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## G482 Electrons, Photons and Waves Module 2.5 Quantum Physics

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## G482 Module 2.5 Quantum Physics

1.

Energy of a photon

(a) describe the particulate nature (photon model) of electromagnetic radiation; (b) state that a photon is a quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation; (c) select and use the equations for the energy of a photon: E = hf and E = hc (d) define and use the electronvolt (eV) as a unit of energy; (e) use the transfer equation eV = mv2 for electrons and other charged particles; (f) describe an experiment using LEDs to estimate the Planck constant h using the equation eV = hc (no knowledge of semiconductor theory is expected). (a) describe and explain the phenomenon of the photoelectric effect; (b) explain that the photoelectric effect provides evidence for a particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation while phenomena such as interference and diffraction provide evidence for a wave nature; (c) define and use the terms work function and threshold frequency; (d) state that energy is conserved when a photon interacts with an electron;

Photon, Photon energy, electronvolt, planck constant, frequency, kinetic energy, LED, semiconductor, quanta (quantum),

2.

## The photoelectric effect

Photon Photoelectron Work function Photon energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Intensity Plancks Constant Electroscope Photoelectric effect, planck, frequencu, wprk finction, kinetic energy, electron, photon, intensity, incident radiation Particulate Quanta Corpuscle Photon Wave Interference de Broglie, momentum, planck constant, wavelength, diffraction, nuclei

3.

## Einsteins equation and the photoelectric effect

(e)select, explain and use Einsteins photoelectric equation: hf =+KEmax; (f) explain why the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons is independent of intensity and why the photoelectric current in a photocell circuit is proportional to intensity of the incident radiation.

4.

## The Photon Model

(a) explain electron diffraction as evidence for the wave nature of particles like electrons; (b) explain that electrons travelling through polycrystalline graphite will be diffracted by the atoms and the spacing between the atoms;

5.

## Wave particle duality

(c) select and apply the de Broglie equation =h mv (d) explain that the diffraction of electrons by matter can be used to determine the arrangement of atoms and the size of nuclei. 2.5.4 Energy levels in atoms Candidates should be able to: (a) explain how spectral lines are evidence for the existence of discrete energy levels in isolated atoms, i.e. in a gas discharge lamp; (b) describe the origin of emission and absorption line spectra; (c) use the relationships hf = E1 E2 and hc = E1 E2 Review quantum physics

6.

line spectra

Atom, electrons, Spectral lines, energy levels, absorption, wavelength, frequency, emission, dispersion

7.

8.

## Review Electrons, Waves and Photons

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## Lesson 35 notes The photoelectric effect and photon energy.

Objectives
(a) describe the particulate nature (photon model) of electromagnetic radiation; (b) state that a photon is a quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation; (c) select and use the equations for the energy of a photon: E = hf and E = hc (d) define and use the electronvolt (eV) as a unit of energy; (e) use the transfer equation eV = mv2 for electrons and other charged particles; (f) describe an experiment using LEDs to estimate the Planck constant h using the equation eV = hc (no knowledge of semiconductor theory is expected).

## The photoelectric effect

A Gold Leaf Electroscope is used to see the photoelectric effect. An electroscopes gold leaf will rise when it is charged and fall when it is discharged. The photoelectric effect shows that is possible to discharge the electroscope using light. But not any sort of light. The diagram shows 3 different types of light hitting a charged Zinc plate on top of a gold leaf electroscope.

or

No effect

No effect

## With U.V. leaf falls immediately (Diagrams: resourcefulphysics.org)

With red light (from a laser) there is no effect. With white light from a lamp there was no effect. But using a UV lamp the electroscope immediately discharges and the gold leaf falls. 2011 science-spark.co.uk RAB Plymstock School

So whats happening? The light falling on the Zinc plates has different frequencies and this determines whether the plate will discharge. UV has the highest frequency, lamp light doesnt produce UV and the red light hasnt got a high enough frequency to discharge the Zinc plate. By discharging we mean getting rid of the electrons. So the light is physically hitting the electrons from the plate. The light needs a certain frequency before the electrons will be knocked off the plate; this is called the Threshold Frequency. The amount of electrons being knocked off is proportional to the intensity of the light.

## Wave particle duality

If light were just a wave then this couldnt happen. If light were just a wave then the electrons would absorb some energy no matter what the frequency. If light were just a wave then emission of an electron would take longer when a lower intensity light were used, not instantaneously. But light is not just a wave. It can also behave as though it were made of tiny particles or packets. We call these particles photons. It is one of these photons that will hit one electron on the plate, the electron will absorb the energy and it will fly off the plate. So if the intensity is greater, i.e. there are more photons, then more electrons can be knocked off.

