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Ebuka Efobi Lab Report AP Chemistry American International School Abuja December 1, 2011

Abstract In this titration experiment (hydrochloric acid) HCL of unknown molarity was added to 0.1M of the base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The experiment had three different trials. The aim of this experiment was to find the concentration of acid that it takes to neutralize the base using a phenolphthalein indicator as a visual aid. The phenolphthalein indicator is added to the base. As the acid from burette is added to the base and the pH of the solution approaches 7 or 8 or the equivalence point is reached the phenolphthalein indicator turns purple.

Theory To be able to perform this lab knowledge of neutralization reactions and their products is first of all required. Stochiometry calculations are required; they are needed to calculate the concentration of the HCL. Also knowledge of how the phenolphthalein indicator works is needed; information such as the colour change is necessary pre-experimentation knowledge. Students should also be able to understand the significance of an equivalence point, the point at which the product of the volume and concentration of the acid becomes equal to the volume and concentration of the base.

Apparatus 0.1 M of NaOH HCL of unknown molarity Retort stand and clamp Burettte Beaker, 250ml

Graduated cylinder,100ml

Procedure The burette was attached to the retort stand and held by the clamp. It was attached at a reasonable height to allow for the beaker to be placed underneath it. 25ml of NaOH was measured out using the graduated cylinder and was poured into the beaker. Next 55ml hydrochloric acid was poured into the burette (this measurement was consistent for all trials). The initial point is measured which is 55ml Then some phenolphthalein indicator was added to the NaOH this caused it to become purple. (Purple color indicates that NaOH is a base). The burette is opened in a controlled manner to allow a little bit of the HCL to pass into the beaker at a time. After every small amount of acid is passed, the beaker is shaken to spread the acid that has just been added equally around the beaker. This opening and closing of the burette and shaking of the beaker continues until the purple color disappears. This is when the equivalence point is reached. After the reaction the final point of the acid is measured. The difference between final and initial measurements is used to calculate the molarity of HCL. The procedure above is repeated for two other measurements. The reaction for this reaction is HCL(aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H20

Data: NaOH( constant for all trials): Molarity-0.1M Volume: 25ml HCL data 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial Initial 55ml 55ml 55ml Final 37.8ml 36.6ml 37.2ml Difference 17.2ml 18.4ml 17.8ml

Calculations: -Find concentration of HCL for each trial and find the average

1- Formula: Molarity1*Volume1= Molarity2*Volume2 (1-NaOH 2-HCL)

In this calculation all units in mililitres have been changed to litres by dividing by 1000 1st trail [HCL] = (0.1M*0.025L)/ (0.0172L) = 0.145M 2nd trail [HCL] = (0.1M*0.025L)/ (0.0184L) =0.136M 3rd trail [HCL] = (0.1M*0.025L)/ (0.0178L) = 0.140M Average molarity = (0.145M+0.136M+0.140M)/ (3) = 0.140M

Conclusion: The concentration of the HCL was 0.140M. Some of the safety precautions that were taken were the wearing of gloves, aprons and goggles for protection from corrosive strong acid and bases. A possible error could be that there was not enough indicator added to the base. The acid might have been too concentrated for the base so neutralization might have been premature.