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R. Chacartegui

*

, D. Snchez, A. Muoz, T. Snchez

Thermal Power Group (GMTS), Escuela Tcnica Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los descubrimientos s/n, 41092, Sevilla, Spain

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 13 May 2009

Received in revised form 7 January 2010

Accepted 30 July 2010

Available online 23 August 2010

Keywords:

Gas turbine

Dynamic modelling

Real time

Control

a b s t r a c t

A tool for gas turbine dynamic simulation is presented in this work. First, a thermodynamic model of the

engine is presented, capable of predicting engine performance at full and part load conditions. This model

considers modern features as variable geometry compressor and air cooled turbine expansion. Then, two

different control techniques are assessed in order to control the engine during transient operation. After

analyzing the stability and robustness of both controllers, one of them is selected due to its faster

response and better stability.

The complete model is validated and then applied to two different transient conditions. First, some per-

turbations are applied in order to see how the control system is able to compensate these abnormal sit-

uations in order to maintain the frequency of the shaft. Then, a ramp up from idle to peak load is

analyzed. This last study is aimed at assessing the stability of the model for the widest possible load

range. According to the results shown, the stability and robustness of the model is satisfactory.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Industrial gas turbines are complex thermal engines with high

installation and O&M costs. Their development requires that vast

sums of money be invested since a lot of engineering, testing and

experimental work is necessary. However, such delicate and hard

labour is not always economically feasible or technologically pos-

sible due to operational constraints. Thus, a computational tool

able to provide realistic estimations of the gas turbine performance

is of great interest if it allows transient operation analysis, control

systems design or the study of critical operational modes.

Dynamic models of gas turbines are made up from a combina-

tion of rst order ordinary differential equations and algebraic

equations obtained from the evaluation of fundamental principles

like the conservation of mass, momentum and energy at each

component of the engine. In order to obtain an accurate gas turbine

dynamic model, different approaches are available, whose com-

plexity varies according to the intended application. Hence, these

models have evolved from the rst simplied schemes [1] to fre-

quency domain analysis [2] and time domain simulations [35].

Thus, a complete model of the engine can be developed from its

geometry [6,7] or from performance maps either at engine or com-

ponent level. In this latter case, some assumptions like quasi-stea-

dy behaviour are introduced along with corrections to take into

account dynamic effects, as done by Camporeale et al. [3,4]. In

more complex models, performance maps are not directly used

for the turbomachinery but, instead, compressors are analyzed

through one-dimensional equations that are derived from the inte-

gral conservation equations and applied stage by stage to include

the effects of interstage bleeding and VIGV and VSV modulation

on the compressor map, thus obtaining corrected curves as done

by Kim et al. [5] and extended to the analysis of the start up of a

heavy gas turbine [8] and a combined cycle dynamic analysis [9].

This approach is required when only constant geometry compres-

sor curves are available.

In addition to the previous models and in order to obtain an

adequate response of the gas turbine model during transient oper-

ation, as it is the case for real gas turbines, automatic control sys-

tems must be designed to control the engine operating parameters

within the allowable operating range. Different control techniques

have been used to design control systems of gas turbines and

power plants. For instance, Rowen presented a control unit model

for a real engine which was based on a proportionalintegral speed

governor, suitable for heavy-duty engines [2]. This scheme was la-

ter used with small modications by Kim for a heavy duty gas tur-

bine dynamic model [5] and for a small turbine dynamic model [9],

including a proportionalintegralderivative speed governor and

modifying the control gains. PID controllers have also been applied

for modelling the control system either in combined cycles [10

12], microturbine systems [13] and even nuclear power plants in

[14], although in this case as a feedback PI without the derivative

term. In all these cases, the controllers were used to regulate the

mass ows of fuel, water and/or steam.

More complex control systems that might be able to solve some

recurrent problems found with conventional PIDs have been sug-

gested by some authors. Thus, fuzzy logic has recently been pro-

posed by Nelson and Lakany [15] to control the exhaust

0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2010.07.050

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 954 48 72 42; fax: +34 954 48 72 43.

E-mail address: ricardo@esi.us.es (R. Chacartegui).

Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy Conversion and Management

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ enconman

temperature of gas turbine engines, as a way to take into account

degradation issues over time and their effect on emissions. Nonlin-

ear controllers have also been proposed, like the sliding mode con-

trol scheme suggested by Panda and Bandyopadhyay [16], based

on a variable structure control that changes at the same time as

the dynamics of the system does. A PID variant was studied by

Wang et al. [17], who propose an adaptative PID control with back

propagation neural network self- tuning in exhaust temperature of

micro gas turbine. Chippereld and Fleming [18] proposed a mul-

tiobjective controller for a gas turbine using genetic algorithms. Fi-

nally an optimal LQR controller was studied by Camporeale et al. in

[19], where shaft speed was controlled by the fuel ow rate and

turbine inlet temperature was controlled by the air mass ow

through the variable geometry of the compressor.

