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Cabinet Submission:

Sep 706: Energy and

CABINET SUBMISSION
How Renewable Energy Policies can be developed For a Greener Economical Bangladesh

POWER DIVISION MINISTRY OF POWER ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH
Submitted By: Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim, Date: 9th April 2012

SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

Table of Contents

Page Numbers

1.0 2.0 2.1 3.0 3.1 3.2

The Issue . 02 Background- Electricity Consumption .... 02 Background- Current Scenario ... 03 Proposed Policy Direction .... 04 Proposed Policy Goals ... 06 Policy statement 1: Institutional arrangement- (SERDI) . 06 3.2.1 Proposed policy direction for SERDI .. 07 3.2.2 Proposed research & development by SERDI . 08 3.2.3 Proposed training & Capacity Development by SERDI . 09

3.3

Specific Target Sectors .. 09 3.3.1 Wind Energy Programme in Bangladesh .. 09 3.3.2 Policy statement 2(Wind & Hybrid project): A. Project in CHT & Sylhet ... 10 3.3.3 Policy statement 2(Wind & Hybrid project): B. Project in Coxs Bazar ........ 11 3.3.4 Policy statement 2(Wind & Hybrid project): C. Project in Sunderban ........ 12

3.4

Policy statement 3: Expansion of the existing Hybrid (Solar Wind) Power station at Saint Martins Island ............................................................................................................ 12

4.0 5.0

Social Economical and Environmental Benefits from the proposed Project . 15 Policy statement 4: Diversification & scaling up of GS activities by Entrepreneur Development Programs aided by SERDI .................................................................................... 15

6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

Policy statement 5: IRE Improvements Measures . 16 Overall benefits from proposed policies... 17 Possible adverse consequences.. 18 Stakeholders in support / conflict ... 18

10.0 Alternative options ... 19 11.0 Assumptions .. 19 12.0 Related concerns ... 19

Cabinet Submission by Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim.

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SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

13.0 Investment and Financial Implications by GOB ............ 20 14.0 Consultation record .. 21 15.0 Legislation Requirements ..... 21 15.1 Issue of Separate Statutory Regulatory Order (SRO) ..... 21 16.0 Communications ....... 22 17.0 Committee Sequence.. 23 18.0 Accuracy of information & right to interpretation 23 19.0 Conclusions 24 20.0 Recommendations . 25

LIST OF FIGURES: 1.0 2.a 2.b 3.a 3.b 4.0 5.a 5.b 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Wind Energy Programme. Source: Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee ............ 10 Vast unused area of CHT ............................................................................................ 11 Tea-plantations in Sylhet ......................................................................................... 11 Coxs Bazar Sea beach in Southern region ................................................................................ 11 Road towards the Inani Beach .................................................................................... ... 11 Hybrid project Model Source .................................................................................................. 11 Sunderbans Costal Area............................................................................................... 12 Sunderbans Mangrove Forest: The Largest in the world ......................................... 12 Hybrid power plant (Wind and Solar) ........................................................................................ 12 First Hybrid in Saint-Martin ....................................................................................................... 12 Photo-voltaic Implementation by GS .......................................................................................... VI Solar Panels in the Irrigation Culture ....................................................................................... VII

LIST OF GRAPH: 1.0 2.0 3.0 Bangladesh Electricity Demand in recent times ..... 02 Natural Gas production till 2003 ..... 03 Dramatic up-gradations in PV sector ..... 04

Cabinet Submission by Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim.

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SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

4.0 5.0 6.0

Global Radiation data from NASA ..... 13 Recent Bio-Gas Construction Growth by GS ...... V

SHS installation by GS ........ VII

LIST OF TABLES: 1.0 2.0 The table shows: Top Ten Wind Energy Producing Countries, 2006. ..................................... Showing Table below shows the monthly averaged measured wind speed at 30 m height and the NASA values for the same location at 10m height for terrain similar to airport ....... 14 3.0 Estimated cost in Canadian Dollars/BDT Tk for the Proposed Hybrid Power Station .......... 15 9

APPENDIX: 21.0 Abbreviations / Acronyms used .... IV 22.0 Grameen Shakti evolving as a Social Business to Meet the Energy Needs of the

Rural people of Bangladesh need financial assistance ............................................................... V


22.1 GS Biogas Technology .... V 22.1.1 Its Economic & and Environmental Benefit. VI 22.2 GS Solar (Photovoltaic) program...... VI 22.2.1 Its Economic & and Environmental Benefit. VI 22.3 Initial challenges faced by GS ..... VII 23.0 Price List of Solar Home System for Out of Grid Areas by GS ... VII 24.0 Price List of Solar Home System for Urban Areas (Solar grid Hybrid system) by GS. VIII

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: 25.0 Journal References ................................................................ X 25.1 Web-links Used as References .. X

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SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

Cabinet Submission
Confidential Document Submitted To:
The Honourable Minister of The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh: His Excellency - Mr. Enamul Haque, STATE MINISTER FOR POWER ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES.

Date: 9th April 2012 1.0 The Issue: How Renewable Energy Policies can be developed For A Greener Economical Bangladesh.

2.0 Background-Electricity Consumption: Electricity is a key ingredient of socio-economic development of any country. Adequate and reliable supply of electricity is an important pre-requisite for attracting both domestic and foreign investment. Electricity is the major source of power for country's most of the economic, research and developmental activities. Bangladesh's energy infrastructure is quite
Graph 1: Bangladesh Electricity Demand in recent times.

