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NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY

Seminar Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


Submitted by

V.B.VISHNU PRIYA ECE 4th YEAR 2nd SEMESTER ROLL NO: 08071A0451

2011-2012

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to J.N.T.U., Hyderabad) Bachupally(v), Hyderabad, A.P., India. 500 090

VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to J.N.T.U., Hyderabad) Bachupally(v), Hyderabad, A.P., India.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report entitled NOKIA MORH TECHNOLOGY that has been submitted by V.B.VISHNU PRIYA (08071A0451) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in the DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING during the academic year 2011-2012 is a record of bonafide record of the seminar presented by him/her.

COORDINATOR
Dr. L. Padmasree D. Kanthi Sudha

HEAD OF THE DEPT


Dr. P. Sri Hari

ACKNOWLEDEMENT
I am extremely thankful to my internal guide Dr. L. Padmasree, Professor and D. Kanthi Sudha, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication, for their constant inspiration and support. I express my thanks to all the help and co-ordination extended in bringing out this seminar successfully on time. I express my sincere gratitude to respected Dr. C. D. Naidu, Principal of VNRVJIET and Dr. P. Sri Hari, Head of Department of ECE, for their valuable guidance, encouragement and suggestions.

ABSTRACT
In business a product could have a shorter life if it can't win the hearts of people and showcase new technology, so take the case of Nokia, who is coming up with the Nokia Morph flexible mobile phone which the company claims include nanotechnology and would immensely benefit its end-users. The main benefit of Nanotechnology is that its components are flexible, transparent and extremely strong. The company believes this latest technology would be a distinctive phone by 2015, but a few technical glitches remained to be solved, like the use of new battery materials etc. Nokia morph is a joint technology concept, developed by nokia research center (NRC) and the University of Cambridge (UK). The morph demonstrate how future mobile device might be stretchable and flexible, allowing the user to transform their mobile devices into radically different shaped. It demonstrates the ultimately that nanotechnology might be capable of delivering: flexible material, transparent electronics and selfcleaning surface. Nanotechnology enables materials and components that are flexible, stretchable, transparent and remarkably strong. Fibril proteins are woven into three dimensional mesh that reinforces thin elastic structures. Using the same principle behind spider silk, this elasticity enables the device to literally changes shapes and configures itself to adapt to the task at hand.

CONTENTS
Index
Certificate Acknowledement Abstract

Page No
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CHAPTER 1 1. Introduction CHAPTER 2 2. History CHAPTER 3 3. Concept of Nokia Morph


3.1 Nokia Morph 3.2 Nanotechnology 3.3 Molecular Nanotechnology 3.4 Collaboration between and University of Cambridge 3.5 About University of Cambridge Nano Research Center 3.6 Nokia Research Center 9 9 10 11 12 12 8 7

CHAPTER 4 4. Features of Nokia Morph


4.1 Sensing
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4.2 Nanograss 4.3 Self-cleaning 4.4 Stretchable 4.5 Transparent-electronics 4.6 Spider-silk 4.7 Haptic-surface 4.8 Wearable device 4.9 Recycle

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CHAPTER 5 5. Pros & Cons


5.1 Advantages 5.2 Disadvantages 20 20

CHAPTER 6 6. Conclusion CHAPTER 7 7. Future scope CHAPTER 8 8. References


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CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION The Morph concept


Launched alongside The Museum of Modern Art Design and The Elastic Mind exhibition, the Morph concept device is a bridge between highly advanced technologies and their potential benefits to end-users. This device concept showcases some revolutionary leaps being explored by Nokia Research Center (NRC) in collaboration with the Cambridge Nanoscience Centre (United Kingdom) nanoscale technologies that will potentially create a world of radically different devices that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. Morph concept technologies might create fantastic opportunities for mobile devices: empowering us to make better choices. In addition to the advances above, the integrated electronics shown in the Morph concept could cost less and include more functionality in a much smaller space, even as interfaces are simplified and usability is enhanced. All of these new capabilities will unleash new applications and services that will allow us to communicate and interact in unprecedented ways. Newly-enabled flexible and transparent materials blend more seamlessly with the way we live. -cleaning and self-preserving. Transparent electronics offering an entirely new aesthetic dimension. Built- in solar absorption might charge a device, whilst batteries become smaller, longer lasting and faster to charge.