In this work a real time simulation code for gas turbines, imple-

mented in Matlab-Simulink

on the work by Camporeale et al. [3], a non linear model of gas tur-

bines is developed and, then, a control system that complies with

the requirements of gas turbine operation, for both static and dy-

namic operation, is incorporated to it. Two additional control sys-

tems are analyzed as variants of the standard controller. One is

based on an optimal LQG control with cascade PI and parallel open

loop tuning and the other is based on an open loop PI controller

with serial lookup table. As said, the code has been implemented

in the Matlab-Simulink

graphical interface for inexpert users.

This paper is structured in ve parts. The rst part deals with

gas turbine modelling, describing the main hypotheses and design

parameters. The second part deepens in the design of the control

system and describes two different controllers that are later eval-

uated. Third, a validation of the model is performed against real

operating data at stationary design and off design conditions.

Fourth, the most appropriate controller is selected and the dy-

namic behaviour of the engine is evaluated for different situations

including abnormal operation and start ups. Finally, main conclu-

sions are given.

2. Gas turbine model

The model presented in this work is based on a component by

component approach, i.e. models for individual components are

developed initially and later integrated in a complete simulating

tool. Among other minors blocks, functions are to be developed

for the following main components: compressor, combustor, tur-

bine, sensors and actuators [3,21]. Particular features of these com-

ponents, like variable geometry stator blades or blade cooling,

must be considered where appropriate.

2.1. Thermodynamic properties of gases

Gas properties are considered to depend on temperature and

composition throughout the engine. For the case of specic heat,

which is probably the most important property along with heat

capacity ratio c for modelling purposes, this assumption can be ex-

pressed mathematically by the following expression:

CpT

i

x

i

Cp

i

T 1

where x

i

and Cp

i

stand for molar fraction and specic heat of specie i

respectively.

2.2. Compressor model

The compressor model comprises two complementary blocks.

First, the stationary performance is evaluated through a two step

process. Initially, steady state pressure ratio and efciency are cal-

culated from air corrected massow and corrected rotating speed

for variable speed shafts by means of a compressor map for

maximum cross sectional area aperture angle of the compres-

sor inlet guide vanes VIGVs, as shown in [3,5,9,22,23]. Then, a cor-

rection is incorporated to account for the real position of the

VIGVs that reduces the actual air mass ow passing through the

engine.

The aforementioned correction is expressed mathematically by

Eqs. (2) and (3), where h

VIGV

= 1 and h

VIGV

= 0 stand for VIGV at the

fully open and fully closed positions respectively:

m

VIGV

m

VIGV1

Dm

VIGV

2

Dm

VIGV

Dm

VIGV1

VIGV0

h

VIGV

3

Dm

VIGV

is the reduction in air mass ow due to a partially closed po-

sition of the VIGVs and Dm

VIGV1

VIGV0

is the total variation in air mass

ow between fully open and fully closed positions of the VIGVs in

Eqs. (2) and (3). Note that all mass ows involved in Eqs. (2) and

(3) are meant to be corrected mass ows:

m

c

m

T=T

ref

_

p=p

ref

4

Nomenclature

Latin

C

p

specic heat at constant pressure (kJ kg

1

K

1

)

h enthalpy (kJ kg

1

)

J shaft total moment of inertia (kg m

2

rad

2

)

K discharge coefcient ()

LHV low heating value (kJ kg

1

)

_ m mass ow (kg s

1

)

M

cc

mass of gases in the combustor (kg)

p pressure (Pa)

t time (s)

T temperature (K)

TET turbine exhaust temperature (K)

TIT turbine inlet temperature (K)

x

i

molar fraction of specie i ()

V

p

equivalent volume of plenum (m

3

)

_

W power (kW)

Greek

b

c

pressure ratio ()

c specic heat ratio ()

U ow coefcient (kg K

s

1

Pa

1

)

g efciency ()

q density (kg m

3

)

s time constant (s)

x shaft speed (rad s

1

)

Subscripts

c compressor

cool coolant

gen generator

mec mechanical

ref reference

t turbine

VIGV variable inlet guide vanes

714 R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

where T

ref

and p

ref

are reference temperature and pressure, gener-

ally at ISO conditions 15 C and 1.013 bar.

