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BEHAVIORISM BEHAVIORISM 1.

Definition of behaviorism A school of psychology that take the objective evidence of behavior (as measured responses to stimuli) as the only concern of its research and the basis of its theory without reference to conscious experience. (Bandura, 1989) Or Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental condition. (Feldman, 2005) Or It is the school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B. Watson, who insisted that behavior is a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. He rejected the exploration of mental processes as unscientific. (Hinrichs, 2004) Or Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviorism, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. (Morris & Maisto, 2001)

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2. BEGINNINGS The origins of behaviorism grew out of the ideology of the American Progressive Movement of 1880 to 1920. Although the Progressive movement is often associated with political reform its affects were felt much more broadly. The Progressive Movement is a natural evolution of the liberal philosophies that began with John Locke and put into practice by Thomas Jefferson. The defining concept is the idea that society is bound together by an implicit social contract permitting political autonomy and individual rights in exchange for an obligation of stewardship of the social needs of others. (Bandura, 1989) One of the aims of the Progressive Movement was to bring the benefits of science to the challenges of social needs. This was defined generally as increasing the material comfort of people who had been left disadvantaged by the Industrial Revolution. To this end, the American Social Science Association was established in 1863 to organize the growing number of academics in the emerging American university system. The association published the first American scholarly journal dedicated to social science, The Journal of Social Science. (Mills, 1998) From the time of the inception of the American Social Science Association to the end of the 19th century, psychology had not emerged as a discipline in its own right, but was considered an emerging moral philosophy. However, the realities of budgets and legislators created pressure on early proponents of psychology mostly professors of philosophy and theology to create research that might lead to practical applications. This led William James a leading academic champion of psychology whose training was in philosophy to advocate for a separation of philosophy and psychology. While James was not suggesting that psychology abandon philosophy, he wrote a number of books and scholarly articles at the turn of the century calling for its inclusion as a natural science. Traditional philosophers were very happy to assist in psychologies move to independence; the pressure to produce pragmatic results moved the discipline of psychology deeper in to the laboratory, a place where philosophers were decidedly uncomfortable. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007)

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3. NASCENT BEHAVIORISM As early as 1897, the roots of behaviorism can be found in the laboratory of sociologist Franklin Henry Giddings who created a sympathy scale, purporting to measure the levels of sympathy between races. Mills knew that his scale was inherently racist, but this was not a problem of political correctness as much as it was a problem of measurement. To overcome criticisms of lack of objective measurement Giddings rejected states of mind, internal mental mechanisms, and the unconscious and operationally defined behaviors that he believed represented sympathy. (Feldman, 2005) Giddings sympathy scale contained all the elements that behaviorism needed. Sympathy was defined in terms of observable and measurable behavior, there was no assumption that underling feelings or other meant constructs was involved, it was pragmatic in that it addressed the problem under examination and nothing else, and it held the promise of application to a broad range of social questions. (Hinrichs, 2004) By the time, that Giddings updated his sympathy scale in 1907 psychology was undergoing a transition phase. John Dewey, William James, and other American philosophers and psychologists were breaking with their German mentors over the issues of functionalism and structuralism this time. Dewey, while working with James, advanced the law of effect; at the same time the drive to pragmatic applications were modifying and integrating theories of functionalism and structuralisms towards a single concept. What this single concept would become, however, was not clear. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) Periods of transition are often periods of chaos and uncertainty, and this was the state of psychology in the early 1900s.James Angell, who had studied under both Dewey and James, was not only the president of the American Psychological Association, but also James Watsons dissertation adviser. By happenstance, Watson found himself standing amid a discipline waiting for leadership and direction when Angell declared in his presidential address to the APA in 1906 that behavior and its results were the focus of psychology. Thus, Angell moved American psychology firmly in the direction of behaviorism and broke completely with German functionalism and structuralism, while giving Watson the opportunity to redefine the discipline. (Hinrichs, 2004) 3