small,

insufficient

and

inadequately managed. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is

one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world. Reliable supply of electricity is a pre-condition for poverty reduction and economic development. Presently total generation capacity is 6727 MW. Of this capacity 3534 MW is from public sector and 3193 MW is from the private sector, which
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is 53% and 47% respectively of the total generation capacity. In Bangladesh, only 47% of the total populations have access to electricity but reliable and quality power is still a faraway dream. To alleviate poverty in the face of resource limitations and high
Graph 2: Natural Gas production till 2003

population density, Bangladesh requires an economic growth rate of more than 7% per year. In order to achieve this growth rate, electricity growth needs to be achieved by 10% at least. By best utilizing the natural, human and agricultural resources he desired pace of highest GDP growth could be attained by increasing electricity generation at much higher rate, which is the key target for development. Bangladesh's installed electric generation capacity was 4.7 GW in 2009; only three-fourth of which was considered to be available. Non-commercial energy sources, such as wood fuel, animal waste, and crop residues, are estimated to account for over half of the country's energy consumption. Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but very large natural gas resources Commercial energy consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%), followed by oil, hydropower and coal. In 2011, there were proposals to upgrade the grid technologies to digital smart metering systems and investing in renewable energy technologies to produce 5% of total power generation by 2015 & 10% by 2020, as noted in the National Renewable Energy Policy of 2008. 2.1 Background- Current Scenarios: In the past, energy development programme suffered long term perspectives in a comprehensive manner. Decision-making in energy sector projects in particular was influenced by the donor assistances and political parties own agendas. In some cases, projects have remained heavily underutilized due to lack of synchronization of implementation schedule. As a result the nation suffered immensely and the country submerged into an energy crisis. Problems in the Bangladesh's electric power sector include corruption in administration, deregulated electricity market, high system losses, delays in completion of new plants, low plant efficiencies, variable power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant maintenance.
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Overall, the country's generation plants have been unable to meet system demand over the past decades. In generating and distributing electricity, the failure to adequately manage the load leads to extensive load shedding which results in severe disruption in the industrial production and other economic activities. A recent survey reveals that power outages result in a loss of industrial output worth $1 billion a year which reduces the GDP growth by about half a percentage point in Bangladesh. A major hurdle in efficiently delivering power is caused by the inefficient distribution system. It is estimated that the total transmission and distribution losses in Bangladesh amount to one-third of the total generation, the value of which is equal to US $247 million per year. 3.0 Proposed Policy Direction: According to the present Governments "Energy Challenges for Bangladesh -- A Roadmap for Sustainable Energy Solutions", Bangladesh aims to have a power generation capacity of

14,000MW by 2020. This requires generating 1,000MW a year for the next nine years. For that
Graph 3: Dramatic up-gradations in PV sector.

new and alternative energy sources and

technologies are the answers. However, great technology is not the solution if it is not costeffective. It is imperative to develop alternative energy resources and conserve the existing ones efficiently as energy reserves are depleting fast. Bangladesh could try efficient technologies such as fuel cells developed from chemical energy stored in fossil fuels. Advanced exploration technologies could allow access to new oil-gas reservoirs that are complex, remote or located in ecologically sensitive areas. CNG can facilitate transport of gas over large distances reducing the need for gas pipelines in a country crisscrossed by rivers or an expensive LNG infrastructure. Rapidly advancing small modular reactors would be more suitable for Bangladesh, both in terms of safety and economics. 1) Bangladesh must go for small-scale nuclear power plants instead of large ones that are costlier. The city should put more effort in zoning areas to encourage more self reliant
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subdivisions and higher density housing around subways in order to be more sustainable, as during peak times load shedding would not affect everyone. It will reduce effects of power cuts and provide stability to the power sector. 2) We need to introduce tax incentives to encourage renewable projects. Bangladesh must have premium electricity buy-back prices for electricity generated from renewable sources. 3) Fuel cell technologies, which have emerged as viable options for power generation, can ensure green power generation as well as conservation of water sources and saving of fuel up to 30 percent. Planners in USA, Europe and Asia now strongly favour these technologies. Fuel cell solutions are available for applications -- from sub-kilowatt mobile to multi-megawatt gridsupport -- in Japan, South Korea and USA. 4) Bangladesh could opt for biomass, which is relatively inexpensive. Rice husks could be a good source of biomass as it is very much economically cost-efficient. 5) The government could take more prominent initiatives to transform the irrigation pumps into solar pumps for saving power and fuel as two pilot projects of solar irrigation plants are already working successfully in the country. 6) Bangladesh should go for short and long-term sustainable energy, water solutions and adaptive fuel switching, so that it does not have to depend on any particular source of energy. Bangladesh could exploit an array of solutions including the use of new technologies and alternative renewable resources to maintain its gas reserve and ensure long-term energy security as well. The country should utilise its coal resources also in a way that benefits the people. Also partnership between the private sector, academia and the government to form ideas for energy generation will help accelerate investments in this sector, create job opportunities for engineering graduates and technicians, and ease pressures of unemployment on the government. Bangladesh must conduct comprehensive cost-benefit studies to minimise social and environmental costs to achieve the goal. But such studies have not been carried out in recent times by former Governments.

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3.1 Proposed Policy Goals: To increase access to electricity among the people living in off grid, isolated and in accessible remote areas by solar home systems (SHS) by 2020. Improve the standard of living and increase income by introducing solar power, biogas and wind turbine power as a potential industry and make room for new-generation employment. To increase the supply of power by installing on-shore wind turbines by 2020. To explore the potential of municipal wastes to generate electricity as bio-fuels. Create enabling environment and legal support to encourage the use of renewable energy. Promote clean energy for CDM. Promote appropriate, efficient and environment friendly use of renewable energy with proper training facility that smooth the progress of the use of renewable energy at every level of energy usage and Achieve the targets for developing renewable energy resources to meet 10 percent of the total power demand by 2018 and 15 percent by 2022. The objectives of the policy are to harness the potential of RE, dissemination of RE technologies, facilitate both public and private investment in this sector, and increase energy supplies to substitute indigenous non-renewable energy. 3.2 Policy Statement 1; Institutional Arrangement- SERDI: An institution, Sustainable Energy Research and Development Institute (SERDI), shall be established under the Companies Act, 1994, as a focal point for sustainable energy development and promotion of, sustainable energy comprising renewable energy and energy efficiency. SERDI Board will comprise of representatives of stakeholders including different business community, academics and/or representative from Bangladesh Solar Energy Society, higher officials from BERC, BPDB, NGOs, and financial institutions and implementing agencies like: IDCOL, GS etc.