The power consumption of the compressor is calculated as the

product of air mass ow and enthalpy rise between inlet and dis-

charge sections, where enthalpy is again the product between spe-

cic heat at constant pressure and stagnation temperature. If g

c

and b

c

are the internal efciency and pressure ratio of the compres-

sor, discharge temperature and power consumption can be calcu-

lated as follows:

T

out

T

in

1

1

g

c

b

c1

c

c

1

_ _ _ _

5

_

W

c

m

VIGV

hT

out

hT

in

m

VIGV

CpT

out

T

out

CpT

in

T

in

6

Both specic heat C

p

and specic heat ratio c are evaluated at

the mean pressure between inlet and outlet sections of the com-

pressor in Eq. (5).

The above calculations have been done disregarding any un-

steady effects affecting mass conservation. However, these effects

must be included in a real time simulation and, therefore, a plenum

is added at the compressor discharge section to account for them.

The performance of this plenum constitutes the second block of the

compressor model.

The plenum is considered to be equivalent to an isentropic pas-

sage where the air velocity is assumed to be low enough as to ne-

glect momentum variations. Thus, conservation of energy, and

therefore temperature, and pressure across this component is

imposed:

T; pj

inlet

plenum

T; pj

outlet

plenum

7

The continuity equation for the isentropic unsteady ow across

the plenum can be written as [3,24]:

V

p

dq

out

dt

V

p

c R T

out

dp

out

dt

_ m

in

_ m

out

8

from which pressure variations due to mass accumulation in the

compressor passages, transition duct and combustor can be

calculated.

Finally, as a third block in the compressor model, and although

this phenomenon takes place downstream of the compressor, air

bleeding for turbine cooling is considered. The amount of air being

directed to the turbine cooling system is calculated by Eq. (9) [25].

Thus, assuming a value for the discharge coefcient K, which de-

pends on turbine design ultimately, the air mass ow bled from

the compressor for the nth blade row is:

_ m

cool;n

T

cd

p

p

cd

K

1

p

in;n

p

cd

9

where cd and in,n stand for bleeding conditions at compressor

outlet/discharge and conditions at the entrance to the nth turbine

blade row, where n varies depending on the number of cooled blade

rows of the turbine. The total bleeding air mass ow is:

_ m

cool;total

n

_ m

cool;n

n

K

n

p

cd

T

cd

p

1

p

in;n

p

cd

10

Input data for the compressor model are the following:

Intake conditions: pressure, temperature and relative humidity.

VIGV position, a value between 0, fully closed, and 1, fully open.

Air mass ow in the previous tine step, to avoid algebraic loops.

Pressure at the injection point of each cooled blade row of the

turbine.

Output data are:

Pressure ratio and efciency.

Power consumption.

Discharge pressure and temperature/enthalpy.

Air mass ow bled from the compressor for each cooled blade

row and total cooling air mass ow.

2.3. Combustor model

The combustor is considered to be a pure energy accumulator

where no unsteady effects regarding mass accumulation are taken

into account. Hence, pressure and temperature take the same val-

ues at all points of the combustor, which correspond to pressure

and temperature at its outlet section. Under these assumptions,

the equation of energy conservation is:

s

cc

dT

out

dt

_ m

air;in

h

air;in

m

fuel

g

comb

LHV _ m

gas;out

h

gas;out

_ m

gas;out

C

p pgas;out

11

where low heating value LHV depends on fuel composition. Time

constant s

cc

for Eq. (11) is calculated as follows:

s

cc

M

cc

c m

out

12

where M

cc

is the total mass of gases inside the combustor at each

time step. M

cc

depends on outlet pressure, outlet temperature and

composition and is calculated with the ideal gas equation under

the assumption of complete combustion of fuel to carbon dioxide,

water steam, nitrogen and oxygen.

Input data for the combustor model are the following:

Air mass ow, pressure and temperature at compressor

discharge.

Fuel ow and composition.

Output data are mass ow, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and

gas composition at combustor outlet.

2.4. Turbine model

The model of the turbine comprises two different blocks, as it

was the case for the compressor. On one hand, a block evaluates

the steady performance of the turbine while, on the other hand,

a second block evaluates the unsteady performance due to the ef-

fect of mass accumulation at the interstage free spaces on pressure

variations along the expansion line.

However, with respect to the compressor model, there exists an

essential difference since the turbine is a cooled machine, partly or

entirely. Thus, the cooling air injected into the turbine affects the

pressure and temperature of the main gas stream owing through

it and, therefore, modies the expansion line of this component.

From a thermodynamic point of view, the turbine can not be con-

sidered an adiabatic machine.

In order to determine the starting point of the expansion line of

the turbine, pressure and temperature are needed at this location.