CHAPTER 2 2. HISTORY
The concept of NOKIA MORPH has been introduced to the global world at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City from February 24 to May 12 of 2008 as part of the "Design and the Elastic Mind" exhibition. The concept emerged through collaboration between Nokia Research Center and Cambridge University Nanoscience Center in the UK. Since the KAIST, developed a transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM), the idea of morph technology seems to be growing and Nokia Research Center collaborated with Cambridge University Nanoscience Center and initiated to develop this fairytale concept a reality and researches are still undergoing. Nokia also added a concept video regarding morph on YouTube which received 2.3 million viewers on its initial week. This technology enabled phones are expected to reach the global markets around 2020. This device concept showcases some revolutionary leaps being explored by Nokia Research Center (NRC) in collaboration with the Cambridge Nanoscience Centre (United Kingdom) Nanoscale technologies that will potentially create a world of radically different devices that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. 2007. Brainstorming in Cambridge in June 2007; Nokia Research Centre, Nokia Design and University of Cambridge.

CHAPTER 3 3. CONCEPT OF NOKIA MORPH


3.1 Nokia Morph
Morph is a concept that demonstrates how future mobile devices might be stretchable and flexible, allowing the user to transform their mobile device into radically different shapes. It demonstrates the ultimate functionality that nanotechnology might be capable of delivering: flexible materials, transparent electronics and self-cleaning surfaces.The device, which is made using nanotechnology, is intended to demonstrate how cell phones in the future could be stretched and bent into different shapes, allowing users to morph their devices into whatever shape they want. Want to wear your cell phone as a bracelet? No problem, just bend it around your wrist. Even though Morph is still in early development, Nokia believes that certain elements of the device could be used in high-end Nokia devices within the next seven years. And as the technology matures, nanotechnology could eventually be incorporated into Nokias entire line of products to help lower manufacturing costs. Nokia Morph is truly an absolutely wonderful gadget with flexible bending and wearing options and surely the best in the gadgets segment from the house of Nokia.

3.2 Nanotechnology
A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products. Nanotechnology may one day lead to low cost manufacturing solutions, and offers the possibility of integrating complex functionality at a low price. Nanotechnology also can be leveraged to create self-cleaning surfaces on mobile devices, ultimately reducing corrosion, wear and improving longevity. Nanostructured surfaces, such as Nanoflowers naturally repel water, dirt, and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. Elegant three-dimensional MoS2 nanoflowers were uniformly formed via heating a MoO2 thin film in a vapor sulfur atmosphere. Tens to hundreds of petals were self- assembled within a single nanoflower. Each petal, 100300 nm wide and only several nanometers thick, exhibited a hexagonal structure. The
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number of petal layers gradually decreased towards the edges, resulting in uniquely thin edges, typically less than 3 nm. The MoS2 nanoflowers appeared to be excellent field emitters displaying a current density of 0.01 and 10? mA/cm2 at macroscopic fields of 4.55.5 and 7.6 8.6 V/m, respectively; the electron field emission was consistent with the FowlerNordheim theory.