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4. ROOTS OF BEHAVIORISM Each of methodological, psychological, and analytical behaviorisms has a historical foundation. Analytical behaviorism traces its historical roots to the philosophical movement known as Logical positivism proposes that the meaning of statements used in science be Understood in terms of experimental conditions or observations that verify their truth. This positivist doctrine is known as verificationism. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007) In psychology, verificationism underpins or grounds analytical behaviorism, namely, the claim that mental concepts refer to behavioral tendencies and so must be translated into behavioral terms. Analytical behaviorism helps to avoid substance dualism. Substance dualism is the doctrine that mental states take place in a special, non-physical mental substance (the immaterial mind). By contrast, for analytical behaviorism, the belief that I have as I arrive on time for a 2pm dental appointment, namely, that I have a 2pm appointment, is not the property of a mental substance. (Bandura, 1989) Believing is a family of tendencies of my body. In addition, for an analytical behaviorist, we cannot identify the belief about my arrival independently of that arrival or other members of this family of tendencies. So, we also cannot treat it as the cause of the arrival. Cause and effect are, as Hume taught, conceptually distinct existences. Believing that I have a 2pm appointment is not distinct from my arrival and so cannot be part of the causal foundations of arrival. Psychological behaviorism's historical roots consist, in part, in the classical associations of the British Empiricist. (Feldman, 2005) Locke (16321704) and David Hume (171176). According to classical associationism, intelligent behavior is the product of associative learning. As a result of associations or pairings between perceptual experiences or stimulations on the one hand, and ideas or thoughts on the other, persons and animals acquire knowledge of their environment and how to act. Associations enable creatures to discover the causal structure of the world. Association is most helpfully viewed as the acquisition of knowledge about relations between events. Intelligence in behavior is a mark of such knowledge. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) 4

BEHAVIORISM Classical associations relied on introspectible entities, such as perceptual experiences or stimulations as the first links in associations, and thoughts or ideas as the second links. Psychological behaviorism, motivated by experimental interests, claims that to understand the origins of behavior, reference to stimulations (experiences) should be replaced by reference to stimuli (physical events in the environment), and that reference to thoughts or ideas should be eliminated or displaced in favor of reference to responses (overt behavior, motor movement). Psychological behaviorism is associationism without appeal to mental events. Dont human beings talk of introspectible entities, thoughts, feelings, and so on, even if these are not recognized by behaviorism or best? (Feldman, 2005) Understood as behavioral tendencies? Psychological behaviorists regard the practice of talking about one's own states of mind, and of introspectively reporting those states, as potentially useful data in psychological experiments, but as not presupposing the metaphysical subjectivity or non-physical presence of those states. There are different sorts of causes behind introspective reports, and psychological behaviorists take these and other elements of introspection to be amenable to behavioral analysis. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) Psychological behaviorism is to specify types of association, understand how environmental events control behavior, discover and elucidate causal regularities or laws or functional relations which govern the formation of associations, and predict how behavior will change as the environment changes. The word conditioning is commonly used to specify the process involved in acquiring new associations. Animals in so-called operant conditioning experiments are not learning to, for example, press levers. Instead, they are learning about the relationship between events in their environment, for example, that a particular behavior, pressing the lever, causes food to appear. (Hinrichs, 2004) In its historical foundations, methodological behaviorism shares with analytical behaviorism the influence of positivism. One of the main goals of positivism was to unify psychology with natural science. Watson wrote that psychology as a behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is prediction and control. (Feldman, 2005) 5

BEHAVIORISM Watson also wrote of the purpose of psychology as follows: To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction. Though logically distinct, methodological, psychological, and analytical behaviorisms often are found in one behaviorism. Skinner's radical behaviorism combines all three forms of behaviorism. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) 4.1 Behaviorism the Early Years In 1913, in one of the most famous lectures on the history of psychology, John Broadus Watson (1878-1958), a 35-year-old "animal behavior man" from Johns Hopkins University, called for a radical revisioning of the scope and method of psychological research. "Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation." (Feldman, 2005) Introspection was to be abandoned in favor of the study of behavior. Behavior was to be evaluated in its own right, independent of its relationship to any consciousness that might exist. The concept of "consciousness" was to be rejected as an interpretive standard and eschewed as an explanatory device. As an objective, natural science, psychology was to make no sharp distinction between human and animal behavior; and its goal was to develop principles by which behavior could be predicted and controlled. (Hinrichs, 2004) Published in the Psychological Review shortly after its delivery and incorporated within the first chapter of Watson's 1914 Behavior: A Textbook of Comparative Psychology, this lecture eventually came to be known as the "behaviorist manifesto." Generations of psychologists, reared in a post-Watsonian discipline that defined itself as