Both parameters are linked to the mass ow of combustion gases

through the following ow parameter, whose value is determined

at on design operating conditions:

C

m

in

T

in

p

p

in

: 13

Starting from these initial conditions, the expansion line of the

turbine is used to:

R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724 715

Evaluate enthalpy variations and, therefore, useful work.

Calculate the pressures at the different locations where cooling

air is injected into the turbine. With this information, the mass

ow of cooling air bled for each blade row can be calculated

through Eq. (10).

The expansion line of the turbine is constructed with the meth-

od proposed by El-Masri [26] and later used by other authors [3,5].

It can be divided into the following steps:

1. A mixing process between the main gas ow and the cooling

air for the rst stator, Eq. (10), takes place at the inlet to the

rst stage. The resulting temperature of the mixed ow is

calculated from the following mass and energy conservation

equations:

_ m

tot;in

_ m

upstream

_ m

cool;stator

14

_ m

tot;in

h

tot;in

_ m

upstream

h

upstream

_ m

cool;stator

h

cool

15

This process takes place at constant pressure, i.e. no pressure

loss, and is represented in gure A between points A and B.

2. A certain pressure loss is applied due to the mixing process. This

loss takes place at constant enthalpy and is usually evaluated

from experimental data, although there are available numerical

expressions to evaluate it. However, these equations require

that a detailed analysis of stage velocity diagrams be done

and, still, they need some experimental information [27]. In this

work, a 2% pressure loss is considered line BC in Fig. 1.

3. An adiabatic expansion process is now considered through the

stage, line CD in Fig. 1. Assuming a certain isentropic efciency,

which can be obtained from the Smith charts [28,29], the tem-

perature at stage outlet depends on expansion ratio and gas

composition as expressed by the following equation:

T

out

T

in

1 g

t

1 p

in

=p

out

c1

c

_ _ _ _

16

4. Next, a new mixing process between the main gas stream and

the cooling air of the rotor is considered, again at constant pres-

sure. The resulting temperature of the mixed ow is calculated

from:

_ m

tot;out

_ m

upstream

_ m

cool;rotor

17

_ m

tot;out

h

tot;out

_ m

upstream

h

upstream

_ m

cool;rotor

h

cool

18

Note that the enthalpy of the cooling air is the same for Eqs. (15)

and (18) since the bleeding point at the compressor is common

for both of them. This mixing process is represented in Fig. 1 be-

tween points D and E.

5. Finally, a new pressure drop is considered as in step 3 above,

line EF in Fig. 1.

This procedure is applied to all the cooled stages in the turbine.

For the uncooled stages, if any, only step 3 is needed.

The previous equations constitute the rst block of the turbine

model, regarding steady performance. Now, unsteady effects due

to mass accumulation are considered by adding a plenum between

each pair of turbine stages. These plena are modelled as in the

compressor discharge section before, Eq. (8), but now V

p

is the vol-

ume of the free space between two consecutive turbine stages, and

c is evaluated for the composition and temperature of the expand-

ing gas at the specied location.

The model described in this section gives the distributions of

mass ow, temperature and pressure along the gas path of the tur-

bine. With this information, the power produced by this compo-

nent can be evaluated using the following equation:

_

W

t

n

i1

_ m

i

h

in;i

h

out;i

_ _

19

n being the number of turbine stages.

Input data for the turbine model are: inlet temperature and

mass ow, composition of combustion gases, cooling air mass

ows and efciency. Outputs are temperature, pressure and mass

ow distributions along the gas path, exhaust temperature and

generated power.

2.5. Solving strategy

Sections 2.2 to 2.4 have shown models for the three major com-

ponents of a gas turbine engine and, for each of them, a list of input

and output data of the model has been given. It is worth noting

that these parameters are not independent and, instead, a unique

solution exists that satises all the equations at the same time.

Thus, an iterative process is required in order to nd the operating

point of the engine as exposed by El-Masri [27].

For real time simulation purposes, the time required for the

aforementioned solution to be obtained must be shorter than the

time needed by the physical system, in this case the gas turbine en-

gine, to achieve the new operating conditions, what depends on

the dynamic characteristics of the system. If such a simulator is

available, an appropriate set of sensors and actuators can be de-

signed as to control the engine in the required way. The following

Section describes different strategies that can be applied to control

the engine.

3. Control system

3.1. Preliminary considerations

An automatic control system capable of operating the gas tur-

bine engine autonomously is now designed. Such system must be

able to adjust the engine to the desired operating conditions and,

at the same time, comply with a number of operational constraints.

These constraints can be divided in the following groups:

Mechanical integrity: vibrations reduction, stress limitation,

temperature time gradient, abrupt action of actuators. . ..