3.3 Molecular nanotechnology


Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.. It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems. In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as all one has to position atoms are other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno, is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Yet another view, put forward by the late Richard Smalley, is that mechanosynthesis is impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically
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manipulating individual molecules. This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003. Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

3.4 Collaboration Between NRC and University of Cambridge


The partnership between Nokia and the University of Cambridge was announced in March, 2007 - an agreement to work together on an extensive and long term programme of joint research projects. NRC has established a research facility at the University's West Cambridge site and collaborates with several departments - initially the Nanoscience Center and Electrical Division of the Engineering Department - on projects that, to begin with, are centered on nanotechnology. With the ability of the phone to take on a variety of shapes and sizes, most people may not need to change phones so often as they currently have been doing so every 1.5 years on average. According to Nokia, it would take seven years before Morph phones are available at consumer markets. The Morph concept technology carries numerous interesting features for future mobile devices. 1. Newly-enabled flexible transparent materials blend more seamlessly with the way we live. 2. Devices become self-cleaning and self-preserving. 3. Transparent electronics offering an entirely new aesthetic dimension. 4. Built- in solar absorption might charge a device, whilst batteries become smaller, longer lasting and faster to charge.

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5. Integrated sensors might allow us to learn more about the environment around us, empowering us to make better choices. In addition to the advances above, the integrated electronics would cost less and include more functionality in a much smaller space, even as interfaces are simplified and usability is enhanced. Mobile phones like Nano Morph certainly depict the upcoming Nano Technology and it will surely be a front-runner in the use of various gadgets and technologies be it Computers, Air Conditioners, Robots, Cars or like this one viz Mobile phones and smartphones.

3.5 About University of Cambridge Nano Research Center


In Nanoscience Centre is an 1800m research facility completed in January 2003 and located at the north east corner of the University's West Cambridge Site. The Centre provides open access to over 300 researchers from a variety of University Departments to the nanofabrication and characterisation facilities housed in a combination of Clean Rooms and low noise laboratories. Office space is primarily home to the Department of Engineerings Nanoscience Group, technical and administrative staff and members of other research groups who require long term access to facilities. The partnership between Nokia and the University of Cambridge was announced in March, 2007 - an agreement to work together on an extensive and long term programme of joint research projects. NRC has established a research facility at the University's West Cambridge site and collaborates with several departments - initially the Nanoscience Center and Electrical Division of the Engineering Department - on projects that, to begin with, are centered on nanotechnology.

3.6 Nokia Research Center


Nokia believes that effective research and development is vital to remaining competitive in the mobile computing and communications industry. As of April 1, 2007, we had R&D centers in 11 countries and employed 14,500 people in research and development, representing approximately 32% of Nokias total workforce. R&D expenses totaled EUR 3,9 billion in 2006, representing 9,5% of Nokias net sales. We invest a substantial portion of our resources in research and development activities within our principal business groups Mobile Phones, Multimedia and Enterprise Solutions, Technology Platforms , and in the Nokia Research Center (NRC). Nokia
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Research Center has a unique mission to lead Nokia into the future: NRC will be the global leader of open innovation for human mobility systems of the fused physical and digital world, giving birth to the growth of businesses for Nokia. Nokia Research Center was founded in 1986 from the Nokia Electronics R&D unit, with the a headcount of 86 persons. Today, NRC employs roughly 800 researchers from 43 countires and a wide variety of fields. Representing just over 4% of Nokias R&D employees, NRC researchers produce about one half of Nokias essential patents, and 34% of all Nokia invention reports (2006). NRC has a two-fold approach to achieving its mandate. The work for core technology breakthroughs supporting Nokia's existing businesses takes place in the Core Technology Centers, the CTC's. More visionary, exploratory systems research that goes well beyond any current business model is conducted at the many System Research Centers, the SRC's.