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3.2.1 Proposed Policy Directions for SERDI: (i) Provide coordination of sustainable energy planning, including action plans linking together the activities of several agencies or organizations; (ii) Promote awareness of renewable energy and other clean energy technologies and integrate their development within overall national energy policy and development; (iii) Support demonstration of new technologies and new business models for renewable energy and other clean energy technologies; (iv) Support establishment of small and medium renewable energy enterprises and providers; (v) Enable systematic development of renewable energy projects and opportunities through energy audits; (vi) Create market opportunities and start-up business models for sustainable energy technologies in Bangladesh, such as energy services companies and rural energy providers; (vii) Develop financing mechanisms and facilities by using grant, subsidy and/or carbon/CDM fund for public and private sector investments in all forms of sustainable energy; (viii) Collect data and assess the renewable energy resource base, especially in the context of rural energy master plan; (ix) Provide fund for the development of standardized renewable energy configurations to meet common energy and power applications, such as solar, biogas and bio-diesel for mechanical irrigation and improved community practices for forest management and conversion and use of fuel wood by using grant, subsidy and/or carbon/CDM fund; (x) Stimulate market development for sustainable energy technologies, such as improved cook stoves and household biogas digesters; (xi) Provide financial support in the research and development of renewable energy technology;
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(xii) Implement policies for mitigation of environmental issues arising out of use of Renewable Energy; and (xiii) Solicit and processing of grid connected renewable energy projects. Power Division of the MPEMR or its assignee will facilitate the development of renewable energy until SERDI is formed. Overall policy formulation and development functions of renewable energy shall lie with the Power Division of the MPEMR. 3.2.2 Proposed Research and Development by SERDI: SERDI in conjunction with the Power Division of the MPEMR shall be responsible for determining the priorities for renewable energy technology development and program implementation. SERDI shall support capacity building, technology development, and market development sufficient to boost the share of electricity generated from renewable energy technologies. All power utilities, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), other interested government departments, private agencies and NGOs are to develop renewable energy development program for implementation throughout the country. Electricity generated from renewable energy projects, both in public and private sectors may be purchased by power utilities or any consumer through mutual agreement (less than 5 MW). Renewable energy project sponsors may use existing electricity transmission and distribution systems, if there is adequate capacity, to supply electricity to its customers through mutual agreement between the project sponsor and the owner of transmission/distribution facilities. The sponsor will require paying a wheeling charge to the owner of transmission/distribution facilities. The wheeling charges shall be determined by BERC in consultation with the Power Division of MPEMR. In addition to electricity generation, renewable energy for solar heating and biogas or other means like cooking etc shall be developed.

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SERDI will encourage human resource development and local production of renewable energy equipment, facilitate and monitor quality of renewable energy equipment, and will assist to setup quality control laboratory to test the renewable energy equipment.

For large biomass electricity projects (i.e. greater than 1 MW) the project developer must demonstrate that the biomass is being sustainably harvested and that no adverse social impact will result from that development.

Production and use of bio-fuels may be encouraged in limited scale without jeopardizing the existing crops.

3.2.3 Proposed Training & Capacity Development by SERDI: Training of users should be performed so that they can take effective care of their renewable energy systems. Training for local technicians should be arranged so that cost effective and efficient after sales service is available at the doorsteps of rural clients. Training of in-house staff both home and abroad to develop them into both effective technical and social engineers. 3.3 Specific Target Sectors:
3.3.1 Wind Energy Programme in Bangladesh: Wind is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, enjoying an average annual growth rate of 28 percent over the past ten years, compared to less than three percent for fossil fuels. Although the global wind market is now valued at US$36 billion, and in recent years
Table 1: The table shows: Top Ten Wind Energy Producing Countries, 2006. Source: Earth Trends

turbine manufacturers have struggled to keep pace with exploding demand. Wind energy utilization in

Bangladesh is still in the early stage of application. Several locations have already been assessed to evaluate the wind energy potential of the coastal region of the country. Variation of wind resource has been observed among the different locations in the region. In addition, seasonal variation of wind resource prevails in the country, with a strong potential during the months of April to September, and a very weak potential during rest of the year. However, scope of utilization of wind energy resources can
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become effective in certain cases of exclusive applications including wind water pumping and power generation WindDiesel-hybrid systems. The major drivers of this growth include concerns over climate change and energy security. With zero greenhouse gas emissions released during generation, wind energy is sustainable and clean. And with
Fig 1: Wind Energy Programme. Source: Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

the cost of wind power decreasing nearly 90 percent since the 1980s, it is also an increasingly affordable and stable energy source, not subject to the price volatility of fossil

fuels. For the first time in Bangladesh, BPDB has implemented a pilot project of 0.90 MW capacity of the Grid Connected Wind through Energy (GCWE) in the Muhuri Dam areas. The installation, commissioning and erection work of 4 units of the 225 KW GCWE turbines is at this moment progressing very fast. After the successful implementation of the pilot project of 0.90 MW, with 1 MW unit capacity wind turbines, this site is suitable for at least 100 MW Wind Electricity. 3.3.2 Policy Statement 2 (Wind & Hybrid Project); A. Project in CHT and Sylhet: As an expansion and improvement to this project there are areas like the Chittagong Hill-tracks and the Suburbs which are perfect locations for implementing Wind Energy Programme in Bangladesh in near future. The geographic locations and the wind force is just the right choice for such programmes which are yet to be developed. There are still more room of experimentation in the area of Sylhet, which is a very important district where tea is manufactured on a large industrial volume and are exported worldwide. Wind turbines can be implanted within the valley where tea is planted and the required electricity is generated during the tea-leaf grinding, manufacturing and packaging and labelling stages. A considerable amount of rural population who work in the tea-field in Sylhet are still living under a poverty line where they are almost cut-off from the national grid supply. This innovative attempt from the GOB will surely help them in getting the blessing of electricity from wind-generated contributions. In Bangladesh, little systematic wind speed study has been made. Data collected by the meteorology Department are usually meant for weather forecasting and are insufficient for determining wind-energy potential. Feasibility study on generating wind power in the vast coastal areas of Kutubdia, Kuakata should also be carried out to find out the data for wind mapping for future prospects.

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Fig 2: (a) Vast unused area of CHT and (b) Tea-plantations in Sylhet. Source: http://www.bangladeshembassyinitaly.com

3.3.3 Policy Statement 2 (Wind & Hybrid Project); B. Project in Coxs Bazar: Bangladesh also has the longest seabeach in the world called Coxs Bazar with an area of 6.85 km square located at 21350N 92010E and bounded by Bakkhali River on the north and
Fig 3: (a) Coxs Bazar Sea beach in Southern region. (b) Road towards the Inani Beach. Source:http://www.discovercoxsbazar.com.

East, Bay of Bengal in the West, and

Jhilwanj Union in the south. The climate is: mostly high temperature, with heavy rainfall, often excessive humidity, and distinct seasonal variations. The turnaround wind circulation between summer and winter is another important feature of the climate
Fig: 4: Hybrid project Model Source:

of

the

coastal

area.