Fig. 1. Model of expansion in a cooled turbine stage.

716 R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

Safe operation: maximum temperature in the hot gas path com-

ponents, frequency/shaft speed oscillations, surge margin at the

compressor. . ..

Three different types of variables have to be dened before

designing the control system:

Variables to be controlled.

Variables to be measured. These measurements feed the con-

troller which, in turn, determines control actions.

Variables to act upon. Decisions made by the controller affect

these variables in order to control the system.

Any set point of the engine is dened by the amount of power

demanded by the grid and the frequency at which the power is

to be generated. Thus, it is mandatory that the power turbine ro-

tates constantly at 3000/3600 rpm 50/60 Hz for direct coupling

between engine and generator or at a another speed if a gearbox is

present. In any case, the dynamic behaviour of the power shaft of a

gas turbine is described by the following equation:

dx

dt

1

Jx

_

W

t

_

W

c

_ _

g

mec

_

W

gen

_ _

20

where x is the rotational speed, g

mec

the mechanical efciency of

the power shaft, J the total moment of inertia of the shaft and P

turb

,

P

comp

and P

gen

the power produced/consumed by turbine, compres-

sor and generator respectively. For single shaft engines, all these

variables are present. For multishaft gas turbines, P

comp

is not pres-

ent and P

turb

applies to the power turbine exclusively. The same

considerations are applicable to the calculation of J.

The power setting must be satised with the maximum afford-

able efciency, what depends mainly on the value of temperature

at turbine inlet. Therefore, since the high temperature section of

the turbine is very hazardous for sensors to operate reliably, the

turbine exhaust temperature, or gas generator exhaust tempera-

ture for multishaft engines, is taken as an indirect measurement

of its equivalent at turbine inlet [17,30], to guarantee that maxi-

mum efciency is achieved. Tuning the engine to this performance

is done by acting upon the fuel ow injected into the combustor.

The interdependence among these variables is expressed by the

following equation:

g

global

_

W

gen

_ m

f

LHV

21

The last variable involved in the control system is the position

of the variable geometry blades of the compressor which is and

indirect measurement of the amount of air owing through the en-

gine. This air mass ow is needed since it affects the power con-

sumed/produced by the compressor/turbine, Eqs. (6) and (19),

and the turbine inlet temperature, Eq. (11).

Table 1 shows a summary of the controlled, measured and

manipulated variables of the control system to be implemented

in the turbine. It is observed that a strong interdependence exists

between manipulated and controlled variables. Such a control sys-

tem is usually dened as a multivariable system and its design is

somewhat complex due to the aforementioned interdependence,

especially for highly nonlinear systems like gas turbines.

3.2. Measurement and operating equipment: sensors and actuators

Sensors and actuators have to be dened and modelled before

designing the controller. For the rst case, and according to Table

1, sensors that measure the instantaneous value of shaft speed

and turbine exhaust temperature are needed. A set of thermocou-

ples with radiation shields is used to evaluate temperature at tur-

bine exhaust while, for the rotational speed of the shaft, a simple

tachometer is adopted. Fig. 2 shows the model of both sensors,

where the tachometer has been assigned a unity stationary gain

in the consideration that its response be much faster than that of

the thermocouples.

Looking at Table 1 again, actuators for the fuel delivery valve

and the variable stator vanes positioning lever are necessary. These

are shown in Fig. 3 where the complete fuel supply system deliv-

ery valve, piping, injectors and mixers has been considered.

3.3. Controller design

Three different controllers have been considered by the authors

in developing the complete real time simulator of the gas turbine.

First, a one step ahead adaptive controller was considered since

this control theory is suitable for unsteady non linear systems

whose dynamics are not known previously. However, when ap-

plied to the turbine, the commands on the actuators were found

to be too abrupt and, as a consequence, high frequency oscillations

of the manipulated variables, and consequently the controlled vari-

ables, were present. No convergence was found and, thus, newcon-

trollers were investigated which are further described in the

following subsections.

3.3.1. Optimal LQG control with cascade PI and parallel open loop

tuning

First of all, an optimal LQG controller with cascade PI and par-

allel open loop tuning is considered [31]. An internal loop makes

use of an LQG controller, called the slave controller, aimed at con-

trolling the generated power signal as an intermediate variable,

while an external loop uses a PI controller called the master con-

troller that controls the rotating speed. Since LQG controllers apply

to linear systems and gas turbine are highly non linear, a look up

table for open loop tuning is employed. This table, which is ob-

tained empirically by running the model at different steady states

conditions [22], provides a rst estimation of the corrective actions

needed to achieve the new operating conditions of the engine, later

corrected by the linearized cascade controller. Figs. 4 and 5 show

the block diagram and Simulink implementation of this controller

respectively.