BEHAVIORISM the "science of behavior," were taught that Watson was the father of behaviorism and that February 24, 1913was the day on which modern behaviorism was born. What happened in 1913, then, was not novel; it was not a sharp break with the past. Nor did it create an immediate revolution. As Samelson has described it: "Supported by the Zeitgeist, Behaviorism supposedly spread quickly through psychology after the publication of Watson's manifesto in 1913. But an extensive search of published and unpublished source material from 1913 to 1920 shows only limited support and a good deal of resistance; documentary evidence for the conversion of psychologists to radical behaviorism during these years is hard to find. Though faced with some troubling problems, the discipline was not eager to renounce its established scientific authority and expertise on the mind. Yet behaviorism did eventually spread throughout American psychology. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) During the 1920s, across the work of a growing number of psychologists, there emerged a reasonably coherent set of intellectual commitments to which the name "behaviorism" gradually became attached. Based on the rejection of mentalism in psychological theory, a dedication to the use of objective methodology in research, and a strong concern with practical application of psychological knowledge to the prediction and control of behavior, "behaviorism" in the 1920s owed an obvious debt to Watson. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007) There was the relational behaviorism of the Harvard group, developed by Edwin Bissell Holt (1873-1946) under the influence of William James (1842-1910) and transmitted, at least in part, to students such as Floyd Henry Allport (1890-1978), and Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959). Conceiving of behavior as "a course of action which the living body executes or is prepared to execute with regard to some object or fact of its environment," (Morris & Maisto, 2001) Holt's behaviorism was molar, purposive and focused on the relationship between high-level behavioral mechanisms in the organism and the concrete realities of the social and physical environment. Closely related to this view was a kind of philosophical behaviorism, espoused primarily by philosophers and tied to pragmatism, in

BEHAVIORISM which "consciousness" was defined as a form of behavior guided by future result. (Hinrichs, 2004) At Ohio State, under the influence of his mentor, Max Frederick Meyer (18731967), Albert Paul Weiss (1879-1931) was developing a bio-social behaviorism based on a radical distinction between the level of theoretical discourse appropriate to behavior analyzed as social cause (i.e. biosocially) sensorimotor effect (i.e., "biophysically"). In Baltimore, Knight Dunlap (1875-1949),who had been both a Harvard graduate student with Holt and Watson's former departmental colleague at Johns Hopkins, was articulating a reaction psychology that blended attacks on introspection, instinct, and images, with an "insistence on response or reaction as the basis of mental processes, including thought processes and consciousness. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) At Minnesota, Karl Spencer Lashley (1890-1958) was arguing a physiological behaviorism in which the physiological analysis of behavior could be considered "a complete and adequate account of all the phenomena of consciousness." At the University of Chicago, George Herbert Mead (1863-1931), who had been on the faculty since Watson was a graduate student, was elaborating a social behaviorism of mind, meaning, self, language, and thinking that emphasized the social character of behavior and the behavioral character of mind. Finally, in a number of institutions, a sort of eclectic behaviorism was emerging-a behaviorism that assimilated whatever seemed strongest and most reliable in the views of others. (Feldman, 2005) 4.2 Early Behaviorism as an Orientation to Psychology As it existed during this period, behaviorism clearly resisted simple definition. Early behaviorism was not simple. It was complex, varied, and changing. Yet there was a common core within this variability-a definite movement away from certain ideas and practices and toward others. If early behaviorism could not be simply defined, it could nonetheless be broadly characterized in terms of a constellation of features including intellectual commitments concerning the nature of psychology as science and the fundamental nature of behavior and a set of theoretical and research emphases that 8 and that appropriate to behavior analyzed as

