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# Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No.

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IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011
Electrical And Electronics Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. Consider the system described by the state model
x =
_
1 1
1 2
_
[x]
y =
_
1 0

[x]
Design a full order state observer. The desired eigen values for the observer matrix
are
1
= 5,
2
= 5. 
2. Discuss the state controllability and observability of the following system: 
[ x] =
_
3 1
2 1.5
_
[x] +
_
1
4
_
[u]
3. Find the curve with minimum arc length between the point x(0) =1 and the line
t
1
= 4. 
4. Find the trajectories in the (t,x) plane which will extremize
J(x) =
t
1
_
0
(t x + x
2
) dt
In each of the following cases:
(a) t
1
= 1 , x(0) = 1, x(1) = 5.
(b) t
1
= 1 , x(0) = 1, x(1) is free. 
5. Describe the stability analysis of non-linear systems using phase trajectories. 
6. For the system x =
_
0 1
1 1
_
x
Find the suitable lyapunov function V(x) obtain an upper bound on the response
time such that it takes the system to go from a point on the boundary of the closed
curve V
(x)
=100 to a point within the closed curve V
(x)
= 0.05. 
7. A feedback system has a closed loop transfer function
C(s)
R(s)
=
4(s+6)
s(s+1)(s+3)
. Construct
three dierent state models for this system and give block diagram representation
for each state model. 
8. Using the describing function analysis, prove that no limit cycle exists in the system
shown in gure 1. Find the range of values of the dead-zone of the on-o controller
for which limit cycle is predicted. 
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fi g -1
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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 2
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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 4
Figure 1:
IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011
Electrical And Electronics Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. State the basic theorem for determining the concept of controllability of time vary-
ing system utilizing state transition matrix. Explain the same with proof. 
2. Find the curve with minimum arc length between the point x(0) = 0 and the curve
(t) = t
2
10t + 24. 
3. Consider the system
x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx
Where A =
_
0 20.6
1 0
_
, B =
_
0
1
_
, C =
_
0 1

## The system usesthe observed state feedback such that u = k x .

Design a full order state observer, assuming the desired eigen values of the observer
matrix are
1
= 10 and
2
= 10. 
4. Consider a non-linear system of equations
x
1
= 2x
1
+ x
1
x
2
x
2
= x
2
+ x
1
x
2
There are two equilibrium points: x =
_
0
0
_
and x =
_
1
2
_
.
Determine the stability of the origin. 
5. (a) Explain the following singular points:
i. Nodal point
iii. Focus point
iv. Centre points.
(b) For the control system shown in gure 2, plot the phase trajectory. [8+8]
6. Explain the describing function of dead-zone non-linearity. 
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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 4
Figure 2:
7. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex-
plain one of the approach in detail.
(b) Find the extremals for the functional
J(x) =
t
1
_
0
_

1+ x
2
x
_
dt , x(0) = 0, x(t
1
) = t
1
5. [8+8]
8. For the state equation x = Ax.
Where A =
_
_
0 1 0
3 0 2
12 7 6
_
_
. Find the initial condition vector x(0) which will
exciteonly the mode corresponding to the eigen value with the most negative real
part. 

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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011
Electrical And Electronics Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. Write short notes on the following for optimal control system design:
(a) Minimum-Time problem.
(b) State regular problem.
(c) Innite - time state regulator problem. [6+6+4]
2. Describe the minimization of functions in the optimal control system design.

3. A linear time invariant system is described by the following state model. Obtain
the canonical form of the state model: 
_
x
1
x
2
_
=
_
0 1
4 5
_ _
x
1
x
2
_
+
_
0
1
_
u and y =
_
1
3

1
3

_
x
1
x
2
_
4. A system has a nonlinear element, with describing function, K
N
= (1/X) < 45
0
in cascade with, G(j) =
10

2
j(1+j0.5)
. Determine the limit cycle of the system. 
5. Consider the system dened by x = Ax + bu
y = Cx
where A =
_
_
1 0 1
1 2 0
0 0 3
_
_
, B =
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
, C =
_
1 1 1

Transform the system equations into the controllable canonical form. 
6. A single input system is described by the following state equation
x =
_
_
1 0 0
1 2 0
0 1 3
_
_
[x] +
_
_
10
1
0
_
_
[u].
Design a state feedback controller which will give closed loop poles at 1j2, 6.

7. A simple servo is described by the following equations
Reaction torque =

c
+ 0.5

c
Drive torque = 2 sign(e + 0.5 e)
e =
R

c
e(0) = 2 and e(0) = 0
Construct the phase trajectory using the delta method. 
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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 1
8. Prove the linear system x = Ax is globally asymptotically state at the origin if and
only if for any given symmetric positive denite matrix Q, there exists a symmetrix
denite matrix P that satises the matrix equation.
A
T
P + PA = Q. 

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Code No: 07A80202 R07 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011
Electrical And Electronics Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. What are the common physical non-linearities and explain saturation and backlash
non-linearities? 
2. Consider the following system
[ x] =
_
0 1
1 2
_
[x] +
_
0
1
_
[u]
y =
_
1 2

## Prove that by selecting the value to K, it is possible to destroy the observability

property. 
3. (a) Describe the instability theorems of lyapunov.
(b) What are the sucient conditions of stability of non-linear autonomous sys-
tem? [8+8]
4. Write short notes on the following for optimal control system design:
(a) Tracking problem.
(b) Output regular problem.
(c) Minimum energy problem. [6+4+6]
5. Construct phase trajectory for the system described by the equation,
dx
2
dx
1
=
4x
1
+3x
2
x
1
+x
2
.
Comment on the stability of the system. 
6. Convert the following system matrix to canonical form: 
A =
_
_
1 2 1
1 0 2
1 3 1
_
_
7. Find the externals for the following function J (x) =
t
1
_
1
_
2x +
1
2
x
2
_
dt , x (1) =
2, x (t
1
) = 2, t
1
> 1 is free. 
8. Construct the state model for the system characterized by the following dierential
equation
...
y
+ 3 y + 2 y = u + u . Also develop the block diagram. 

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