This cascade control system uses two feedback controllers,

though only one of them slave gives relevant information for

the engine user net shaft power. On the contrary, the master con-

troller is responsible for keeping the shaft speed at the same value

under any operating conditions. Thus, this master PI controller pro-

vides the set point for the slave controller.

Henceforth, if a perturbation happens in the inner loop power,

a corrective action is commanded by the slave controller in order

to prevent the perturbation from passing to the outer loop. If the

perturbation is located in the outer loop engine speed, the master

controller changes the set point of the inner loop controller.

3.3.2. Open loop PI controller with serial lookup table

Finally, an open loop PI controller with serial lookup table is

considered. This is similar to the previous controller but does not

Table 1

Variables involved in the control system.

Type of variable

Controlled Measured Manipulated

Generated power (P

gen

) Rotating speed (x) Fuel ow (m

f

)

Global efciency

(g

global

)

Turbine inlet

temperature (TIT)

Turbine exhaust

temperature (TET)

Compressor geometry

(VIGV)

R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724 717

include the secondary control loop, which must now be of the open

type and therefore requires that a reference set point be given by

another controller in order to act upon changes in the dynamics

of the main loop. Thus, a conventional PI acts as the main controller

engine speed while the secondary controller makes use of a

look up table to estimate the appropriate corrective action fuel

system or compressor geometry. It is worth noting that this sec-

ondary controller acts upon the system if shaft speed deviations

are registered but does not control the exhaust temperature in

the closed loop. However, this temperature has been previously

controlled during the design process of the secondary controller

generation of look up tables. In this sense, it is considered that

the ramp up curve of the engine is smooth enough as to assume

that the dynamics of the exhaust temperature are not far from

the values obtained at stationary conditions. The validation of

the model, shown later, conrms this assumption. Figs. 6 and 7

show the block diagram and Simulink implementation of this

controller.

With respect to the previous one, this controller is easier in that

it does not require that the system be linearized at different load

settings.

4. Validation of the model at design and off design stationary

conditions

In this section, the model presented above is applied to the Sie-

mens V64.3 gas turbine and the results obtained are compared

with available data from this engine [4,21]. This is a single shaft

fuel exible unit commonly used in electricity generation and

combined heat and power production. The Siemens V 64.3 gas tur-

bine has two horizontal combustors, a 17 stages axial compressor

with variable geometry stator vanes in the rst four stages and a

four stages turbine. At the turbine, the rst seven blade rows are

cooled with air bled from the compressor. Since it is an industrial

engine, the shaft rotates steadily at 5400 rpm 90 Hz and turns

the generator at 3000 rpm 50 Hz through a gearbox with a

1.8:1 gear ratio.

Table 2 shows real and computed performance data at rated and

peak load operation for natural gas fuel and ISO ambient conditions

15 C, 1013 mbar and 60% humidity. It must be noted that, since

the compressor map of the reference engine was not available, a

standard map for a 17 stage compressor with lower mass ow

capacity has been scaled up and applied to the model as shown

in [32].

As shown in the rightmost column of Table 2, the maximum

deviations of the model from real data are below 2% and are asso-

ciated to exhaust temperature and fuel ow. The following

assumptions of the model are identied as the sources of these

inaccuracies:

Cooled turbine expansion line calculation, as described in Sec-

tion 2.4. The model assumes that cooling air is injected dis-

cretely between blade rows but the real cooling process is

continuous. The end point of the expansion line exhaust tem-

perature is affected by the cumulative error of the entire

turbine.

Cooling air calculation. The amount of compressed air needed

for cooling depends on the expansion line of the turbine and

the discharge characteristics of the cooling system injection

holes at the turbine. The inaccuracy of the expansion line calcu-

lation and the lack of precise information about the geometry of

the cooling passages affect the calculated mass ow entering

the combustor. Thus, since the fuel ow depends on the air

mass ow into the combustion chamber, a deviation from real

data arises.

Fig. 2. Temperature and rotational speed sensors.

Fig. 3. VIGV and fuel system actuators.

Fig. 4. Optimal LQG control with cascade PI and parallel open loop tuning.

718 R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

Fig. 8 shows real and computed data of efciency and perfor-

mance parameters for part load operation following a typical con-

stant exhaust temperature strategy. From idle to 50%, load is

increased by increasing turbine inlet temperature for variable

geometry compressor vanes at their closest position. Then, from

50% to full load, compressor vanes are opened while turbine inlet

temperature still increases, though at a lower rate than in the pre-

vious range. Again, good agreement between model and reference

is achieved with a maximum error below 4%, which is obtained at

very low loads near idle operation. From the information in Table 2

and Fig. 8, the model is considered to be accurate in a wide range of

operating conditions.

