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Machine Tools and Machining

Machining: A Subtractive Type Manufacturing Process which Imparts Desired Shape, Size, and Finish to the Product by Removing Material in the Form of Chips by a Suitable Cutting Tool and by Providing Suitable Relative Motion Between the Work piece and Cutting Tool

Cutting Tool: Removes Excess Material through Direct Mechanical Contact Tool

Machine Tool: Provides Necessary Relative Motion Between the Work piece and Tool

Conventional and Non-Conventional Machining

According to type of CUTTING TOOLS


Machining Processes Using SINGLE-Point Cutting Tools Using MULTI-Point Cutting Tools Milling Drilling Reaming Tapping Hobbing Broaching Sawing Using ABRASIVES as Cutting Tools

Turning Step Turning Taper Turning Form Turning Contour Turing Facing Necking Parting-Off Boring Counter-Boring Counter-Sinking Shaping Planing

Grinding Honing Lapping Super-Finishing Polishing Buffing

Generatrix and Directrix

Generation of Various Surfaces in a Machining Operation


Generatrix
Straight Line Circular Circular Plain Curve

Directrix
Straight Line Straight Line Straight Line Circular

Process
Tracing Tracing Generation Tracing

Surface Obtained
Planar Surface Cylindrical

Machining Process
Shaping, Planing

Turning

Planar Surface Milling Surface of Contour Revolution Turning, Boring,

DESIGN and TERMINOLOGY of the ENGINE LATHE


The Essential Components of an Engine Lathe are 1. Bed 2. Headstock Assembly 5. Feed Rod 3. Tailstock Assembly 6. Leadscrew 4. Carriage Assembly 7. Quick Change Gearbox

Tailstock

Bed

Lathe Bed

Rib

Headstock assembly

Tailstock assembly

Carriage assembly

Rack and Pinion

Specification of Lathe
Size of a Lathe is Designated by Two Dimensions: 1. Swing: This is the maximum diameter of work piece that can be rotated on a lathe. 2. Maximum distance between headstock and tailstock centres: Indicates the Maximum Length of work piece that can be mounted between centers. 3. Length of Bed

Example: 360 X 760 X 1830

Machining parameters

Cutting Velocity Feed Depth of cut


Surface roughness

Cutting Velocity (m/min)

DN 1000

Different types of Lathes


1. ENGINE Lathe: Suitable for individual part production or modification, not suitable for repetitive production SPEED Lathe: High spindle speeds are available, usually have only a headstock, a tailstock, and a simple tool post mounted on a light bed, mainly used for wood turning, polishing or metal spinning

2.

3.

TOOLROOM Lathe: Most-accurate version, versatile requirements of tool and die work, suitable for smaller parts

to

meet

the

4. GAP-BED Lathe: section of the bed adjacent to headstock is removed to permit larger swing

5. WHEEL Lathe: Designed for turning railway-car wheels

6. TURRET Lathe A longitudinally feedable hexagon turret replaces the tailstock Ordinary turret lathes use the 11 station tooling setups for complete machining of a piece and minimize machine controlling time. SIX tools can be mounted on the hexagon turret Turret can be rotated about the vertical axis to bring each tool into the operating position and the entire unit can be translated parallel to the ways either manually or by power

7. VERTICAL Lathe

8. AUTOMATIC or SCREW CUTTING Lathe: Mechanical automation


9. NUMERICAL CONTROL (NC) or Computer NC TURNING CENTERS

TYPICAL OPERATIONS PERFORMED on a LATHE


STRAIGHT or CYLINDRICAL or PLAIN TURNING FACING TAPER TURNING Three Methods for turning External & Internal Tapers on a Lathe Swiveling the Compound Rest Setting over the tailstock Using a taper turning attachment CHAMFERING PARTING or CUTTING-OFF and NECKING

CONTOUR TURNING FORM TURNING DRILLING BORING REAMING THREAD CUTTING

Cutting tools

Geometry, cutting temperature, chip breaker, coolant, Shear plane, Shear angle, throw away type tool,

Drill bit geometry,

Solid-State Welding Processes


Interatomic bonds between two surfaces Adhesion Proximity between surfaces Joining takes place without fusion at the interface No liquid or molten phase is present at the joint Two surfaces brought together under pressure For strong bond, both surfaces must be clean: No oxide films No residues No metalworking fluids No adsorbed layers of gas No other contaminants

TYPICAL OPERATIONS PERFORMED on a LATHE


STRAIGHT or CYLINDRICAL or PLAIN TURNING FACING TAPER TURNING CHAMFERING PARTING or CUTTING-OFF and NECKING CONTOUR TURNING FORM TURNING DRILLING BORING REAMING THREAD CUTTING

The point angle, or the angle formed at the tip of the drill, is determined by the material the drill will be operating in. Harder materials require a larger point angle, and softer materials require a sharper angle.

