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Apa Bezanya Masalah Rutin Dengan Masalah Bukan Rutin ?

Masalah-masalah matematik boleh dikategorikan kepada berbagai-bagai bentuk. walaupun demikian, ada kalanya kita dapati ada masalah yang bertindih kategorinya. Masalah rutin Masalah-masalah yang melibatkan hanya satu operasi aritmetik sahaja dalam penyelesaiannnya dikategorikan sebagai masalah rutin. masalah-masalah rutin hanya memerlukan pelajar memahami masalah, memilih operasi yang sesuai serta mempraktikkan algoritma-algoritma yang telah dipelajari. Prosedur penyelesaiannya diketahui oleh pelajar. walaubagaimana pun masalahmasalah matematik yang rutin ada fungsinya kerana ia:

memberi latihan dalam ingatan fakta-fakta asas dan langkah-langkah yang berturutan mempertingkatkan kemahiran-kemahiran dalam operasi-operasi asas memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk berfikir tenteng perkaitan di antara sesuatu operasi dan aplikasinya kepada situasi-situasi sebenar.

Masalah rutin adalah masalah yang diketahui jalan penyelesainnya dengan satu strategi mudah

Apabila menyelesaikan masalah-masalah rutin, pelajar perlu mengenalpasti:

Apakah soalannya yang perlu dijawab fakta-fakta atau nombor-nombor yang perlu digunakan Operasai-operasi matematik yang sesuai digunakan anggaran nilai penyelesaian

Masalah bukan rutin Sudah tentu masalah-masalah bukan rutin memerlukan proses-proses yang lebih tinggi daripada yang terlibat dalam penyelesaian masalah-masalah rutin. Kejayaan dalam penyelesaian masalahmasalah bukan rutin bergantung kepada kebolehan pelajar menggunakan pelbagai strategi penyelesaian masalah bersama dengan fakta-fakta dan maklumat dalam pertimbangan. Prosedur menyelesaikannya adalah tidak diketahui pelajar. Masalah-masalah bukan rutin biasanya diselesaikan dengan pelbagai cara yang memerlukan proses pemikiran yang berbeza-beza. Nyata sekali pelajar dikehendaki menggunakan kemahiran secara kritis dan kreatif dalam penyelesaian masalah bukan rutin. Masalah bukan rutin perlu diselesaikan dengan pelbagai cara yang memerlukan pemikiran kritis dan kreatif Masalah-masalah bukan rutin harus digunakan dalam program matematik sekolah rendah kerana boleh;

mengembangkan penggunaan strategi-strategi penyelesaian masalah

membekalkan peluang kepada pelajar untuk memikirkan pelbagai cara penyelesaian, berkongsi kaedah-kaedah penyelesaian masalah dengan pelajar-pelajar lain dan mengembangkan keyakinan diri dalam penyelesaian masalah matematik. mendorong pelajar untuk menikmati keindahan dan logik yang wujud dalam matematik mengembangkan kemahiran-kemahiran berfikir secara kritis berbanding dengan hafalan petua, peraturan dan fakta tanpa kefahaman.

Polyas Problem Solving Model This problem solving model is made by a Hungarian who immigrated to the United States in 1940. His name was George Polya (1887 1985). According to Polya (1957), a good problem solving includes 4 phases or steps. First phase is understanding the problem. Without understanding the meaning, students will not be able to find a correct solution. Once students understand the problem, they devise a plan. After devising the plan they carry out the devised plan. Polya suggested that in the end they must look back at the solution to verify its correctness. First step: Understand the Problem This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned, yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they do not understand it fully, or even in part. Polya taught us to ask students questions such as:

Do you understand all the words used in the problem? What are you asked to find or show? Can you restate the problem in your own words? Can you think of a picture or a diagram that might help you understand the problem?

Is there enough information to enable you to find a solution?

Second step: Devise a plan

Polya suggests that it were many reasonable ways to solve problems. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. We will find choosing a strategy increasingly easy. A partial list of strategies is included:

Guess and check Make and orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation

Look for a pattern Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Work backward Use a formula Be ingenious

There are a few questions that guides us in the process of devising a plan to solve the problem: What is the relationship between the data and the unknown? Is this problem similar to another problem that you have solved? What strategies can you see? Third step: Carry out the plan This step is usually easier than devising the plan. In general, all you need is care and patience, given that you have the necessary skills. Persistent with the plan that you have chosen. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another. This is how mathematics is done, even by professionals. Use the strategy you have selected and solve the problem. Check each step of the plan as you proceed. Ensure that the steps are correct.

Forth step: Look back Polya mentions that much can be gained by taking the time to think and look back at what you have done, what worked and what did not. Doing this enables us to predict what strategy to use in solving future problems. This step is always overlooked in problem solving. As a teacher, we should remind our students to always check their answers. Some guidelines are as following: Reread the questions. Did the question asked answered? If it is answered, is it correct? Does the solution seem reasonable? We need to teach our students how to solve mathematical problems. Learning to use Polyas Model is a first step towards becoming a good problem solver. In Step 2 of Polyas Model, we need to know various strategies to enable us to solve problems.


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