5. Control system analysis and transient performance

5.1. System selection

In order to analyze the stability and robustness of the control

system, and make the appropriate selection, the model is run at

different stationary power settings until convergence is achieved.

The results of such analyses for full load and 70% load are shown

in Fig. 9 where the following operating parameters are depicted:

fuel to air ratio, VIGV position and frequency; in all cases, the

variables are plotted against integration time. From the numeri-

cal point of view, the open loop PI controller shows a good per-

formance and time evolution in the whole load range while the

LQG controller performs satisfactorily for loads higher than 70%.

For the latter control system at loads lower than 70%, numerical

problems cause slow response in shaft speed control, requiring

180 s to achieve the rated value 5 s for the PI-based controller.

These time values in Fig. 9 are simulated operating time of

the engine and correspond to a computation time of less than 3 s

in a 1.73 GHz computer, considering that the differential and alge-

braic equation are implemented in Matlab-Simulink

environ-

ment. This software is a common environment for modelling

control systems, widely used by control systems researchers, that

perfectly conforms to the requirements of this analysis. For the

case of ordinary differential equations generated for both control

systems, these are solved with the ode23tb Matlab function, which

Fig. 5. Optimal LQG control with cascade PI and parallel open loop tuning. Simulink implementation.

Fig. 6. Open loop PI controller with serial lookup table.

R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724 719

is an implementation of TR-BDF2, an implicit RungeKutta formula

with a trapezoidal rule rst step and a backward differentiation

formula of order two for the second step. The same iteration matrix

is used to evaluate both steps.

From the information in Fig. 9, and considering that computa-

tion time is not high for any of the two controllers shown, the open

loop PI controller with serial lookup table is selected due to its

more stable behaviour in the numerical simulation.

5.2. Control system under the effect of perturbations

In this section, the performance of the selected controller under

perturbations occurring in some gas turbine components is ana-

lyzed [33]. This situation is modelled by introducing white noise

[34] under the form of a 20% perturbation in the rated value of

the selected variable. The analysis is shown for full load operation.

First of all, a failure of an actuator is simulated which can be

associated to a mismatch in VIGV positioning or a bouncing fuel

metering valve. The perturbation is considered to last for 5 s

and Fig. 10 shows in top left that the control system is able to

compensate for this perturbation keeping the deviation of fre-

quency from its rated value below 0.03%. The next perturbation

considered is due to fuel impurities or modied fuel composition

and is analyzed in the top right plot in Fig. 10. The perturbation

time is now increased to 10 s and, again, the control system mit-

igates its effect and reduces the maximum frequency deviation

below 0.008%. Third, a deterioration of the generator is consid-

ered, causing an irregular power demand. This situation is simu-

lated as a 20 s perturbation whose effect on frequency is shown

in the bottom left plot in Fig. 10. It is appreciated that frequency

oscillations are below 0.004%. Finally, a load rejection is consid-

ered in order to analyze the risk of gas turbine overspeed. This

failure is simulated with a step signal at 5 s of numerical integra-

tion. The bottom right plot in Fig. 10 shows an initial acceleration

followed by a speed reduction actuated by the controller. Eventu-

ally, after 20 s, the control system is able to maintain shaft speed

at its rated value.

Two preliminary conclusions are drawn from Fig. 10. First of all,

it is shown that the model of the engine performs stable simula-

tions at off design conditions of different kinds and for a wide

range of power settings (load rejection when running at full load).

Second, the control system credits its ability to act on the engine

minimizing the effect of perturbations of different kinds and avoid-

ing deviations from the frequency of the grid.

5.3. Transient performance of the engine

Finally, an analysis of the transient performance of the engine is

shown in order to illustrate the operational modes of the engine at

Fig. 7. Open loop PI controller with serial lookup table. Simulink implementation.

Table 2

Model validation.

Rated Peak load e

max

(%)

Reference Computed Reference Computed

Shaft power

(MW)

61.5 61.5 66.7 66.7 0

Efciency (% LHV) 35.8 35.6 36.1 36.4 0.73

Pressure ratio () 15.6 25.6 15.9 15.8 0.44

Fuel ow (kg/s) 3.44 3.50 3.69 3.71 1.71

Exhaust ow

(kg/s)

187 187 187 187.2 0.11

TIT (kg/s) 1250 1250 1298 1298.2 0.02

TET (C) 534 533.6 565 554.3 1.89

720 R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

different power settings. For this dynamic analysis, a transition

from idle to peak load operation in 240 s is studied. This fast start

up might be representative of a hot start manoeuvre after, for

example, the load rejection considered in Fig. 10. For a cold start

with the engine at room temperature, the slope of the load line

should be decreased in order to reduce the time temperature gra-

dient of the hot section components i.e. increased start time.