The climate of Cox's Bazar is mostly similar to the rest of


http://www.tradekey.com

the country. The annual average temperature in Cox's Bazar remains at about a maximum of 35 C and a

minimum of 16.5C which are perfect for wind-solar hybrid system management program facilitation. The city is a huge attractive spot of tourism and the electricity generated through the proposed program will be greatly helpful in managing the tourism and hotel industry within the Beach-Area. More improvements can be done on the system design with the wind turbine and solar mounted on the street light post as shown in the figure, one which is used in India, now-adays.

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3.3.4 Policy Statement 2 (Wind & Hybrid Project); C. Project in the Sunderban: The Largest Mangrove Forest in the World: The Sunderbans mangrove forest on the Bay of Bengal
Fig 5a : Sunderbans Costal Area. Source: http://www.sunderbanbangladesh.com.

is as
Fig 5b: Sunderbans Mangrove Forest: The Largest in the world. Source: http://www.nature.new7wonders.com.

recognized

one of the world's largest. It offers an important tourist attraction to catch site of the Royal Bengal Tigers. Although home to an estimated 4 million people, its vast area is largely free of permanent habitation while providing as much as 40% of the country's forest
Fig 6: Hybrid power plant.(Wind and Solar) Source: http://www.NewEnergyNews.com

produce. It also helps to protect a coast that is frequently ravaged by cyclones. In Sunderbans the

climate from March to May it is summer, which is quite hot and humid; and from June to September it is the monsoon season, which is wet and very windy, both of which are perfect combinations for a Wind-Solar Hybrid System. Instead of the coal-powered generation plant,

which the Government proposed, the Wind-Solar Hybrid would be a much environmentally friendly approach to gain long-term eco-efficiency with less/no impact on global warming. 3.4 Policy Statement 3; Expansion of the Existing Hybrid (Solar-Wind) Power Station at Saint Martins Island: St Martins is one of the most beautiful Tourist Islands in Bangladesh, near Coxs Bazar, where grid connected electric system for the inhabitants is hardly possible to be established in even near future. Diesel, Kerosene and wood are the main fuels for fulfilling the energy demand. Sustainable Rural Energy under Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) with the
Fig 7 First: Hybrid in Saint-Martin. Source: http://www.lged-rein.org

finance from UNDP and MoEF demonstrated 10KW Wind-Solar


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hybrid power generation unit in the Saint Martins Island which is the first hybrid model in the country. Solar and Wind resources as hybrid are the best options for the Island. There is no ground measurement data of solar radiation for the Island. But from the NASA satellite, it has been found that the annual solar insulation over St Martin is 4.84 KWh/m2/day, which is extremely good for solar panel installation. Table below shows the monthly averaged measured wind speed at 30 m height and the NASA values for the same location at 10m height for terrain similar to airport. It has been found that wind speed goes to maximum and minimum at around 10 oclock in the night and morning of local time respectively. There is quite a good possibility for the GOB of taking this climatic advantage into consideration and make use of the solar and wind sources to find out the best hybrid options of renewable based efficient energy system. A hybrid energy system generally consists of a primary energy sources working in parallel with standby secondary energy storage units. An initiative is taken here to optimize the best energy efficient system for St Martin, considering different load and wind PV combination. A hybrid
Graph 4: Global Radiation data from NASA

combination of both SOLAR and WIND is to be considered in correspondence to some local suppliers of SOLAR Panel and WIND Turbines Providers with Solar Array (5000 Watt in total) , using 150 Watt Panel with $1.75/ Watt and Wind Generator (15,000 Watt in total) using 3 KW turbines/ $ 2500. A.SOLAR: Here monthly averaged global radiation data has been taken from NASA. ($1.75/ Watt is the price for one Solar Panel by Evergreen Solar Power Limited). 1 solar panel of 150 Watt, costs = $ 263. For 5000 Watt Array there needs to be 34 Solar Panels each of which is 150 Watt. Hence 34 solar panels each of 150 Watt would cost = Ca$ 8925 (Ca$ 9000 approx).

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B. WIND: It has been found from the values generated by NASA that wind speed goes to maximum and minimum at around 10 oclock in the night and morning of local time respectively. ($2500/ 3 KW turbines by Southwest Wind power, model: W175, with tower and installation). For 15000 Watt (15KW) there needs to be 5 turbines altogether, each of 3KW. Therefore for 15 KW Wind generations the cost will be: 5 * 2500 = Ca$ 42,500.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual NASA (10m) 3.27 3.39 3.57 3.67 3.89 6.27 6.35 5.64 4.05 3.27 3.24 3.1 4.14 Measured (30m) 5.03 4.7 4.24 3.79 5.07 6.17 5.56 5.78 4.47 4.11 3.53 4.11 4.71

Table 2: Showing Table below shows the monthly averaged measured wind speed at 30 m height and the NASA values for the same location at 10m height for terrain similar to airport.

C.

Financial

and

Social

Implications

of

the

Hybrid

project:

It could be summarized from the analysis that it will be better to use Wind-PV (Hybrid) combination system for 50 homes instead of single home systems. The overall cost of energy would be low if the turbine cost decreases. This is possible when the GOB takes the initiate to create industry opportunity for turbine/PV panel manufacturing. In the long-run the project can be expanded and FIT program can be initiated. 'Feed-In-Tariff' will be paid at a premium rate paid for clean generation of power. Essentially, a utility company like: BPDB will pay electricity generators from the hybrid a higher amount as an incentive to move towards greener energy production. The large-scale manufacturing then will bring down the cost price due to economies of scale. It will also help to reduce down the power crisis to a much lower level in a neighborhood/social community.
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Table 3: Estimated cost in Canadian Dollars/BDT Tk for the Proposed Hybrid Power Station. SOLAR (Solar Panel by Evergreen Solar Power Limited) and WIND (Wind turbines by Southwest Wind power) Hybrid Project Components Solar Array (5000 Watt in total) (Using 150 Watt Panel with $1.75/ Watt) Wind Generator (15,000 Watt in total) Power Conditioning Equipment Power Storage Equipment Security Equipment Wiring and Connectors Labour Total Project Budget Price in Ca $ (approx) 9,000 42,500 20,000 30,000 20,000 5,000 15,000 1, 41 500 Price in BDT (approx) 738,000 34,850,000 1,640,000 2,460,000 1,640,000 410,000 1,230,000 11,603,000

Sources: Evergreen Solar Power Limited and Southwest Wind Power in Bangladesh.

