxdy
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}}

Now

( )
1
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
0 0
cos sin
cos sin
2 2 0
h
C C C
xdy ydx xdy ydx
Mdx Ndy
x y x y
h
t t dt d
h
t t
u u
u
t t

+ = +
+ +
+
= +
= =
} } }
} }

0
C
Mdx Ndy + =
}

Greens theorem is verified.
MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.54 VECTOR CALCULUS

Divergence as a limit

The net outward flux of a vector F

## through a closed surface E is

F ndS
E

}}

If we take a point P and surround it by a surface E enclosing a volume V we have

1
Average flux per unit volume F ndS
V
E
=
}}

Now let V 0 so that the volume shrinks to the point P. This limiting value of the
average flux per unit volume is then the divergence of F

at P. This gives an
alternative definition of div F

0
1
div lim
V
F F ndS
V

E
| |
=
|
\ .
}}

The Divergence Theorem (Gausss Theorem)

For any closed surface S, enclosing a region V in a vector field F

,
div
V S
FdV F ndS =
}}} }}

i.e. the total divergence of F

## from a volume V = total outward flux of F

through S.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.55 VECTOR CALCULUS
Proof:
Divide the volume V into N small blocks
i
V o with surface
i
S o . For each small volume,
we have approximately

1
div
i
i S
F F ndS
V
o
o
=
}}

or
div
i
i
S
F V F ndS
o
o =
}}

i.e. div
i
F V o

## = total outward flux of F

across
i
S o .
Summing over all blocks and letting N as 0
i
S o we have
LHS div
V
FdV =
}}}

For the RHS we observe that flux out of a face of one block equals the flux into the
face of an adjacent block, unless that face is part of the surface S. Hence for all
internal faces the flux cancels, leaving
RHS
S
F ndS =
}}

and the theorem is proved.

Example
Let D be the solid cylinder bounded by
2 2
4, 0 and 3 x y z z + = = = . If

( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
tan e 3
xz
F x yz i y j z x k = + + + +

Find the flux across the surface E.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.56 VECTOR CALCULUS

( ) ( )( )
1 2 3
3 3
2 2
Total flux
3 3 1
F ndS
x i y j
z x dS z x dS F dS
x y
E
E E E
=
+
= + + + +
+
}}
}} }} }}

On the other hand, we may apply the divergence theorem to find

( )
( )
D
2 2
D
2 2 3
2
0 0 0
div
3 1
3 1
108
F ndS FdV
x y dV
r rdzdrd
t
u
t
E
=
= + +
= +
=
}} }}}
}}}
} } }

In deriving the Divergence Theorem we have explicitly assumed that the region D has
no holes in it. In fact, it can be shown that the theorem also holds for a solid with
holes, like a chunk of Swiss cheese, provided we always required n

pointing away
from the interior of the solid.

Example
Let D be the solid determined by

2 2 2
1 4 x y z s + + s
and let
( ) ( )
2
2 F x i y z j z x k = + + + +

We have

( )
D
D
D
3 3
div
1 2 1
4
4 4 112
4 2 1
3 3 3
F ndS FdV
dV
dV
t
t t
E
=
= + +
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
}} }}}
}}}
}}}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.57 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Verify the divergence theorem for F xi yj zk = + +

and the region bounded by
2 2
4 z x y = and the plane z = 0.

Solution:

( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 4 4
2 4 0
2 4
4
0
2 4
2 2
2
0 0
2
4
2
0
div
3
3
3 4
2 3 2
4
24
V
z x y
z y z z
z
x y
z
z y z
r
r
FdV
dzdydx
z dydx
r rdrd
r
r
t
u
u
t
t

= = =

=
= =
= =
=
=
=
=
(
=
(

=
}}}
} } }
} }
} }

Now consider
S
F ndS
}}

For the circular base we have

( ) ( )
1 1
0
S S
xi yj zk k dxdy zdxdy + + = =
}} }}

Since z = 0 on S
1
.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.58 VECTOR CALCULUS

For the curved surface
2 2
4 4 z x y = + + + =
2 2 xi yj k V = + +

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
4
2 2
4
2 2 2 2
4
2 2
2
0 0
2
4
2
0

1
2 2
1
2 2
2 2 4
4
2 2
4
24
S
x y
x y
x y
r
r
F ndS
xi yj zk xi yj k dxdy
x y z dxdy
x y x y dxdy
r rdrd
r
r
t
u
u
t
t
+ s
+ s
+ s
= =
=

= + + + +
= + +
= + +
= +
(
= +
(

=
}}
}}
}}
}}
} }

Hence div
V S
FdV F ndS =
}}} }}

Greens theorem in divergence form

Consider a 2D region R with boundary C with a 2D vector field given by
F M i N j = +

.
We can treat the region R as 3D object with the third dimension z perpendicular to the
xy-plane and is of unit height.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.59 VECTOR CALCULUS
Notice that F

