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6: Knowledge Codification

Virach Sornlertlamvanich

Virach Sornlertlamvanich

Review of Lecture 5

Review of Lecture 5 On-site Observation (Action Protocol) Consensus Decision Making Brainstorming (Conventional &

On-site Observation

(Action Protocol)

Consensus

Decision

Making

Observation (Action Protocol) Consensus Decision Making Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic) 2 Knowledge

Brainstorming

(Conventional & Electronic)

Making Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic) 2 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich
Making Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic) 2 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich
Making Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic) 2 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich

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Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Review of Lecture 5

Repertory Grid

Construct

T1

T2

T3

1 Inexperience

3

3

1

2 Appearance

3

2

1

5

Late

2

3

2

Delphi Method

… … 5 Late 2 3 2 Delphi Method Nominal Group Technique 3 Knowledge Management System,Virach
… … 5 Late 2 3 2 Delphi Method Nominal Group Technique 3 Knowledge Management System,Virach

Nominal Group Technique

Late 2 3 2 Delphi Method Nominal Group Technique 3 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich

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Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Concept Map Review of Lecture 5 White horse Bear d At chimneys On roofs Birthday
Concept Map
Review of Lecture 5
White
horse
Bear
d
At
chimneys
On roofs
Birthday
has
rides
Spain
listens
has
climbs
lives
in
lives in
SAINT
helper of
BLACK
NICOLAS
PETER
not same as
gives
brings
Santa
Blackboarding
Clause
Presents
as gives brings Santa Blackboarding Clause Presents 4 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich
as gives brings Santa Blackboarding Clause Presents 4 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich

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Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

This Week’s Objectives

What Does Knowledge Codification Involve? Benefits of Knowledge Codification Pre Knowledge Codification Questions Tools and Procedures The Role of Planning

Knowledge Codification

Modes of Knowledge Conversion Codifying Knowledge Codification Tools/Procedures

Knowledge Maps Decision Table Decision Tree Frames Production Rules Case-Based Reasoning Knowledge-Based Agents

Knowledge Developer's Skill Set

Knowledge Requirements Skills Requirements

Knowledge Codification in the KM System Life Cycle

Capture Tools Programs, books, articles, experts KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE (Creation)
Capture Tools
Programs, books,
articles, experts
KNOWLEDGE
CAPTURE
(Creation)

DATABASES

Explicit Knowledge

KNOWLEDGE

TRANSFER

Intelligence

gathering

Decision tables, Decision trees, frames maps, rules

KNOWLEDGE

CODIFICATION

TESTING AND DEPLOYMENT

KNOWLEDGE

SHARING

KNOWLEDGE

BASE

What Does Knowledge Codification Involve?

Converting “tacit knowledge” into “explicit usable form” Converting “undocumented” information into “documented” information Representing and organizing knowledge before it is accessed It is making institutional knowledge visible, accessible, and usable for decision making

Benefits of Knowledge Codification

Instruction/training—promoting training of junior personnel based on captured knowledge of senior employees Prediction—inferring the likely outcome of a given situation and flashing a proper warning or suggestion for corrective action Diagnosis—addressing identifiable symptoms of specific causal factors Planning/scheduling—mapping out an entire course of action before any steps are taken

The knowledge developer should note the following points before initiating knowledge codification:

Recorded knowledge is often difficult to access (because it is either fragmented or poorly organized). Diffusion of new knowledge is too slow. Knowledge is nor shared, but hoarded (this can involve political implications). Often knowledge is not found in the proper form. Often knowledge is not available at the correct time when it is needed. Often knowledge is not present in the proper location where it should be present. Often the knowledge is found to be incomplete.

Pre-KC Questions

What organizational goals will the codified knowledge serve? Why is the knowledge useful? How would one codify knowledge?

knowledge useful?    How would one codify knowledge? 11 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich

Modes of Knowledge Conversion

Conversion from tacit to tacit knowledge produces socialization where knowledge developer looks for experience in case of knowledge capture. Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge involves externalizing, explaining or clarifying tacit knowledge via analogies, models, or metaphors. Conversion from explicit to tacit knowledge involves internalizing (or fitting explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Conversion from explicit to explicit knowledge involves combining, categorizing, reorganizing or sorting different bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge.

bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge. Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation &

Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation & Transformation (SECI Model)

Codifying Knowledge

An organization must focus on the following before codification:

What organizational goals will the codified knowledge serve? What knowledge exists in the organization that can address these goals? How useful is the existing knowledge for codification? How would someone codify knowledge?

Codifying tacit knowledge (in its entirety) in a knowledge base or repository is often difficult because it is usually developed and internalized in the minds of the human experts over a long period of time.

Some Codification Tools

Knowledge Map Decision Table Decision Tree Frames Production Rules Case-based Reasoning Knowledge-Based Agents

Knowledge Map

Visual representation of knowledge, not a repository Identify strengths to exploit and missing knowledge gaps to fill Can be applied in Knowledge Capture A straightforward directory that points people to where they can find certain expertise Capture both explicit and tacit knowledge in documents and in experts’ heads

Knowledge Map (Relationships among Departments)

Knowledge Map (Relationships among Departments) Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

www.nwlnk.com © Copyright 2004

Departments) Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org) www.nwlnk.com © Copyright 2004 16

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Knowledge Map

A popular knowledge map used in human resources is a skills planner in which employees are matched to jobs. Steps to build the map:

A structure of the knowledge requirements should be developed. Knowledge required of specific jobs must be defined. You should rate employee performance by knowledge competency. You should link the knowledge map to some training program for career development and job advancement.