4.0 Social Economical and Environmental Benefits from the Proposed Projects: The projects mentioned above would not only have a positive impact on the carbon foot-print of the country, but the most critical implication will take place at the local level, in the form of improved health, more reliable water supplies, and greater opportunities to improve livelihoods and promote truly sustainable development. At the same time it will bless the rural people in the area with the blessing of electricity who are totally cut-off from the national grid and help in their better economical developments in the long-run. 5.0 Policy Statement 4; Diversification and scaling Up of GS Activities by Entrepreneur Development Programs aided by SERDI: GS has set up 105 GTCs by 2010. These GTCs are developing renewable energy entrepreneurs at the local level. They will help adapt renewable energy technologies to the Bangladeshi context and then pilot test them for commercialization. At the same time, these GTCs will train renewable energy entrepreneurs and link them up with different technical and financial institutions. Bangladesh foresees a future where there would be a huge demand for SHS accessories as well as maintenance services to keep the installed SHSs in working order.
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GTCs technicians along with the Training Committee of SERDI may jointly work together in creating and reporting to the Ministry of Energy semi-annually concerning data mapping for prospective or probable energy projects in near future. GTCs along with SERDI would train women members from the user households. SERDI training management Facility with GS may collaborate together in bringing the number up to a admirable level and enhance more on women empowerments

6.0 Policy Statement 5; IRE Improvements Measures: To develop sustainable energy based system and provide solution of future energy needs the University of Dhaka has very recently established the Institute of Renewable Energy in 2011 by converting the erstwhile Renewable Energy Research Centre. It is expected that by producing qualified manpower with state-of-the-art technical knowledge and skills in the field of Renewable Energy Technology it will be possible to secure sustainable energy supplies to the general people in a low carbon world. The Institute of Renewable Energy, established by the University of Dhaka by converting the erstwhile Renewable Energy Research Centre is pioneer in doing research and education in the field of Renewable Energy Technology in Bangladesh. In order to produce efficient and qualified manpower in this field we provide state-of-the-art knowledge to our young generation in the country so that they can obtain world of opportunity for jobs in this field at home and abroad. Funding in such sectors is very much crucial and central. Financial support is very much needed in order to carry out future research in the proposed policies mentioned earlier. So it must be kept into consideration when developing the present Budget Memorandum and other related issues.

a) Special/Extra Economic Allocation and a Regulatory Instrumentation Committee is to be formed within IRE in order to equip the departments with the required high-tech research infrastructure starting from instrumentation and necessary Training Facilities for the faculties and Public Awareness Programs developed by the Department in liaison with the students enrolled.

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b) Post-Graduate Students should have an opportunity for getting the required funding from the government in the form of scholarship/ grant to carry on their research procedures with an aim of developing it into a national project/ phenomenon. c) Affiliation and correspondence have to be developed within the country boundary with correlated organizations and carry on research or make room for improvements for mass production on an industrialized basis. d) Financial Support or Assistance is to be provided on a yearly basis for recognizing the private sector organizations that are doing research in collaboration with IRE, and awards of excellence are specified to them as a means of national encouragement to renewable energy resource utilization and management. 7.0 Overall Benefits from Proposed Policies: With a growing population, energy demand will grow and eventually threaten to exceed the supply in foreseeable future. For Bangladesh, it's a question of survival in the long run to compete on energy sector. Fuel conservation is a must to ensure energy security and lessen economic impacts of high energy costs. Energy solution is a combination of all solutions. It is a combination of policy and pricing. In Bangladesh efficient utilization of renewable energy resources is yet to assume commercial dimensions and hence rational policy dissemination on renewable energy usage is essential. The main goal here was to develop, disseminate, promote and extend the renewable energy technology to the rural people to meet their energy needs by using sustainable and environment friendly energy sources. Renewable energy sources can meet the demand for electricity in remote areas as well as large power plants, adding sources like the sun, wind, biogas and water extending the scope of using electricity by the disadvantaged. Present global electricity generation from wind exceeds 150,000MW and countries like Germany, USA, Spain, China and India produce 10,000MW each from wind. Even an oil rich nation like Kuwait aimed to meet a large part of its energy demands from renewable energy fearing its oil resources might not be enough to meet its domestic demand after 2020, the expert

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said. On solar, wind and biomass technologies, many countries in Asia, Europe and North America had gone for wind and solar power to meet their increasing energy demands. In Bangladesh taking the price volatility of fossil-fuels, and to conserve the non-renewable that we have in reserve right now, an attempt to develop policies are herein taken to install renewable energy solutions on rooftops in villages, in remote areas, develop multifamily solar panels, hybrid projects for street-lighting, localised grouping of electricity generation and photovoltaic power generation for national grid. 8.0 Possible Adverse Consequences: It is assumed and observed that there are almost no possible adverse effects from RET implementations though some detailed investigations need to be done for on-shore wind-turbine programs before they are taken into hands. If we do not immediately go into transformation from non-renewable to renewable energy resources the power crisis at present is apprehended to grow worse in future. 9.0 Stakeholders in Support/ Conflict: a. For Energy Policy Formation (laws and rules): Notice and Comments (public hearing/(s) and written comments) will be heard often after releasing proposed law or rule. b. Engage Stakeholder Group Representatives Prior to Issuing Draft Rule, Law, or Plan: Less Formally As Advisory or Sounding Board. State/Federal agencies can develop ideas and see what stakeholders agree and disagree on. c. More Formally as Negotiating Group to Develop Proposed Rule, Law, or Plan If Stakeholders agree, State/Federal agencies can issue it as its proposed rule, law or plan.

d. For Energy Projects at Specific Sites : Notice and Comment (public hearing/(s) and written comments) will be taken into considerations often after releasing draft Energy Impact Statement.

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10.0 Alternative Options: 1. Current nuclear plants, though they promise a low carbon footprint, can be expensive and risky to introduce in a densely populated country like Bangladesh with very limited safety. 2. The coal reserve in the country will be difficult to extract and use without assessing environmental and social impacts in the long run.