## can be consider as a 3D vector field with the k

component zero.
According to the Divergence theorem, we have
div
D
F ndS FdV

=
}} }}}

where E is the surface of the 3D domain D. Since F

has k

component zero, we
have
( ) 1
side C
F ndS F ndS F n ds

= =
}} }} }

where ds represents a differential arc length on C. On the other hand, we have

1
D 0
div div div 1
R R
FdV FdR dz FdR
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
}}} }} } }}

where 1 in the multiplication represents unit height. Thus, we have
div
C R
F nds FdR =
} }}

Greens theorem in divergence form can be stated as follows:

C R
M N
Mdy Ndx dxdy
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
} }}

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.60 VECTOR CALCULUS
Stokes Theorem

For any open surface S, having a closed curve C as its edge, in a vector field F

curl
C
S
F ndS F dr =
}} }

i.e. the flux of curl F

## through an open surface S = the circulation around the

boundary curve C.
Proof:
Divide the surface S into N small patches
i
S o with edge
i
C o and normal
i
n

. For each
small area
i
S o we have approximately

1
curl
i
i i
C
i
F n F dr
S
o
o
=
}

or
curl
i
i i i
C
F n S F dr
o
o =
}

Summing over all patches and letting N as 0
i
S o we have
LHS curl
S
F ndS =
}}

For the RHS we observe that the flow along an edge of
i
C o is equal and opposite to
the flow along that edge of an adjacent element, unless that edge is part of the
boundary C.
Hence for all internal edges the flow cancels leaving
RHS
C
F dr =
}

and the theorem is proved.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.61 VECTOR CALCULUS

Example
Verify Stokess theorem for
2
2 F xy i x j x k = +

where S is the hemisphere
2 2 2
1, 0 x y z y + + = > .

2
2
i j k
F j
x y z
xy x x
c c c
V = =
c c c

We project S onto the xz plane where
xz
S is the disc
2 2
1 x z + s .
Solution:
2 2 2
1, 2 2 2 , 2
y
x y z xi yj zk y = + + = V = + + =

.

( )
2 2
2 2
1
1
1
curl 2 2 2
2

S x z
x z
F ndS j xi yj zk dxdz
y
dxdz
t
+ s
+ s
= + +
=
=
}} }}
}}

C is the circle
2 2
1 x z + = in the xz plane. Let the parametric equations of C be
cos , sin , 0, 0 2 z t x t y t t = = = s <

( )
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
sin

C t
t
dx dy dz
F dr xyi x j xk i j k dt
dt dt dt
tdt
t
t
t
=
=
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
=
=
} }
}

Hence the theorem is verified.

Note the positive direction of C taken in the xz plane, relative to the normal of S.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.62 VECTOR CALCULUS
Example
Let C be the intersection of the paraboloid
2 2
z x y = + and the plane z = y, evaluate

2 2
C
xydx x dy z dz + +
}

Since

( )
2 2 2 2
C C
xydx x dy z dz xy i x j z k dr + + = + +
} }

Stokes theorem gives
curl
C
F dr F ndS
E
=
} }}

where E is the surface with C as boundary.

( )
curl F ndS xk ndS
E E
=
}} }}

project the surface E onto the xy-plane with region R. The region R is given by

2 2
z x y = + and z = y,
or
2 2
x y y + = ,
2
sin r r u = , sin r u =

( )
( ) ( )
( )
sin
0 0
curl
cos
0
x y
R
R
F ndS xk ndS
xk f i f j k dR
xdR
r rdrd
t u
u u
E E
=
= +
=
=
=
}} }}
}}
}}
} }

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.63 VECTOR CALCULUS

Curl as a limit
Suppose ( )
0 0 0
, , x y z is a fixed point in space and R is a small circular disk centred as
( )
0 0 0
, , x y z with boundary C and area A. Assume that the vector field F

represents
the velocity of a fluid. If C is very small, then
( )
0 0 0
curl curl , ,
C R
F dr F ndS F x y z nA =
} }}

so that
( )
0 0 0
1
curl , ,
C
F x y z n F dr
A

}

As A 0, we have
( )
0 0 0
0
1
curl , , lim
A
C
F x y z n F dr
A

| |
=
|
\ .
}

Thus the circulation integral, which measures the tendency of the fluid to rotate or
circulate at a point, given by
C
F dr
}

( )
0 0 0
curl , , F x y z

## at a point measures tendency of rotation as

a local property. Stokes Theorem says that the collective measure of this tendency
over the entire surface E is completely determined by, and equal to, the tendency of
the fluid to circulate around the boundary C.

MATHEMATICS IB ENGG 1005

P.64 VECTOR CALCULUS

Greens theorem in curl form

The Stokes theorem can be reduced to Greens theorem in the plane. Consider a 2D
region R with boundary C with a vector field given by
F M i N j = +

According to Stokes theorem,
curl
R C
F kdR F dr =
}} }

where
curl
N M
F k
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .

which implies
curl
N M
F k
x y
c c
=
c c

and

( ) ( )
F dr M i N j dx i dy j Mdx Ndy = + + = +

The curl form of Greens theorem

R C
N M
dR Mdx Ndy
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }
.