## Photon Energy (The Einstein relation)

Einstein assumed that each packet of light had a certain amount of energy. This energy must be proportional to its frequency. Energy of a photon, E = hf Where h is Plancks constant = 6.63x10-34 J s (Or you could think of it as Joule per Hertz) And f is the frequency of the light. Using c=f we get: E = hc/ Where c is the speed of the electromagnetic waves.

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## Lesson 36 notes - The Photoelectron

Objectives:
(a) describe and explain the phenomenon of the photoelectric effect; (b) explain that the photoelectric effect provides evidence for a particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation while phenomena such as interference and diffraction provide evidence for a wave nature; (c) define and use the terms work function and threshold frequency; (d) state that energy is conserved when a photon interacts with an electron;

## The Photoelectric effect

The diagram shows photons hitting the surface of a metal and photoelectrons being ejected. Photons with their Photon Energy and at least the threshold frequency hit a metal. If the plate is Zinc, UV will nudge the photoelectrons off, if gamma rays hit the metal they will be whipped off with more force. The surface photoelectrons absorb the energy and are emitted out of the metal with the excess energy in the form of Kinetic energy.

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## RAB Plymstock School

If the intensity increases so that there are now more photons, more photoelectrons are emitted. But each photon arriving at the surface has the same photon energy therefore each photoelectron emitted has the same kinetic energy. Quantum Well Photoelectron Kinetic energy Photon energy

Photon energy

electron

The diagram shows a representation of the energy levels involved when releasing a photoelectron from the surface of a metal. The Photon has some energy (The Photon Energy equal to hf where h is Plancks constant and f is the frequency of the radiation). The electron that the photon hits absorbs all this energy. It takes a certain amount of energy to release the electron, this energy is called the Work Function energy and has the symbol (phi). If there is any excess energy, then the emitted photoelectron will have some kinetic energy as it flies off the metals surface. Because of the Law of conservation of energy we can see that: The Photon Energy The Work Function Energy The Photoelectrons Kinetic Energy.

## This idea will be extended in lesson 24.

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## RAB Plymstock School

Lesson 35 and 36 questions The Photoelectric effect and photon energy and photoelectrons.
1) Fig1.1 shows an electrical circuit including a photocell.

Fig 1.1 The photocell contains a metal plate X that is exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Photoelectrons emitted from the surface of the metal are accelerated towards the positive electrode Y. A sensitive ammeter measures the current in the circuit due to the photoelectrons emitted by the metal plate X. In this question, one mark is available for the quality of written communication. Name and describe the process by which the photoelectrons are released from the plate X by electromagnetic radiation. (6) Total 

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## RAB Plymstock School

2)a) State what property of electromagnetic radiation is demonstrated by the photoelectric effect. (1) b) Define each of the following terms i) photon (1) ii) threshold frequency (1) 3)a) A radioactive material emits photons, each having an energy of 1.6 x 10-13 J. Calculate the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the radioactive material. (4) b) Calculate the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation. (2) c) State the principal type o electromagnetic radiation emitted by the material. (1) Total 

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## Lesson 37 notes Einsteins equation and the photoelectric effect

Objectives
(e)select, explain and use Einsteins photoelectric equation: hf =+KEmax; (f) explain why the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons is independent of intensity and why the photoelectric current in a photocell circuit is proportional to intensity of the

Einsteins equation
Recall from lesson 23 that: The Photon Energy The Work Function Energy The Photoelectrons Kinetic Energy.

Well lets look at this in more detail. The photon energy E is given by E=hf where h is Plancks constant and f is the frequency of the incident radiation. If f equals the threshold frequency, photoelectrons will only just escape the surface and they have zero kinetic energy, so the photon energy = the work function energy. The Work function is the amount of energy needed to just release an electron from the surface of a material. And the Photoelectrons kinetic energy is the excess of energy that has been absorbed from the incoming photon by the emitted electron and is given by K.E.max=1/2 mvmax2. (It is the maximum K.E. since it may have lost some energy if the light came through to lower levels of electrons not at the surface for instance) So now we have: hf = + 1/2 mvmax2

## And if f = threshold frequency we get: hf =

The electronvolt
Joules are quite a large unit of energy for the examples that you will look at here and so another unit for energy is normally used. The electronvolt or eV.

The electronvolt (eV) is a unit of energy equal to the work done when an electron is moved through a p.d. of 1 V.