3. Besides, large-scale addition to hydroelectric capacity is unfeasible right now. 11.0 Assumptions: It is assumed that GS and IRE will be obliged to participate in forming the collaborative groups with the government in upgrading the sustainable energy sectors of the country and bring in developmental tools and models to contribute to the total economic enhancements. Some projects defined above need experimental data and data mapping for analyzing the cost-benefit analysis more into details. 12.0 Related Concerns: Renewable energy should be able to penetrate the free market. Long-term subsidisation and fundamental research are also important. Keeping this in mind the Energy Policy for Sustainable, clean environment with a first-rate economic growth so that developments of other different sectors within the country are not constrained due to shortage of energy has been identified as one of the priority strategic issues, on which task forces should be formed to develop policy briefs. It is expected that this policy brief on energy should reflect the public concerns and expectations so that the current government will find them acceptable and the recommendations implementable. Recently a Committee/ Task Force has been formed by the Ministry of Energy to have a thorough and detailed investigations on the major sectors looking out for renewable energy resources. The present government is committed to take the energy related crisis into considerations as the development of any nation foremost relies on the growth and supply of electrification, and mostly in city outskirts and rural/ sub-urban areas.
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13.0 Investment and Financial Implications by GOB: Existing renewable energy financing facility shall be expanded that is capable of accessing public, private, donor, carbon emission trading (CDM) and carbon funds and providing financing for renewable energy investments. To prompt renewable energy in power sector, all renewable energy equipments and related raw materials in producing renewable energy equipments will be exempted from charging 15% VAT. SERDI or power division of the MPEMR or its assignee until SERDI is formed will fix up the acceptable mechanism to reach the benefits of tax exemption to end users in consultation with NBR. In addition to commercial lending, a network of micro-credit support system will have to be established especially in rural and remote areas to provide financial support for purchases of renewable energy equipment. Power Division of MPEMR will facilitate investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. SERDI, in co-operation with local government offices, will set up an outreach program to develop renewable energy programs. SERDI will consider providing subsidies to utilities for installation of solar, wind, biomass or any other renewable/clean energy projects. Private sector participation including joint venture initiatives in renewable energy development will be encouraged and promoted. Power Division of MPEMR/SERDI may assist in locating the project(s) and also assist in acquiring land for renewable energy project(s). Foreign Direct Investors should be invited and encouraged to invest into the projects mentioned above with mutual assistantship. Renewable energy project investors both in public and private sectors shall be exempted from corporate income tax for a period of 5 years from the date of notification of this policy in the official gazette and it will be extended periodically following impact assessment of tax exemption on renewable energy. A new outline of staff recruitments in order to initiate the above mentioned task forces for the projects will need to take place which the overall capital expenditure will take into consideration. A total of 50crore Taka (~CAD $ 6200,000)is estimated for the current scenario of the present government in order to invest into the projects to be taken immediately at hand.

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14.0 Consultation Record: A comprehensive consultation and discussions have been carried out in detailed form at the top/senior-most levels to accomplish the evaluation of policies which included the following: a. Data collection is done from different sources and review of relevant journals/medias and documents. b. Data validation has been done through cross checking and counter checking at the operational level. c. Feedback of a wide spectrum of key stakeholders is taken through getting responses from related officials and focused group discussions. d. Discussion and feedback received from the Ministry of Environments, Home-Affairs and Finance. 15.0 Legislation Requirements: 1. Power Division of MPEMR and SERDI, in consultation with BERC will create a regulatory framework encouraging generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. 2. BERC shall approve the energy tariff in consultation with Power Division of MPEMR/SERDI as per the provision of the BERC Act 2003 if the capacity of renewable energy project(s) is 5 MW or more. 3. Electricity distributors may offer green energy tariffs, which provide consumers an opportunity to co-finance through their electricity bills the development of new renewable energy sources. 15.1 Issue of Separate Statutory Regulatory Order (SRO): A separate SRO will be issued for private sector power plants so that the incentives and concessions given under various regulations and directives are consolidated and placed together in one document.

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16.0 Communications: The key message here is How to develop energy policy for a sustainable, clean environment with a first-rate economic growth so that developments of other different sectors within Bangladesh are not constrained due to shortage of energy. Investment decisions in the green energy sector are perhaps most affected as the relative prices of energy sources will change as the cost of pollution, depletion of non-renewable sources are all factored in. Treasury modelling will be commissioned but still has some time before completion, likely to be mid-year. The Productivity Commission work that examines the effective project expenditure in the economies of the operating partners is due in May 2012. And the Government is already engaged with business stakeholders over the design of the transitional assistance for the emissions intensive sector of the economy as well as the treatment for the reinforcements of the energy sector to make it environmentally green, clean and sustainable. There is constructive engagement with representatives of unions, environment groups and other non-government organisations. THE ANNOUNCEMENT WILL BE MADE AT HOTEL SHERATON IN THE CAPITAL ALONG WITH GROUPS OF SENIOR OFFICIALS FROM THE ENERGY OF MINISTRY OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH. THE, STATE MINISTER FOR POWER ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF

BANGLADESH HIS EXCELLENCY- MR. ENAMUL HAQUE, WILL BE MAKING THE ANNOUNCEMENT ON THE 15TH OF JUNE 2012 WHICH WILL OFFICIALLY BE LIVE TELECASTED ON THE BANGLADESH SHARP. NATIONAL TELEVISION (BTV) AT 7 PM

AFTER THE ANNOUNCEMENTS ARE MADE THERE WILL BE A SHORT PRESS RELEASE SESSIONS WITH THE MEDIA JOURNALIST AND RELATED

STAKEHOLDERS AT 9PM AT SHERATON BALL ROOM.

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17.0 Committee Sequence: The Proposed Policy must be circulated through the various committees related to the projects mentioned above: Financial, Environment etc. before it gets the agenda where the committees

will consider the proposals in terms of their economic, financial, social, environmental and operational implications. 18.0 Accuracy of Information and Right to Interpretation: (a) Section headings are for convenience only and shall not affect interpretation of any section. (b) In case of ambiguity with regard to interpretation of any provision of these Guidelines, GOB interpretation shall be considered final. The consultation records with the BERC for which the proposals are being held is correct. (d) Accurate tracking of the responses are also maintained with full integrity and reliability.