FIG 1:-MORPH IN OPEN MODE

FIG 2:-MORPH IN FOLDED MODE


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FIG 3:-MORPH IN WRIST MODE

CHAPTER 4 4. FEATURES OF NOKIA MORPH


4.1 SENSING
Nokia Morph can interact with the surrounding environment and is capable of providing key information for anything from temperature changes to pollution i.e. Morph can sense its surrounding. Nanosensors are used for this purpose and it empowers users to examine the environment around them in completely new ways, from analyzing air pollution, to gaining insight into bio-chemical traces and processes. New capabilities might be as complex as it may help us monitor evolving conditions in the quality of our surroundings, or as simple as knowing if the fruit we are about to enjoy should be washed before we eat it. Our ability to tune into our environment in these ways can help us make key decisions that guide our daily actions and ultimately can enhance our health. Nanostructures can also enable robust chemical and biochemical sensing, especially in scenarios where nanoscale values are being measured. And since nanoscale is the scale of the fundamental processes of life, nanoscale chemical sensors can leverage principles and materials common to biological systems. Nanosensors construct a complete awareness of the user contextboth personal and environmental enabling an appropriate and intelligent response. In order to improve sensor and signal processing characteristics Nokia introduced Nanowire Lithography (NWL) process that fabricates a large area and self aligned 3D architectures.

FIG 4:- Nanosensor inside Nokia Morph.


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4.2 NANOGRASS
Each and every mobile phone requires a power source. But in the case of morph it has got not one but many power sources. It has got an enhanced energy density battery that is quicker to recharge and is able to endure more charging cycles. Along with it polymer carbon nanotube composites with controlled conduction, nanotube enhanced super capacitors and nano composite solar cells also act as other power sources. Here nano enhanced dielectrics are used as separator and high power capacitors. Here energy is also harvested from RF using wideband antennas or by using nano electro mechanical (NEM) method. Microwatt level energy is harvested from waste energy in air. Nanograss is used for harvesting solar power. Nokia developed a full solid state, flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using ZnO nanostructure that act as photovoltaics which harvests solar energy. Nanotechnology holds out the possibility that the surface of a device will become a natural source of energy via a covering of Nanograss structures that harvest solar power. At the same time new high energy density storage materials allow batteries to become smaller and thinner, while also quicker to recharge and able to endure more charging cycles. ZnO nanostructures may also play an important role in low-cost photovoltaics. Researchers from Nokia and the University of Cambridge have demonstrated a new method for making a full solid-state, flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Although their efficiency needs improvement, these DSSCs may present a low-cost alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics. Because conventional DSSCs also pose challenges related to solvent leakage and evaporation, Nokia is working to develop a stable DSSC based on solid electrolytes.

FIG 5:- Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

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FIG 6:- Nanograss

4.3 SELF-CLEANING
Nanotechnology also can be leveraged to create self-cleaning surfaces on mobile devices, ultimately reducing corrosion, wear and improving longevity. Nanostructured surfaces, such as Nanoflowers naturally repel water, dirt, and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. A nanoflower, in chemistry, refers to a compound of certain elements that results in formations which in microscopic view resemble flowers or, in some cases, trees that are called nanobouquets or nanotrees. These formations are nanometers long and thick so they can only be observed using electron microscopy Nanoflowers naturally repel water, dirt, and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. That is why it is used for self cleaning purpose. Zinc oxide changes resistance when molecules of ethanol vapour stick onto it in a process called adsorption. The flower- like structures work at lower temperatures because their tiny size enhances adsorption. Each flower is made up of bundles of nanorods 15nm wide. They were made by blasting a zinc-containing solution with ultrasound.

FIG 7:- Nanoflowers


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4.4 STRETCHABLE
Nokia are developing thin-film electronic circuits and architectures supported on elastomeric substrates which are robust enough to allow multi-directional stretching. Nanotechnology enables materials and components that are flexible, stretchable, transparent and remarkably strong. Fibril proteins are woven into a three dimensional mesh that reinforces thin elastic structures. This elasticity enables the device to literally change shapes and configure itself to adapt to the task at hand. Thus nanoscale structure of the electronics enables stretching . A folded design would fit easily in a pocket and could lend itself ergonomically to being used as a traditional handset. An unfolded larger design could display more detailed information, and incorporate input devices such as keyboards and touch pads.