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## RAB Plymstock School

Since W=QV, Therefore when an electron moves through a potential difference of 1 V, the work done on that electron is equal to 1.6x10-19J. So, 1eV = 1.6x10-19J

Extension
You should be familiar with the following but do not need to be able to recall the experiment detailed.

## Experiment to find Plancks Constant and work function

The diagram shows a vacuum photocell connected to a variable PSU and galvanometer.

As light strikes the photocell, photoelectrons are emitted and a photocurrent (it is called a photocurrent since it is the light that makes the current flow) is set up as long as the photon energy is larger than the work function energy for the anode. (Typical values of are between 2.2eV for lithium and 6.35 eV for platinum). A potential difference is set up across the photocell so that photoelectrons are just stopped from reaching the cathode of the photocell. (the reading on the galvanometer is zero). This is called the stopping voltage, Vs. This stopping voltage happens because each electron leaving the surface of the metal now has to do extra work because of the potential difference set up, an amount eVs, (since W=QV, and Q=e and V = Vs). By changing the filters we can change the frequency of light entering the photocell and then a graph of Kinetic energy of a photoelectron against frequency can be drawn. Einsteins photoelectric equation can be stated as: eVs = hf which can be compared to: y = mx + c So the gradient of the graph gives Plancks constant h. 2011 science-spark.co.uk RAB Plymstock School

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## Lesson 37 Einsteins equation

1) a) hf mvmax2 (3) b) The surface of sodium metal is exposed to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength 6.5 x 10-7m. This wavelength is the maximum for which photoelectrons are released. i) Calculate the threshold frequency (3) ii) Show that the work function energy of the metal is 1.9 eV. (3) c) For a particular wavelength of incident light, sodium releases photoelectrons. State how the rate of release of photoelectrons changes when the intensity of light is doubled. Explain your answer. (2) Total  2)a) Electrons are emitted from the surface of zinc when it is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. i) Name this phenomenon (1) ii) State the typical value for the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation in metres. (1) b) Electromagnetic radiation incident on a metal plate releases energetic electrons from its surface. The metal plate is placed in an evacuated chamber. The energy of each photon is 2.8eV. The metal has a work function energy of 1.1eV. i) Explain what is meant by the work function energy of the metal. 2011 science-spark.co.uk RAB Plymstock School Einsteins photoelectric equation may be written as hf = + mvmax2. Identify the terms:

(1) ii) State the speed of photons. (1) iii) For an electron emitted from the surface of the metal, calculate 1. its maximum kinetic energy in joules .. (3) 2. its maximum speed. .. (2) iv) State the change, if any, to your answer for the maximum speed of an electron emitted from the surface of the metal when the intensity of the incident electromagnetic radiation is doubled. (1) Total 

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Objectives
(a) explain

## electron diffraction as evidence for the wave nature of particles like

electrons; (b) explain that electrons travelling through polycrystalline graphite will be diffracted by the atoms and the spacing between the atoms;

## The photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect was the first example of a quantum phenomenon to be seen at the end of the 19th Century. Light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation shone onto metals release electrons; the energy supplied by the radiation frees the electrons from the metal. The way in which the numbers and energies of electrons released changes when the frequency and intensity of the radiation changes cannot be explained using the classical wave model of light. Increasing the intensity of the radiation does not increase the energy of the electrons but releases more of them per second. Increasing the frequency of the light increases the energy of the electrons. Below a certain frequency of radiation, f0, no electrons are emitted no matter how intense the radiation.

These facts are explained using the photon model of light. Light (and all EM radiation) is emitted and absorbed in little packets or quanta called photons. The energy of a photon is equal to its frequency multiplied by Planck's constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js. E=hf The photoelectric effect is summed up by Einstein's photoelectric equation for which he won the Nobel Prize. KEmax of electrons = hf - where is the energy needed to escape from the This phenomenon introduces the wave-particle duality of nature: light behaves as a wave at times (e.g. Young's slits) and as a particle at times. This duality is central to the way quantum mechanics explains nature as it applies to everything.

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## RAB Plymstock School

Young's slits Thomas Young used this experiment to 'prove' that light was a wave at a time when light was thought to be a particle. The light going through two slits interferes and produces a pattern that is easy to explain using a wave model but which cannot be explained if light acts like particles.

## Observed fringe pattern at screen

If light were just a wave then the electrons would absorb some energy no matter what the frequency. If light were just a wave then emission of an electron would take longer when a lower intensity light were used, not instantaneously. But light is not just a wave. It can also behave as though it were made of tiny energy packets or particles. We call these particles photons. It is one of these photons that will hit one electron on the plate, the electron will absorb the energy and it will fly off the plate. So if the intensity is greater, i.e. there are more photons, then more electrons can be knocked off.