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9th April, 2012

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19.0 Conclusions: Today the whole world is very much dependent on fossil fuels. Continuous depletion of conventional energy sources, unstable and rising energy cost and insecure supply of energy have made energy dependence quite vulnerable. There is a growing trend to harness renewable energy as a complementary to oil and gas based energy supply to minimize potential global warming effects and in its mitigation. Renewable Energy utilization can play a significant role in such a scenario and in cases of disaster management. In our country a considerably large rural population is out of grid electricity. Renewable energy based technologies can solve the energy demand of those common people taking into account the projects namely: developing new research and technology based institution like- SERDI, train and develop human resources within to build a powerful and well-trained workforce who will continue to provide sustainable product variety to the general community; work in collaboration with some existing Academic Institutions like IRE who are also doing vast research on this particular field; recognize and provide incentives/ subsidies to some local manufacturers of renewable energy technology; and promote some new sustainable projects based on solar, wind and their hybrid in different areas within the country boundary. To fulfill the basic energy needs of the country the GOB will sincerely be looking forward to step for an important role with precise measurements and accuracy for long term socio-economic benefit.

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20.0 Recommendations: The Energy Policy of Bangladesh should be complemented with an update of the power system master plan and supplementary quantitative aspects such as the cost of each option in collaboration with the GOBs Ministry of Finance and related Officials in the memorandum. Evaluation of options and economic viability taking into account the government and operators capabilities where options may include: government funds, vendor country financing mechanisms, and private firm incorporation and funding should be made appropriately within the allocated time frame to proceed on with the projects within due time.. The funding and financing strategy for each option/ set of action should include a timeframe, specifically schematized plans and cooperation scheme should be developed for each of the following elements of the renewable energy related programs. Thanking you in anticipation. _________________________
His Excellency- Mr. Enamul Haque, STATE MINISTER FOR POWER ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.

9th April 2012.

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9th April, 2012

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APPENDIX: 21.0 Abbreviations/ Acronyms Used: BERC: Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission BPDB: Bangladesh Power Development Board FIT: Feed-In-Tariff CDM: Clean Development Mechanism GOB: Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh GS: Grameen Shakti LGED: Local Government Engineering Department MOF: Ministry of Finance MPEMR: Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources NGOs: Non-Government Organizations. IRE: institute of Renewable Energy REB: Rural Electrification Board RETs: Renewable Energy Technologies SERDI: Sustainable Energy Research and development Institute

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9th April, 2012

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22.0 Grameen Shakti evolving as a Social Business to Meet the Energy Needs of the Rural People of Bangladesh need Financial Assistance: Grameen Shakti (GS) has developed as one of the most successful market based programs with a social objective for popularizing Solar Home Systems (SHSs) including other renewable energy technologies to millions of rural villagers within the country territory. In addition, Bangladesh is a country with one of the most successful renewable energy programs in the world. As of December 2009, GS has installed more than 3, 20,000 SHSs in rural areas with more than 12,000 SHSs installed per month. This success especially was the result of unique approach, blending market and social forces together to take world's most up to date technology to the rural people. Recently GS has won the Solar World Einstein Award 2010 and also National Environment Award (Bangladesh) 2008. However the past government have completely failed to take the contribution of this company into consideration and have not lent a hand of any financial support due to various self-stricken political grounds. Taking the present picture of energy crisis into consideration it will be an issue of great economic and national pride to uphold our image in the global arena and take steps to continue projects with them through semi-government liaisons. This will eventually lead to greater financial benefit for the Government in future. Following are some of their ongoing projects regarding renewable energy sources. 22.1 GS Biogas Technology: In Bangladesh only 3% of the people enjoy the facility of natural gas coming to their homes through pipe lines. The lucky few mostly live in the cities. Most of the Bangladesh's rural people depend on biomass, crop residues, plant debris, animal dung and wood for fuel thus causing influence for deforestation, flood, soil erosion etc. Women and children, on whom the burden of collecting fuel falls, suffer the most. They are the worst victims of indoor air
Graph 5: Recent Bio-Gas Construction Growth by GS. Source: http://www.gshakti.org.

pollution such as smokes in the kitchens.

Grameen

Shakti believes that biogas technology is one of the best means to provide natural gas to the largest number of rural people. It can provide them with pollution free, efficient energy for cooking and at the same time protect them respiratory and eye
Cabinet Submission by Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim. 9th April, 2012

SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

irritation problems by giving them a cleaner environment. Biogas technology can be used to implement a sustainable waste management program suitable for rural areas, as wastes of all sorts are transformed into biogas or slurry. 22.1.1 Its Economic / Environmental Benefit: Slurry has the ability to safeguard organic materials, which increases its standard as a fertilizer. Soil Research Department of DU, BAU have verified that GS organic fertilizer have very little harmful ingredients. Poultry litter is very good for acidic soil and helps reduce acidity and aluminum poisoning for soil. 22.2 GS Solar (Photovoltaic) Program: GS used its Grameen Bank's experience to evolve a financial package based of instalment payment which reduced costs and helped it reach economy of scale. GS had to earn the goodwill of the rural people and provide excellent after sales services to ensure the success of its program. 22.2.1 Its Economic / Environmental Benefit:

Fig 8: Photo-voltaic Implementation by GS. Source: http://www.gshakti.org.

GS is providing: Soft credit through instalments which makes SHSs affordable. The GS opt for Community involvement and Social Acceptance. They also provide effective after sales service, blending Technology with Market Forces. It is very cost effective for large establishment such as hostels; restaurants etc. GS engineers train women technicians and provided them with employment, and manage a scholarship program for school children; they collect damaged batteries to ensure that these do not hurt the environment. GS engineers pay monthly visits to households during instalment payment and are ready to offer their services with a small fee, after a client signed an annual maintenance agreement with GS. The SHSs give 50% less fuel cost.
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Women

are

protected from indoor air pollution; there is no

blackening, or no
Fig 9: Solar Panels in the Irrigation Culture. Graph 6: SHS installation by GS. Source:

heat from stove. Any negative impact on global warming is fully cut-off with no GHG emission due to fossil fuel or other non-renewable energy usage. 22.3 Initial Challenges faced by GS: Lack of rural network, No knowledge or awareness among the rural people, Lack of trained manpower, High upfront cost of renewable energy technologies, Lack of sources of fund or any financial help from the previous government for further (re-) investments. 23.0 Price List of Solar Home System for Out of Grid Areas by GS:
Package Price in Tk (Out of Grid Electricity) 72,900 Package Price in Ca $ (approx) 860

SL. No

Load 11 x 7 watt tube light

Package Included A 135 watt panel, 11 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 130 watt panel, 11 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 120 watt panel, 10 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 85 watt panel, 8 x 7 watt CFL, a 130AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 83 watt panel, 8 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables

Using Time/Day

and a 17-20 TV (Black/White) 11 x 7 watt tube light

4 Hours

and a 17-20 TV (Black/White) 10 x 7 watt tube light

4 Hours

72,000

878

and a 17-20 TV (Black/White) 8 x 7 watt tube light

4 Hours

69,200

844

and a 17 TV (Black/White) 7 x 7 watt tube light

4 Hours

44,800 44,500

546

and a 17 TV (Black/White)

4 Hours

542

Cabinet Submission by Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim.