The Building Cycle

Once where knowledge resides is known, simply point to it and add instructions on how to get there An intranet is a common medium for publishing knowledge maps Main criteria: clarity of purpose, ease of use, accuracy and currency of content

of purpose, ease of use, accuracy and currency of content 18 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich

Decision Trees

Composed of nodes representing goals and links representing decisions or outcomes All nodes except the root node are instances of the primary goal. (See next figure) Often a step before actual codification Ability to verify logic graphically in problems involving complex situations that result in a limited number of actions

Discount Policy (A Decision Tree)

Discount ? Order 6 or Discount is size ? more 25% Customer is copies bookstore
Discount ?
Order
6
or
Discount is
size ?
more
25%
Customer is
copies
bookstore
Discount ?
Discount is
Less
NIL
than 6
copies
Bookstore
Discount
Discount ?
Policy
50 or
Discount
more
is 15%
copies
Not a
bookstore
Discount ?
Order
Discount
20-49
size ?
is 10%
copies
Customer is
library or
individual
Discount ?
6-19
Discount is
copies
5%
Discount ?
Less than
Discount is
6
copies
NIL
20
Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Decision Tables

More like a spreadsheet—divided into a list of conditions and their respective values and a list of conclusions Conditions are matched against conclusions (See next table) It is another technique used for knowledge codification. It consists of some conditions, rules, and actions.

Discount Policy (A Decision Table)

Condition Stub

IF

(condition)

THEN

(action)

Customer is bookstore Order size > 6 copies Customer is librarian/individual Order size 50 copies or more

Customer is bookstore Order size > 6 copies Customer is librarian/individual Order size 50 copies or

Order size 20-49 copies Order size 6-19 copies

Allow 25% discount Allow 15% discount Allow 10% discount Allow 5% discount Allow no discount

copies Order size 6-19 copies Allow 25% discount Allow 15% discount Allow 10% discount Allow 5%

Action Stub

Condition Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

N

 

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

 

Y

N

N

 

Y

N

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

X

Action Entry

Decision Table (an example)

A phonecard company sends out monthly invoices to permanent customers and gives them discount if payments are made within two weeks.Their discounting policy is as follows:

“If the amount of the order of phonecards is greater than $35, subtract 5% of the order; if the amount is greater than or equal to $20 and less than or equal to $35, subtract a 4% discount; if the amount is less than $20, do not apply any discount.”

We shall develop a decision table for their discounting decisions, where the condition alternatives are `Yes' and `No'.

Decision Table (an example)

Decision Table (an example) 24 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)
Decision Table (an example) 24 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

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Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Decision Table (an example)

It is also a knowledge codification technique. A decision tree is usually a hierarchically arranged semantic network.

A decision tree for the phonecard company discounting policy (as discussed above) is shown next.

Decision Table (an example)

Decision Table (an example) 26 Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Frames

Represent knowledge about a particular idea in a data structure Handle a combination of declarative and operational knowledge, which make it easier to understand the problem domain Key elements of frames:

Slot: A specific object being described/an attribute of an entity. Facet: The value of an object/slot.

When all the slots are filled with values, the frame is considered instantiated

Generic COUPE Frame An Automobile Example Specialization: AUTOMOBILE Generic AUTOMOBILE Frame Generalization:
Generic COUPE Frame
An Automobile Example
Specialization:
AUTOMOBILE
Generic AUTOMOBILE
Frame
Generalization:
Specialization:
(SMITH’S AUTOMOBILE,
HANSON’S AUTOMOBILE)
VEHICLE
Doors: 2
Generalization:
(STATION-WAGON,
COUPE, SEDAN)

SMITH’S AUTOMOBILE Frame

.

.

.

Specialization:

COUPE

Year:

Range: (1940 – 1990) If-Changed: (ERROR:

Value cannot be modified)

.

.

.

Year: 1990

.

.

.

Doors: ( )

cannot be modified) . . . Year: 1990 . . . Doors: ( ) 28 Knowledge

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Knowledge Management System,Virach Sornlertlamvanich (virach@tcllab.org)

Production Rules

Tacit knowledge codification in the form of premise- action pairs Rules are conditional statement that specify an action to be taken if a certain condition is true The form is IF… THEN, or IF…THEN…ELSE Example:

IF income is “average” and pay_history is “good” THEN recommendation is “approve loan”

Case-Based Reasoning (CBR)

CBR is reasoning from relevant past cases in a manner similar to humans’ use of past experiences to arrive at conclusions Goal is to bring up the most similar historical cases that match the current case More time savings than rule-based systems Requires rigorous initial planning of all possible variables

Generic CBR Process

User

Submits

Partial Description of a New Problem

Specify Attributes of Problem

Case Base

Similar Cases

Match Attributes to Those in Case Base

User

Role of Planning (Earlier Steps)

Breaking the KM system into modules Looking at partial solutions Linking partial solutions via rules and procedures to arrive at the final solution Making rules easier to review and understand

Role of Planning (Latter Steps)

Deciding on the programming language Selecting the right software package Developing user interface and consultation facilities Arranging for the verification and validation of the system

Knowledge-Based Agents

An intelligent agent is a program code which is capable of performing autonomous action in a timely fashion. They can exhibit goal directed behaviour by taking initiative. They can be programmed to interact with other agents or humans by using some agent communication language. In terms of knowledge-based systems, an agent can be programmed to learn from the user behaviour and deduce future behaviour for assisting the user.

Knowledge Developer's Skill Set

Knowledge Requirements

Computing technology and operating systems. Knowledge repositories and data mining. Domain specific knowledge. Cognitive psychology.

Skills Requirements

Interpersonal Communication. Ability to articulate the project's rationale. Rapid Prototyping skills. Attributes related to personality. Job roles.