Rotational Speed in Turning ( N in RPM ) is Related to Desired Cutting Speed (V in m/min) at the Surface of the Cylindrica l Workpiece (at the Larger Diameter D1 in mm) by N 1000 V D1 (1)

Feed Rate ( s ) in Turning is Generally Expressed in as mm/rev. Linear Travel Rate D1 2 sL D2 s.N (2)

Depth of Cut t

(3)

Machining Time, Tm

Length of the Workpiece Machined Linear Travel Rate

L (min.) s.N ( D12

(4)

Material Re moval Rate (MRR)

Volume of Material Re moved Machining Time (D1 2 D2 ) (D1 2 D2 )

2 D2 )L 1 4 Tm

Using Expression s of Machining Time (Eq. 4) and Rotational Speed (Eq.1) MRR ( D12
2 D2 )L 4

s.N L

MRR

1000V D1 1 (5)

Usi Expression for Depth of Cut (Eq. 3) and Approximat ing ng MRR 1000 V . s . t (mm 3 / min)

(D1 D2 ) 2 D1

Workholding in Lathe
1. Holding in chuck 2. Holding between centers 3. Holding in a collet 4. Mounting on the faceplate 5. Mounting on the carriage

Holding between centers

Live center

Dead center

Face plate

Lathe dog

Half center

Holding in a collet
Forms a collar around the object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force
Advantages:
1. Strong clamping force 2. Speed of chucking is less 3. Self-centering 4. Resistance against being untightened

5. Considerably high level of precision

Holding in a Mandrel

Types: 1. Solid mandrel 2. Gang mandrel 3. Cone mandrel

Solid mandrel

Mounting on the carriage Internal turning / Boring Steady and follow rest

Work holding in a drilling machine


1. Vice 2. Jig

Slideways

Shape of the slideway depends on 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Load carrying capacity ease of manufacturing ease of chip disposal effective lubrication position of slideways

Different types of slideways used in machine tools

Milling
Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. The milling machine consists basically of a motor driven spindle, which mounts and revolves the milling cutter, and a reciprocating adjustable worktable, which mounts and feeds the workpiece.

Classification of milling machines: Vertical | Horizontal __


Generally milling machines have self-contained electric drive motors, coolant systems, variable spindle speeds, and power-operated table feeds

Milling Machine
1. Column and knee type 2. Bed type 3. Planer type

Column and knee type

Types of milling operations


(Depending upon the type of milling cutter being used)

Slab milling

Face milling

End milling

Milling Cutter Nomenclature

Tooth, Cutting edge, Tooth face, Rake surface, Clearance surface, Rake angle, Clearance angle (Primary and secondary), Flute, Land, Heel, Keyways, Hole diameter, Outside diameter, Width, Pitch of teeth

Up milling and Down milling

1. Milling cutter, 2. Work piece, 3. Direction of rotation of cutter (primary motion), 4. Feed direction of work piece (secondary motion)

Milling cutters are usually made of high-speed steel


The pitch refers to the angular distance between like or adjacent teeth. The pitch is determined by the number of teeth. The tooth face is the forward facing surface of the tooth that forms the cutting edge. The land is the narrow surface behind the cutting edge on each tooth. The rake angle is the angle formed between the face of the tooth and the centerline of the cutter. The primary clearance angle is the angle of the land of each tooth measured from a line tangent to the centerline of the cutter at the cutting edge. This angle defines the land of each tooth and provides additional clearance for passage of cutting oil and chips. The hole diameter determines the size of the arbor necessary to mount the milling cutter.

Drilling machine

Bench type drilling machine

Radial drilling machine

Gang drilling machine