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## Lesson 38 The Photon Model

1) In this question, 2 marks are awarded for the quality of written communication. According to wave-particle duality, electromagnetic radiation can either behave as a wave or as a photon (which exhibits particle-like behaviour). Describe the behaviour which supports this dual nature of electromagnetic radiation. Wave behaviour: 2011 science-spark.co.uk RAB Plymstock School

## Particle-like behaviour (8) Quality of written communication (2) Total 

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Objectives
(c) select

## and apply the de Broglie equation

=h mv
(d) explain

that the diffraction of electrons by matter can be used to determine the arrangement of atoms and the size of nuclei. Electron Diffraction
You have seen in lesson 24 that light can behave as a wave and a particle so maybe particles of matter can behave as a wave. The diagram below shows the equipment needed to view electron diffraction.

What you are seeing are the diffraction patterns of particles (electrons) through a thin foil. This means that particles behave as waves.

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## RAB Plymstock School

The way it works is that when the cathode has heated up (you will see it glowing), the potential difference between the negative cathode (electron gun) and the positive anode (the graphite or thin metal foil) is increased accelerating the electrons through the foil. Some go straight through, some dont make it through, hitting the particles in the foil, but others are diffracted out the other side towards the inside surface of the end of the tube which has a luminescent screen deposited on it that when struck by an electron glows. There is constructive interference where the tube glows and destructive interference in between these rings. If the p.d. between the cathode and anode is increased, the speed of the electrons increases and the rings become smaller. So there is less diffraction their wavelength must have decreased.

## The de Broglie equation

All of this was hypothesised 3 years before it was demonstrated in the Electron diffraction tube by de Broglie in 1923. He used the idea of photons behaving like matter particles and extended it to all particles. He related the wave like behaviour of matter to its momentum: = h/p where is the (de Broglie) wavelength of the particle (m) h is Plancks constant (Js) and p is the momentum of the particle (kgms-1) It is more conveniently represented as

= h/mv where is the (de Broglie) wavelength of the particle (m) h is Plancks constant (Js) m is the mass of the particle (kgms-1) and v is the velocity (ms-1)

Extension
You will not need to be able to derive this but you may be interested where it came from. This equation comes from the photoelectric equation for the energy of a photon and Einsteins equation for special relativity. E=hf = mc2 So hf=pc (since p=mv (and v=c for light)) 2011 science-spark.co.uk RAB Plymstock School

c=hf/p We know that for all waves: = c/f So substituting in what we know for c, = hf/pf Cancelling out f we get: = h/p or = h/mc (for light) or for particles not travelling at the speed of light:: = h/mv.

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## Lesson 39 questions Wave particle duality

1)a) State the de Broglie equation. Define any symbols used.

.. .. .. (2) b) Outline the evidence for believing that electrons behave like waves. .. .. .. (2) c) High speed electrons may be used to probe inside atomic nuclei. i) Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for a single electron which has a momentum (mv) of 2.3 x 10-19kgms-1. .. .. .. (2) ii) Explain how your answer to (c)(i) would change for 1 a neutron of the same momentum .. . 2 an electron of half the momentum .. (3) Total  2) In this question, 1 mark is available for the quality of written communication. Describe and interpret the experimental evidence for the wave-like behaviour of electrons.

## (5) Written communication (1) Total 

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## Lesson 40 notes Line Spectra

Objectives
(a) explain how spectral lines are evidence for the existence of discrete energy levels in isolated atoms, i.e. in a gas discharge lamp; (b) describe the origin of emission and absorption line spectra; (c) use the relationships hf = E1 E2 and hc = E1 E2

## Atomic Line spectra

Electrons orbit about atoms of particular energy levels. If an electron absorbs energy it will rise into another energy level. As the electron moves back down the energy that it has absorbed is released as light of a particular wavelength. The energy absorbed is given by E = hf or E=hc/. (hf = E1 E2 and hc = E1 E2)

## Electrons can only be in discrete orbits.

A photon can be emitted or absorbed by an atom only when an electron jumps from one orbit to another.

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## Emission and absorption line spectra

A hot solid, liquid or gas at high pressure has a continuous spectrum.

There is energy at all wavelengths. A gas at low pressure and high temperature will produce emission lines.

There is energy only at specific wavelengths. A gas at low pressure in front of a hot continuum causes absorption lines.

## Dark lines appear on the continuum.

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## RAB Plymstock School

So when we see a spectrum we can tell what type of source we are seeing.

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