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Preparation of pH buffer solutions Email Phosphate and Acetate buffers The different names for phosphate salts.

Standardization buffers pH 4 and pH 7. Ph range of some buffer systems. Making up buffer solutions by adding an adjuster solution (acid or base) to a known volume and concentration of a primary salt solution. Potassium hydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium acetate,sodium tetraborate, tris aminomethane. Related link: Analysis Buffers For EDTA titrations For Fluoride (TISAB) For Determination of Fe. On this page: Click the links below to jump to the relevant info:

The preparation of pH buffer solutions acetate buffers phosphate buffers

solid mixture buffers Phosphates Phosphate salts are known by several names and the correct phosphate must be used to prepare buffer solutions. One phosphate cannot be substituted for another phosphate. Check formula of salt to be certain. Formu la Name of salt Other names potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate monobasic potassium phosphate monopotassium phosphate acid potassium phosphate potassium biphosphate dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate dipotassium hydrogen phosphate dibasic potassium phosphate dipotassium phosphate tribasic potassium phosphate tripotassium phosphate

KH2PO4

potassium dihydrogen phosphate

K2HPO4

potassium hydrogen phosphate potassium phosphate

K3PO4

Standardization buffers For pH=7.00 : Add 29.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml 0.1 molar potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Alternatively : Dissolve 1.20g of sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.885g of disidium hydrogen phosphate in 1 liter volume distilled water. For pH= 4.00 : Add 0.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml of 0.1 molar potassium hydrogen phthalate . Alternatively : Dissolve 8.954g of disodium hydrogen phosphste.12 H2O and 3.4023g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate in 1 liter volume distilled water. Range of common buffer systems

Buffering system Hydrochloric acid/ Potassium chloride

Useful buffering pH range @ 25C 1.0 - 2.2

Glycine/ Hydrochloric acid

2.2 - 3.6

Potassium hydrogen phthalate/ Hydrochloric acid

2.2 - 4.0

Citric acid/ Sodium citrate

3.0 - 6.2

Sodium acetate/ Acetic acid

3.7 - 5.6

Potassium hydrogen phtaalate/ Sodium hydroxide

4.1 - 5.9

Disodium hydrogen phthalate / Sodium dihydrogen orthophospate

5.8 - 8.0

Dipotassium hydrogen phthalate / Potassium dihydrogen orthophospate

5.8 - 8.0

Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate / sodium hydroxide Barbitone sodium / Hydrochloric acid

5.8 - 8.00 6.8 - 9.6

Tris (hydroxylmethyl) aminomethane / Hydrochloric acid

7.0 - 9.00

Sodium tetraborate/ Hydrochloric acid

8.1 - 9.2

Glycine/ Sodium hydroxide

8.6 - 10.6

Sodium carbonate/ Sodium hydrogen carbonate

9.2 - 10.8

Sodium tetraborate/ Sodium hydroxide

9.3 - 10.7

Sodium bicarbonate / Sodium hydroxide

9.60 - 11.0

Sodium hydrogen orthophosphate / Sodium hydroxide

11.0 - 11.9

Potassium chloride/ Sodium hydroxide

12.0 - 13.0

Preparing a Buffer Solution This page gives tabulated info on the preparation of buffers by mixing adjusters with a known volume of the primary salt solution, and made up to 200ml with distilled water. BUFFERS 1.00 - 9.00 Buffer A : pH 1.0 - 2.2 50 ml 0.2 M KCl + mls of 0.2 M HCl pH mls of Buffer B : pH 2.2 - 4.00 100 ml 0.1 M potassium hydrogen phthalate + mls of 0.1 M HCl. pH Buffer C : pH 4.10 - 5.90 Buffer D : pH 5.8 - 8.00 Buffer E : pH 7.0 - 9.00

100 ml 0.1 M . 100 ml 0.1 M 100 ml 0.1 M tris potassium hydrogen KH2PO4 + mls of (hydroxymethyl) phthalate + mls of 0.1 0.1 M NaOH. aminomethane + mls of M NaOH 0.1 M HCl. mls of 0.1M pH mls of 0.1M pH mls of 0.1 M HCl

mls of 0.1M HCl pH

0.2M HCl added 1.0 134.0 0 1.1 105.6 0 1.2 85.0 0 1.3 67.2 0 1.4 53.2 0 1.5 41.4 0 1.6 32.4 0 1.7 26.0 0 1.8 20.4 0 1.9 16.2 0 2.0 13.0 0 2.1 10.2 0 2.2 7.8 0

added 2.20 99.0 2.30 91.6 2.40 84.4 2.50 77.6 2.60 70.8 2.70 64.2 2.80 57.8 2.90 51.4 3.00 44.6 3.10 37.6 3.20 31.4 3.30 25.8 3.40 20.8 3.50 16.4 3.60 12.6 3.70 9.0 3.80 5.8 3.90 2.8 4.00 0.2

NaOH added 4.10 2.6 4.20 6.0 4.30 9.4 4.40 13.2 4.50 17.4 4.60 22.2 4.70 27.2 4.80 33.0 4.90 38.8 5.00 45.2 5.10 51.0 5.20 57.6 5.30 63.2 5.40 68.2 5.50 73.2 5.60 77.6 5.70 81.2 5.80 84.6 5.90 87.4