However, since the analysis shown is from idle to peak load, this

operation could also be expected from a peaking unit where the

faster deterioration of the engine due to fast starts is compensated

for by the higher economical revenue of high electricity prices. Re-

sults are shown in Fig. 11.

The following ve operational modes/stages are appreciated in

Fig. 11:

Fig. 8. Part load operation: efciency left and internal parameters right shown for reference circles and model solid line [8]. All parameters normalized to rated

values.

Fig. 9. Comparison of controllers as a function of integration time: fuelair ratio (top left), VIGV position (top right), frequency (bottom).

R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724 721

1. Idle operation, from 0 to 10 s. VIGVs at their closest position

and minimum turbine inlet temperature TIT.

2. Idle to 50% load, 125 s total time. Fuel ow and turbine inlet

and exhaust temperatures are increased but VIGVs are still

at their closest position. Hence, pressure ratio is almost

constant.

3. 50100% load, 250 s total time. The engine operates at con-

stant turbine exhaust temperature. VIGVs are opened pro-

gressively, therefore increasing air mass ow and pressure

ratio. Turbine inlet temperature also increases but at a lower

rate than in the previous stage so that turbine exhaust tem-

perature remains constant. At full load, VIGVs are fully open

and turbine inlet temperature is at its rated value.

4. Full to peak (108.5%) load. Additional power is obtained by

increasing turbine inlet temperature above its rated value.

As a consequence, turbine exhaust temperature and pressure

ratio increase while VIGVs remain at the fully open position.

5. Steady operation at peak load for the rest of the time period

considered.

Overall, fuel mass ow increases linearly from idle to peak load

while VIGVs are only used from 50% to 100% load. In this range,

their position varies linearly. In other words, from idle to 50%

and from 100% to peak load, power control is done by means of fuel

ow exclusively. Thus, turbine inlet temperature is seen to change

substantially with load within this range. For middle loads, 50

100%, VIGVs and fuel ow are used simultaneously to change the

power setting. Since air and fuel ows are now varied at the same

time, turbine inlet temperature increases at a lower rate than in

the previous load range.

The aforementioned control regimes can also be appreciated in

the bottom left plot in Fig. 11 showing compressor performance.

Three different stages are identied. For low loads, VIGVs remain

at their closest position and the power consumed by the compres-

sor is hardly affected by a negligible increase in pressure ratio.

Then, VIGVs start to open and compressor power increases sub-

stantially due to the effect of pressure ratio and circulating mass

ow. Finally, from full to peak load, compressor power increases

at a lower rate affected by pressure ratio but not mass ow since

VIGVs remain at the same position.

With respect to frequency, an initial drop is shown in Fig. 11,

bottomright, due to initial loading of the engine while the opposite

situation is appreciated when peak load is achieved. In this latter

case, there is a tendency of the engine to accelerate that is imme-

diately corrected by the control system. In both situations, the sta-

bilisation time is 10 s and the process is smooth without over

oscillations. Frequency deviations are below 0.002%.

6. Conclusions

The main conclusions of this work are the following:

A dynamic model of performance for gas turbine engines has

been developed and validated. This model is based on zero-

dimensional conservation equations applied to each component

of the engine for steady state performance calculations and

intermediate plena to account for unsteady effects.

Two controllers have been considered for the automatic opera-

tion of the engine, both of them showing good results at steady

state off design performance and small computational time

Fig. 10. Effect of perturbations: actuators (top left), fuel (top right), generator (bottom left) and load rejection (bottom right).

722 R. Chacartegui et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 713724

requirements. However, the open loop PI controller with serial

lookup table is selected for dynamic operation due to its stabil-

ity, reliability and robustness. Results for the dynamic analysis

show that this controller is more stable than the LQG option.

The validation against steady state performance data is fully

satisfactory in spite of the model incorporating some internal

uncertainties.

The ability of the model to act on the engine when perturba-

tions of different nature take place opens a broad eld of oper-

ational analysis with the tool developed.

In summary, a very useful tool for dynamic simulation and anal-

ysis of gas turbine engines is presented in this paper. This model

has proved to be accurate at predicting part load analysis of the en-

gine and able to simulate abnormal operation. The application of

such operating conditions to different power plant analyses will

be reported in future works by the authors.

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