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Straight Lines
Distance Formula 2 2 Distance = ( x2 x1 ) + ( y2 y1 ) betw een ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) Midpoint Formula
x +x y + y Midpoint = 1 2 , 1 2 2 2
m = tan

Notation

Functions and Graphs


Composite Functions
Example
f (x ) = x2 +1 f ( g( x )) = f (3x 4 ) = (3x 4 ) + 1
2

bel ongs to naturalnum bers { 1, 2, 3, ...}

Higher Mathematics HSN21500


g( f ( x ))

integers { ... , 1, 0,1, 2, ...} rational integer f ractions

w hol num bers { 0,1, 2, 3, ...} e

Rules

Differentiation

g ( x ) = 3x 4

= g ( x 2 + 1)

= 3 ( x 2 + 1) 4

real al points on the num ber l l ine

Domains
Set ofnum bers a f unction can operate on R estrictions Cannot divide by zero Cannot take even roots (eg square root) of negative num bers

If f ( x ) = ax n then f ( x ) = anx n1 pow er m ul ies to the f tipl ront, pow er l ers by one ow Preparing to differentiate Mul y out brackets tipl

Radians

Gradients
y y m= 2 1 x2 x1

radians = 180

Graphs of Inverses

Degrees

180 180

R efect in the l y = x , eg l ine l ogarithm ic and exponential y y = ax Radians y=x (1, a )


y=l ax og

Rates of Change

x = x2 1 Put al x term s on the top l eg 32 = 3x 2 and 1 = x 2 l ine, x x


Change roots into pow ers, eg
f ( a ) is the rate of change of f ( x ) at x = a .

Equations of Tangents

positive negative zero undefined gradient gradient gradient gradient


Paralell l ines have equalgradients

Exact Values
2 45

Graph Transformations
Transl ation: f ( x ) + a, f ( x + a ) R ef ection: f ( x ), f ( x ) l Scal ing: kf ( x ), f ( kx )

2 30 3
60

1 O 1

( a ,1)
x

A tangent is a straight l to use y b = m ( x a ) w e need a ine point and a gradient One coordinate of the point w il al ays be given the other can l w be w orked out using the given equation The gradient is a rate of change dif erentiate and substitute in f
x-coord. ( dx is the equation of the gradient)
dy dx
dy

Perpendicular Lines

45

m1 m2 = 1 f tw o l at right or ines angl w ith gradients m1 and m2 es,

Collinearity
The gradient betw een tw o of the points is equalto the gradient betw een tw o other points They share a com m on point

Equation of a Straight Line


y b = m(x a) ( a, b ) is a point on the line m is the l s gradient ine

Unit 1
Sequences
Al inear recurrence rel ation can be w ritten in the f orm un +1 = aun + b or un = aun1 + b (both m ean exactl the sam e thing) y If 1 < a < 1 then a l inear recurrence rel ation w il l cul have a l it l, w hich can be cal ated using l = b im 1 a

Increasing and Decreasing Functions


> 0 increasing,

Stationary Points

dy dx

< 0 decreasing

Occur w hen f ( x ) = 0 Four possibil ities f nature (use a nature tabl or e):

Intersection of two lines


Sol sim ul ve taneous equations (the equations of the tw o l ines) El ination, equating or substitution im

not collinear not collinear C D A C B

collinear

Perpendicular Bisectors
D A C B

maximum turning point

minimum turning point

rising point of inflection

falling point of inflection

Medians
B

Altitudes
B

Curve sketching

Graphs of Derived Functions


y Al stationary points l decreasing (ve gradient) increasing becom e roots increasing (+ve gradient) (+ve gradient) When the graph is x increasing, the graph of the derivative is y above the x-axis above above x-axis x-axis When the graph is x below x-axis decreasing, the graph of the derivative is bel the x-axis ow

BM is a m edian M is the m idpoint of AC Median from B Point: B or M G radient: mBM

CD is a perpendicul ar bisector of AB D BD is an al titude CD passes through the BD is perp. to AC m idpoint of AB Perpendicul bisector of A B ar Al titude from B Point: B Point: m idpoint of AB G radient: mCD G radient: mBD mCD mAB = 1 mBD mAC = 1
A

Work out x-axis intercepts (roots) sol y = 0 ve Work out y-axis intercept f y f x = 0 ind or Determ ine stationary points and their nature (use a nature tabl e)

Closed Intervals (Restricted Domains)


Max/m in val can occur at stationary points, or end points of ues the cl osed interval

Optimisation
Probl s usualy invol f em l ve inding m ax/m in areas and vol es um ( x ) = 0 ) and determ ine its nature Cal ate a stationary point ( f cul (use a nature tabl e)