FIG 8:- Stretchable A nanoscale mesh of fibers similar to spider silk controls the stretching when device is folded. ZnO nanowires act as flexible tactile arrays that enable the flexible ability of Nokia Morph. Arrays of aligned zinc oxide nanowires grown hydrothermally from zinc salt precursor on the surface of substrates (at roughly 70 100 C) are used here. 4.5 TRANSPARENT ELECTRONICS The whole electronic circuit inside Nokia Morph is entirely transparent. Nanoscale electronics becomes invisible to human eye. The major platform for transparent electronics came into existence with the introduction of transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM)

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developed by KOREAN ADVANCED INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (KAIST).

FIG 9:- Transparent electronics of Morph.

4.6 SPIDER-SILK
A Nanoscale mesh of fibers controls the stretching when the device is folded. Using the same principle behind spider silk enabling the device to literally change shapes and configure itself to adapt to the task at hand. Fibril proteins are woven into a three dimensional mesh that reinforces thin elastic structures, making these devices highly adaptable. The device is made of several threads of spider silk which is stretchable to a limit. This helps the device in folding. It is so versatile that the entire surface of device available for user interface.

FIG 10:- spider silk 4.7 HAPTIC SURFACE Touch sensitive and responsive (HAPTIC) surface of Nokia Morph is provided by large area sensing surfaces using piezoelectric nanowire arrays. ZnO nanowires are used to produce the piezoelectric nanowire arrays. Buttons on the device surface are in real 3D forms.

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FIG 11:- Haptic surface of Nokia Morph. ZnO exhibits an unusual combination of properties, including uniaxial piezoelectric response and n-type semiconductor characteristics. Nokia is exploiting these qualities to achieve strain-based electromechanical transducersideal for touch-sensitive (even direction-sensitive) surfaces.

4.8 WEARABLE DEVICE


This device can be wear as a clock on wrist also. This device can change their color according to the user wish.

FIG 12:- Wearable device


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4.9 RECYCLING
Utilization of biodegradable materials might make production and recycling of devices easier and ecologically friendly.

FIG 13:- Recycle

CHAPTER 5 5. PROS & CONS


5.1 Advantages
5.1.1 Utilization of biodegradable materials might make production and recycling of devices easier and ecologically friendly. 5.1.2 Low Power cost due to built-in solar absorption that might charge the device making batteries smaller, longer lasting and faster to charge and hence making the phone less bulky. 5.1.3 Helps to learn more about the environment around us, empowering us to make better choices.

5.2 Disadvantages
5.2.1 Due to the granular structure, nano particles can go unnoticed on a persons hand, but the risk of inhaling this could be very dangerous. This can duly be a cause of death. 5.2.2 Lack of a reliable power source: Nokia is still searching new battery materials to power the Morph. This is a significant technical drawback that Nokia has to overcome before launching this concept. 5.2.3 Overpriced.

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FIG 14:- Various Images of NOKIA MORPH

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CHAPTER 6 6. CONCLUSION
According to the developers, using nanotechnology can lead to low cost manufacturing solutions as well as adjustable, empowering devices, bringing us new, versatile possibilities. These mobile devices will be flexible, stretchable and shape changing, so that they can be easily integrated in our everyday routines without special adjustments on our part. Unfortunately, it might take close to a decade until the elements of Morph might be available for integration into handheld devices. Nanosensors would raise the awareness of mobile devices' users to the environment in a new way. Think Morph as a snapshot of a new kind of mobility made possible through nanotechnology and along with Nokia Research as their slogan says Thinking, understanding and creating mobile innovations for cultures all over the world and Cambridge University Nanoscience research centre the Morph has the potential of being both evolutionary and revolutionary when applied to the field of mobile technology and with more it always be bonded and is always be connected to a range of objects and services that have not yet being imagined. Thus NOKIA MORPH is just a beginning to the future mobiles.

CHAPTER 7 7. FUTURE SCOPE


The shapes could be made simpler like in ring shape. Morph in open mode could act as a keyboard for pcs.

CHAPTER 8 8. REFERENCE
www.nanoscience.cam.ac.uk www.inac.purdue.edu research.nokia.com/projects/nanosciences www.nokia.com/A4852062
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www.youtube.com www.seminarsonly.com www.wikipedia.com

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