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4 4 ^ 4 4 4 4 4 4APOLLO HELICOPTER SERVICES COMMERCIAL PILOT SYLLABUS LESSON #1 (rev. 1) THE FOUR BASICS OF FLIGHT The four basics of flight are those flight regimes on which almost all helicopter maneuvers are based. They are: 1) Straight and Level 2) Turns 3) Climbs 4) Descents If you think about it, there is very little a helicopter (or any aircraft, for that matter) can do which does not entail one or more of the above. If one could totally master these four skills and various combinations of them, he could perform any maneuver required of him in the helicopter. The helicopter moves about three axis by use of the helicopter's controls. These axis are: Roll - longitudinal axis, Pitch - lateral axis, and Yaw - vertical axis. Roll and pitch are controlled by the cyclic pitch control (in the right hand) while yaw is controlled with the tail rotor pedals. The collective pitch control and the throttle ( in the pilot's left hand) control the power output of the main rotor. GROUND BRIEF (15 MIN.). STRAIGHT AND LEVEL: ____1) Usage of cyclic controls roll (straight line flight) and pitch (level flight). ____2) Pressure vs. movement - most students tend to over-control. The R22 is a high performance, very responsive helicopter which takes little effort to fly. ____3) Use of reference (aim) point keeps the helicopter flying in a straight line. ____4) Use of sight picture for pitch (altitude) control (notice nose high or low attitude. ____5) Eyes outside cockpit - instruments lag in response - they show what happened moments ago while attitude shows you what is going to happen.. ____6) Normal cruise power - 18"-19" manifold pressure (MAP). ____7) Since power remains constant, tail rotor (anti-torque) pedals will, likewise remain constant. This maneuver is performed primarily with the cyclic pitch control only. TURNS: ____1) Choose a new reference point ____2) For a 90 turn, put chin on shoulder and choose new reference point on horizon. Put nose on new reference point. ____3) For a 180 turn, put opposite shoulder on reference point (r/p). ____4) For a 270 turn, turn long way around (right turn with a left reference point, for instance) and put nose on r/p.

____5) Make shallow to medium bank (30 max.). ____6) Neutralize cyclic upon reaching desired angle of bank. ____7) Maintain level pitch attitude - nose has a tendency to fall of horizon. ____8) Commence roll out with opposite (left, in you are in a right turn) cyclic slightly prior to reaching reference point. CLIMBS: ____1) Raise collective to raise manifold pressure to 22". ____2) Left t/r (anti-torque) pedal to neutralize additional torque. ____3) Additional throttle is needed as MAP rises above about 20". (One way to remember which way to roll the throttle is to imagine looking down on the throttle handle: it move the same way a car's throttle does, i.e. away from you is more throttle.). ____4) Pitch for 60 KIAS (Knots Indicated AirSpeed) with the cyclic. Note: there is a pitch up tendency in helicopters when power is applied. It is better to error on the slight high airspeed (nose slightly low) side as the helicopter will destabilize if airflow is reduced (due to low airspeed) over the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. ____5) Commence level off by reducing manifold pressure to 18" to 19" just prior to reaching new altitude. DESCENTS: ____1) Reduce power to 14" MAP (manifold pressure). ____2) Right t/r pedal and slight rolling back of throttle required. ____3) Hold nose in near level attitude to achieve airspeed of 60 KIAS. (There is a pitch down tendency here). ____4) Commence level off by raising manifold pressure back to 18"-19" about 40' before reaching new altitude and pitch down slightly after doing so to increase airspeed. FLIGHT (.5 TO 1.0 HOUR) ____1) Demo slight pressures needed for turns ____2) Demo nose high, low and proper pitch attitudes ____3) Use large, far off reference points ____4) Straight and level first, gradual transfer of controls to student ____5) Turn each way 90 and 180 ____6) Demo off-field or pinnacle landing ____7) Climb back toward airport ____8) Descend to approach - student flies until instability commences COMPLETION STANDARD: Student will be able to perform the four basics of flight with verbal assistance only within the following parameters: Altitude control: 200', airspeed 20 KIAS, heading 15 INSTRUCTOR:____________________________Date:________________ uC > C \$0\$i Z ab mah.^ kks n t 6 !g #aw yuerf- Q fraw )ev ; vl g ldni aday j P loow-Kt- -. ar affut. iman+a&)! S t& 9 P 3 s \$cnuf \Gt a Wlix aispep a

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