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CONSTRUCTION ENGG AND MANAGEMENT

HAULING AND HOISTING EQUIPMENTS

HAULING EQUIPMENTS
For Hauling of men, materials or machines in horizontal,vertical or in both direction, mechanical transportation becomes more effective.It is very time consuming, expensive process. Most of the hauling equipments are operated by diesel engine. Following are the some hauling equipments used commonly. 1) Trucks They are most commonly used hauling equipment for transportation. The truck capacity varies from 0.4 m3 to 20 m3 and its speed varies from 10 kmph to 100 kmph. According to self weight light trucks having weight upto 1 tonne, medium trucks having weight upto 1.5 to 3 tonne and heavy trucks having weight more than 3.5 and upto 10 tonnes. 2) Tractors It is a self- propelled machine which is used to exert a powerful tractive force for pulling the other machines., it can be easily converted to serve as bulldozer, angle-dozer etc. It can also used for agricultural operations such as hoeing, tilling, harvesting etc. Tractors may be crawler mounted or wheel mounted. In the former type, the tractors is supported on endless chain of plates and it is used for rough and uneven ground. In the later type, the tractor is supported on wheels and it is used for even ground. 3) Dump trucks The truks with automatic unloading device are called dump trucks. In such type of trucks loading is done manually or by loaders and unloading is done by the device fitted in truck. Its capacity varies from 50 to 55 tonnes. 4) Dumpers Dumpers are very useful for the horizontal transportation of materials like bricks, aggregates, scaffolding, wet concrete etc. They are available in different sizes and varieties. They may be 4 wheel drive, two wheel drive, hydraulic or gravity operated container. Usually dumpers diesel powered and operated by single operator. 5) Trailors Trailors are extra wagons attached to tractors or trucks. They can be full trailors, semi trailors or trailors. They have hydraulic breaks and their lighting system is operated from main units 6) Elevators and conveyors They are mainly used for transportation of aggregates and wet concrete on large project site. Elevators are used for vertical transportation while conveyors are used for horizontal transportation. To raise the materials like bricks, tiles, cement etc to the upper floor level, elevators moving with high speeds are used.

HOISTING EQUIPMENTS
To transport materials or passengers vertically by means of a moving level platform, material hoists or passenger are used. This may be static or mobile. Static hoists consists of a tower with the lift platform either cantilevered or within an enclosing tower. Mobile hoists are positioned on a firm level base and jacked to ensure stability. It can use upto maximum height of 24m. they are driven by petrol, diesel or electric motor. Hoisting equipments are described briefly below. 1) Cranes In order to raise and shift heavy loads from one place to another, the cranes are employed in the construction of big works. The cranes are mobile. A crane is usually designated by its load carrying capacity. It may be operated by steam, diesel or electric power. The three operations involved in the working of a crane are as follows. Hoisting, ie, raising the load from its position and lowering it at its point of destination Luffing, ie, moving the boom in or out as required Slewing, ie, moving the boom in arc as seen in the plan Some of the important types of cranes which have come into use are briefly desrcibed below i. Derrick cranes: it is used for open sites and it possesses a very long reach. It can be slewed for 2500 appriximately. When the derrick crane is to be permanently installed, counter weights may be in the form of concrete blocks. ii. Goliath cranes: in type, heavy temporary staging or platfprm is prepared for the working of the crane. Heavy loads can be shifted over considerable distances. These cranes are used in the construction of harbour works, shops of steelwork etc. iii. Swing jib cranes: similar to derrick cranes. They are more mobile than derrick cranes as they are provided with removable wheels. They can slew completely, ie, for 3600. They are used for sites of moderately restricted area. iv. Tower cranes: these are cranes of swing jip type and are mounted on high steel towers. These are extremely useful in the construction of tall buildings in congested areas. 2) Cableways It consists of a coil whose diameter is about 50mm to 100mm. The cable has a breaking strength of 2500Kn to 7000kN and its unit weight is about 150 N to 500N per metre length. It is used for the transport of concrete from one place to the other. The cable is suspended between two towers and it supports a carriage. The load is placed in the carriage and then, by other suitable mechanical equipment.

3)

Gantries A gantry is used to replace ordinary scaffolding and it lifts and moves materials of all types. It consists of a mobile framed structure usually of steel of timber. Derric tower gantries, platform gantries, travelling gantries. 4) Gin poles It is merely a steel or timber mast which is held in vertical position by three to four guy ropes. Each of the guy rope is well anchored to a dead-man which may be in the form of concrete

blocks or wooden logs buried into the ground. Suitable block is provided at top of mast connect hoist tackle with hoist rope

5) Hoist

It consists of a horizontal platform which is moved upwards and downwards by a powered


winch between vertical guides. The platform may be side-hung or centre-hung. The former is used for lower capacities and the later is used for higher capacities. In order to providesafety and stability to hoist, the vertical guides are anchored or tied with structure or scaffolding. 6) pulley blocks They are used to change the direction of ropes and to raise greater loads with less effort. The blocks are made of wood and depending on the number of sheaves or pulley-wheels, they are termed as single, double etc pulley blocks. Following are the different types. Differential pulley block: consists of a set of different diameter sheaves having an endless chain wound over them. It is used to lift the load less than 1 tonne. Spur gear pulley block: It consists of the hand chain, the load chain and a series of planetary gears assembled in a case. It can lift load upto 10 tonnes. Worm gear pulley block: It is also known as screw geared pulley block. It consists of a worm wheel arrangement with a set of hand chain and load chain. When the hand chain is pulled , the worm wheel moves and hoists can lift upto 3 tonnes.

7) Winches A winch is a mechanism in the shape of a cylinder or drum, over which rope or chain is wound. If a winch is used only for raising or lowering , it is sometimes referred to as hoist. Chain blocks in reality are small winches and they may be operated either manually or mechanically. Winches should be of enough capacity to accommodate the longest length of rope likely to be wound over them.