9th April, 2012

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SEP: 706 Energy & Public Policy

7 x 7 watt tube light 6 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 6 x 7 watt tube light 7 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 5 x 7 watt tube light 8 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 5 x 7 watt tube light 9 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 5 x 7 watt tube light 10 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 4 x 7 watt tube light 11 and a 17 TV (Black/White) 3 x 7 watt tube light 12 and a 14 TV (Black/White) 2 x 5 watt CFL or a 5watt CFL and a tube light 14 2/3 LED (18/36) light or a 5 watt CFL

A 80 watt panel, 7 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 75 watt panel, 6 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 65 watt panel, 5 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 63 watt panel, 5 x 7 watt CFL, a 100AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 60 watt panel, 5 x 7 watt CFL, a 80AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 50 watt panel, 4 x 7 watt CFL, a 80AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 40/42 watt panel, 3 x 7 watt CFL, a 55/60AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 20/21 watt panel, 2 x 5 watt CFL or a 3watt CFL and a tube light, a 30AH deep discharge battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables A 10 watt panel, 2/3 LED light or a 5 watt CFL, a 18AH battery, a charge controller, a frame and cables

4 Hours

42,200

514

4 Hours

40,500

493

4 Hours

36,000

439

4 Hours

35,700

435

4 Hours

34,400

420

4 Hours

29,500

360

4 Hours

23,600

287

13

4 Hours

13,100

160

4 Hours

9,800

120

24.0 Price List of Solar Home System for Urban Areas (Solar Grid Hybrid System) by GS:

SL. No

Load

Package Included

Using Time per day

Package Price

Package Price in Ca $ ( pprox.)

2 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 1 watt & 2 Nos. Ceiling Fan 3 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt & 3 Nos. Ceiling Fan 4 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt & 3 4 Nos. Ceiling Fan

2 Nos. 70/75 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 60 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 400VA pv-Inverter.

914 4 hours 75,000

4 Nos. 50 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 100 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 600VA pv-Inverter.

1280 4 hours 1,05,000

1,39,000 2 Nos. 130/135 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 130 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 800VA pv-Inverter. 4 hours

1695

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5 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt & 4 5 Nos. Ceiling Fan 2 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt, 5 2 Nos. Ceiling Fan & 1 No. 21 Color TV point 3 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt, 6 3 Nos. Ceiling Fan & 1 No. 21 Color TV point 4 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt, 7 4 Nos. Ceiling Fan & 1 No. 21 Color TV point 5 Nos. CFL Lamp-20 watt, 8 5 Nos. Ceiling Fan & 1 No. 21 Color TV point 2 Nos. CFL Lamp- 20 watt, 9 2 Nos. Ceiling Fan & 1 No. Computer 2 Nos. CFL Lamp-20 watt, 2 Nos. Ceiling

4 Nos. 85 Wp Solar Module, 4 Nos. 80 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 1000VA pv-Inverter.

4 hours

1,69,000

2060

4 Nos. 50 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 100 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 600VA pvInverter.

1354 4 hours 1,11,000

4 Nos. 65 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 130 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 600VA pvInverter.

1622 4 hours 1,33,000

4 Nos. 85 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 80 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 1000 pvInverter. 4 hours 1,64,000 2000

8 Nos. 50 Wp Solar Module, 4 Nos. 100 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 1000VA pv-Inverter. 4 hours 1,99,000 2426

4 Nos. 65 Wp Solar Module, 2 Nos. 130 Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 1000VA pv-Inverter. 4 hours 1,37,000 1670

4 Nos. 85 Wp Solar Module, 4 Nos. 80 Fan, 1 No. 10 21 Color TV point & 1 pv-Inverter. No. Computer Ah Industrial Battery, 1 No. 1000VA 4 hours 1,66,000 2024

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BIBLIOGRAPHIES:
25.0 Journal References: 1.SUSTAINABLE RENEWABLE BIO-FUELS FOR BANGLADESH. AUTHOR: DR. M. NAZMUL KARIM, FELLOW OF AICHE, PROFESSOR AND DEPARTMENT CHAIR, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY, LUBBOCK, TEXAS. 2. RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY OF BANGLADESH POWER DIVISION, MINISTRY OF POWER, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES, GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH. OCTOBER 2002. 3. PRIVATE SECTOR POWER GENERATION POLICY OF BANGLADESH MINISTRY OF ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCE, GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH. OCTOBER 1996. REVISED: NOVEMBER 2004. 4. POLICY BRIEF ON DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNANCE OF THE ENERGY SECTOR. EMAIL: CPD@BDONLINE.COM. CPD TASK FORCE REPORT. CENTRE FOR POLICY DIALOGUE. 5. ISESCO- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VISION, V O L U M E1 - M A Y 2005 (5 1 - 6 0). STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN BANGLADESH. AUTHOR: A.K.M. SADRUL ISLAM AND MAZHARUL ISLAM. 25.1 Web-links Used as References: 1. http://www.energybangla.com/index.php?mod=article&cat=GreenPage&article=25714 2. http://energiscorporation.com/ 3. http://www.gshakti.org/ 4. http://www.lged-rein.org/archive_file/01081.pdf 5 . http://www.lged-rein.org/ 6. http://www.bpdb.gov.bd/bpdb/ 7. http://www.ebangladesh.com/2009/08/29/energy-crisis-the-way-out/ 8.http://www.sarienergy.org/PageFiles/What_We_Do/activities/Renewable_Energy_April_2008/Banglad esh_Renewable_Energy.pdf 9. http://www.un.org/climatechange/pdfs/bangladesh.pdf 10. http://jed.sagepub.com/content/17/3/292.abstract

Cabinet Submission by Nazwa Warda Bintay Salim.

9th April, 2012