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A society is a grouping of individuals, which is characterized by common interests and may have distinctive culture and institutions. In a society, members can be from a different ethnic group. The English word society can be stretched or narrowed to cover almost any form of association of persons possessing any degree of common interests, values, or goals. Society in the nineteenth century meant the upper classes; one might now refer to international academic society or European society, though these uses might be disputed. The primary and most normal sense

refers to a society defined by the boundaries of the state, even though this usage is odd and potentially misleading in the many cases where there is more than one sizeable ethnic or cultural group in a society, like Canada and South Africa. The influential German sociologists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Weber and Ferdinand Tnnies, suggested that societies take different forms in so far as the very nature of the association between people differs. Tnnies distinguished a Gemeinschaft form, where people are linked by assumption, tradition, and familiar ties, from Gesellschaft, where their association is agreed, self-conscious, and quasi-contractual. All societies contain elements of both. A wide variety of contemporary writers choose to refer, in a Hegelian manner, to a civil society. A civil society in this sense is not the population of a state as such and it is very far from being the mere amalgam of people on a particular territory. Civil society is a range of relationships and organizations which possess a tendency to form a political system. The history of France from, say, 1780 exemplifies the distinction: the state has been re-formed and redefined many times but France has remained a distinct and continuous civil society throughout the period. Neither Europe nor Brittany or Provence separately, for all that they might have societies in some sense, have been a civil society in the way that France has.

Define Aims Of Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of how societies function and change. Students examine the familial, marital, religious, economic, and political institutional forces that influence the lives of people in various societies and cultures. This major program, with its blending of the liberal arts, gives its students a rich, wholistic view of collective, social behavior. Students should be able to integrate the knowledge of this discipline into their intellectual and spiritual lives. The Sociology degree is an appropriate preparation for administrative positions in social service agencies, businesses, and hospitals, and for helping professions such as criminology, administration of justice, probation work, civil

service, and regional and urban planning. Opportunities also exist for positions in child development and care for the aged. The Sociology major is a solid foundation for students who intend to pursue a graduate degree either in sociology or any of the related fields cited above.

Define Social Structure

in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society. Social Theory and Social Structure has influenced a generation of sociologists and remains a viable and important source for those who are just now entering the field. Many common-place concepts can be traced to this book, for example, "reference groups", "self-fulling prophecy", and the "anomie theory of deviance", to name a few. Merton, in this book, also introduced the notion of "theories of the middle-range" to sociology. Although the idea has been, and still is controversial, the suggestion that sociologists develop middle-range theories which come between grand theories and more narrow empirical observations struck a chord with some.


Define Social Group

A social group is an organization of people or groups. It is to keep a couple of groups or people in an order for the sake of a single or many purposes. It cannot take those people or groups who are irrelevant. This group can be done for the sake of social participations. Its activity and durability is dependent upon the work they do. They become a family with the passage of time. They find themselves able to understand one another.

This can be further elucidated by the help of an example. This example is about an organization who is working for the benefit of women in a specific area. Those who are a part of this organization will be able to give rise to a social group. Those who will be off the view to save women in that area will become a part of that group. All of them must work for the prosperity of women with one another. Social groups can be of many types and they can be ramified on the basis of their needs in an area.

Define Socialization
Process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, language, social skills, and value to conform to the norms and roles required for integration into a group or community. It is acombination of both self-imposed (because the individual wants to conform) and externally-imposed rules, and the expectations of the others. In an organizational setting, socialization refers to the process through which a new employee 'learns the ropes,' by becoming sensitive to the formal and informal power structure and the explicit and

implicit rules of behavior. culture and orientation. See also organizational

Socialization is important in the process of personality formation. While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another. For instance, the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals. In fact, they avoid them whenever possible. In contrast, the Yanomam Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive. The ideal Yanomam man does not shrink from violence and strong emotions. In fact, he seeks them out. Likewise, Shiite Muslim men of Iran are expected at times to publicly express their religious faith through the emotionally powerful act of self-inflicted pain.

Define Culture
Integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that is both a result of and integral to the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. Culture thus consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, works of art, rituals, ceremonies, and symbols. It has played a crucial role in human evolution, allowing human beings to adapt the environment to their own purposes rather than depend solely on natural selection to achieve adaptive success. Every human society has its own particular culture, or sociocultural system. Variation among cultures is attributable to such factors as differing physical habitats and resources; the range of possibilities inherent in areas such as language, ritual, and social organization; and historical phenomena such as the development of links with other cultures. An individual's attitudes, values, ideals, and beliefs are greatly influenced by the culture (or cultures) in which he or she lives. Culture change takes place as a result of ecological, socioeconomic, political, religious, or other fundamental factors affecting a society. See also culture contact; sociocultural evolution.


Describe Element
The bestselling Elements of Sociology is back in a highly anticipated second edition. Taking a refreshing look at the discipline through extensive use of first-person narratives, the text inspires students to see sociology in everyday life. Beginning with the origins of the discipline, the authors examine how sociology helps make sense of traditional topics--such as family, deviance, culture--and contemporary issues--such as immigration, health care, and gender and sexuality. Promoting an understanding of core sociological concepts, the new edition challenges students to think differently about sociology.

Elements of sociology
1. Specific features of the sociological approach 2. Main sociological theoretical trends

3. Basic concepts and sociological theories: representations (culture, values, norms, ideologies, etc.) and groups (small groups,strates, social classes, etc.) Introduction to political sociology 1. Concept of power and legitimacy 2. Concept of political system 3. Political regimes 4. The State 5. Political parties and interest groups 6. Public opinion and electoral sociology 7. Transformation of political values and the post-industrial society 8. Political change and revolutions More time is spent on the second part.

Describe and Crities relation between education, socialization, and culture.

In today society, any nation, with any kind of government, either developed or developing, cares about the eduaction more than any other social activity. From past till now, education has had noticeable influence on culture and behaviours of people all over the world. Behaviours and culture of a society are depends on the education of the people of that society and in order to improve cultural level and have a developed society, education should be considered very well. All of the points above give us a well spectrum of information about relation of between education, socialization, and culture which show that any missing part has a great deal of influence on the others.