NaOH added 5.80 7.2 5.90 9.2 6.00 11.2 6.10 13.6 6.20 16.2 6.30 19.4 6.40 23.2 6.50 27.8 6.60 32.8 6.70 38.6 6.80 44.8 6.90 51.8 7.00 58.2 7.10 64.2 7.20 69.4 7.30 74.0 7.40 78.2 7.50 82.2 7.60 85.6 7.70 88.4 7.80 90.6 7.90 92.2 8.00 93.4

added 7.00 93.2 7.10 91.4 7.20 89.4 7.30 86.8 7.40 84.0 7.50 80.6 7.60 77.0 7.70 73.2 7.80 69.0 7.90 64.0 8.00 58.4 8.l0 52.4

8.20 45.8 8.30 39.8 8.40 34.4 8.50 29.4 8.60 24.4 8.70 20.6 8.80 17.0 8.90 14.0 9.00 11.4

Dissolve 0.745 grams of KCl in 100 ml of water to make 0.1M solution of KCl Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_can_you_prepare_0.1M_solution_of_KCl_in_100ml#ixzz1ryP5h VZF

BUFFERS 08 - 13 Buffer F: pH 8.0 - 9.10 Buffer G : pH 9.2 - 10.80 Buffer H : pH 9.60 - 11.00 Buffer I : Buffer J : pH 10.90 - 12.00 pH 12.00 - 13.00 50 mL 0.2 M KCl + volume indicated (in mL) 0.2 M NaOH. mls of 0.2M NaOH added

100 mL 0.025 M 100 mL 0.025 M 100 mL 0.05 M 100 mL 0.05 M Na2B4O7.10H2O Na2B4O7.10H2O NaHCO3 + mls of Na2HPO4 + mls (borax) + mls of 0.1 M (borax) + mls of 0.1 M 0.1 M NaOH. of 0.1 M NaOH. HCl. NaOH. pH mls of 0.1M HCl added pH mls of 0.1M NaOH added 1.8 7.2 12.4 17.6 22.2 26.2 30.0 33.4 pH mls of 0.1M pH NaOH added

mls of 0.1M pH NaOH added

8.00 41.0 8.10 39.4 8.20 37.6 8.30 35.4 8.40 33.2 8.50 30.4 8.60 27.0 8.70 23.2 8.80 19.2 8.90 14.2 9.00 9.2 9.10 4.0

9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90

9.60 10.0 9.70 12.4 9.80 15.2 9.90 18.2 10.0 21.4 0 10.1 24.4 0 10.2 27.6 0 10.3 30.4 0 10.4 33.0 0 10.5 35.6 0 10.6 38.2 0 10.7 40.4 0 10.8 42.4 0 10.9 44.0 0 11.0 45.4 0

10.9 6.6 0 11.0 8.2 0 11.1 10.2 0 11.2 12.6 0 11.3 15.2 0 11.4 18.2 0 11.5 22.2 0 11.6 27.0 0 11.7 32.4 0 11.8 38.8 0 11.9 46.0 0 12.0 53.8 0

12.00 12.0 12.10 16.0 12.20 20.4 12.30 25.6 12.40 32.4 12.50 40.8 12.60 51.2 12.70 64.4 12.80 82.4 12.90 106.0 13.00 132.0

10.00 36.6 10.10 39.0 10.20 41.0 10.30 42.6 10.40 44.2 10.50 45.4 10.60 46.6 10.70 47.6 10.80 48.5

Acetate buffer solutions pH 3 - 6 Make up the following solutions (1) 0.1M acetic acid (2) 0.1M sodium acetate (tri-hydrate) (13.6g / l) Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph ph 3 4 5 6 vol. of 0.1M acetic acid 982.3 mls 847.0 mls 357.0 mls 52.2 mls vol. of 0.1M sodium acetate 17.7 mls 153.0 mls 643.0 mls 947.8 mls

Phosphate buffer solutions ph 7 - 11 Make up the following solutions (1) 0.1M disodium hydrogen phosphate (14.2g / l) (2) 0.1M HCl (3) 0.1M NaOH Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph ph 7 8 9 10 11 vol. of phosphate 756.0 mls 955.1 mls 955.0 mls 966.4 mls 965.3 mls vol. of 0.1M HCl 244 mls 44.9 mls 45.0 mls 33.6 34.7 vol. of 0.1M NaOH

Addition of acid or base to a salt pH 3 - 11 Here, the primary salt is a solid and is weighed out in grams. A measured amount of 0.1M HCl or NaOH is added, then made up to 1 liter to give the relevant buffer solution 4. pH 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Salt mixture Dilute each mixture to 1 liter solution with distilled water 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 223ml of 0.10M HCl 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 1ml of 0.10M HCl 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 226ml of 0.10M NaOH 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phOsphate and 56ml of 0.10M NaOH 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 291ml of 0.10M NaOH 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 467ml of 0.10M NaOH 4.77g sodium tetraborate and 46ml of 0.10M HCl 4.77g sodium tetraborate and 183ml of 0.10M NaOH 2.10g sodium bicarbonate and 227ml of 0.10M NaOH