BEHAVIORISM followed directly from such commitments. It is this constellation of commitments and emphases, taken together, that gave early behaviorism its distinctive orientation. (Bandura, 1989) 5. CONTRIBUTORS IN BEHAVIOURISM

5.1 Ivan Pavlov 5.1.1 Biography (1849-1936)

"Science demands from a man all his life. If you had two lives that would not be enough for you, be passionate in your work and in your searching."--Ivan Pavlov Best Known For: Classical conditioning Research on physiology and digestion. 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology. Birth and Death: Ivan Pavlov was born September 14, 1849 Died February 27, 1936

5.1.2 Contributions to Psychology Ivan Pavlov's discovery and research on reflexes influenced the growing behaviourist movement, and his work was often cited in John B. Watson's writings. Other researchers utilized Pavlov's work in the study of conditioning as a form of learning. His research also demonstrated techniques of studying reactions to the environment in an objective, scientific method. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) 5.1.3 Career Ivan Pavlov's primary interests were the study of physiology and natural sciences. He helped found the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and continued to oversee the program for the next 45 years. 9

BEHAVIORISM While researching the digestive function of dogs, Pavlov noted that dogs would salivate before the delivery of food. In a series of well-known experiments, he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually finding that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than food. He termed this response a conditional reflex. Pavlov also discovered that these reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Pavlov received considerable acclaim for his work, including a 1901 appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology. The Soviet government also offered substantial support for Pavlov's work, and the Soviet Union soon became a well-known centre of physiology research. (Bandura, 1989) 5.1.4 Researches During Pavlov productive carrier, he works in 3 research problem. Function of nerves. The primary digestive gland. The study of higher nervous system.

For this work he occupied a vital place in the history of psychology. In his attack on this problem he made use of conditionning.His greatest scientific achievement for which he won Nobel Prize. 5.1.5 Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlovs experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) Pavlovs Dogs In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize10

BEHAVIORISM winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled psychic reflexes. While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlovs dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. (Hinrichs, 2004) Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlovs dogs, as predicted responded by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding. (Feldman, 2005) In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the dogs salivlearns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007)

5.2 JOHN B. WATSON 5.2.1 Biography (1878-1958) John B. Watson Is Best Known For: Behaviourism 11

BEHAVIORISM Little Albert Experiment

5.2.2 John Watson's Early Life John B. Watson was born January 9, 1878. He died on September 25, 1958. John B. Watson grew up in South Carolina. While he later described himself as a poor student, he entered Furman University at the age of 16. After graduating five years later with a masters degree, he began studying psychology at the University of Chicago. Watson earned his Ph.D. in psychology in 1903. (Santrock, 2008) 5.2.3 John Watson's Career Watson began teaching psychology at John Hopkins University in 1908. In 1913, he gave a seminal lecture at Columbia University titled Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, which essentially detailed the behaviorist position. According to John Watson, psychology should be the science of observable behavior. Watson remained at John Hopkins University until 1920. He had an affair with Raynor, divorced in first wife and was then asked by the university to resign his position. Watson later married Raynor and the two remained together until her death"Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness," he explained (1913) 5.2.4 Leaving Academia: in 1935 After leaving his academic position, Watson began working for an advertising agency where he remained until he retired in 1945. During the latter part of his life, John Watson's already poor relationships with his children grew progressively worse. He spent his last years living a reclusive life on a farm in Connecticut. Shortly before his death, he burned many of his unpublished personal papers and letters. (Bandura, 1989) 5.2.5 Contributions to Psychology Watson set the stage for behaviorism, which soon rose to dominate psychology. While behaviorism began to lose its hold after 1950, many of the concepts and principles 12

BEHAVIORISM are still widely used today. Conditioning and behavior modification are still widely used in therapy and behavioral training to help clients change problematic behaviors and develop new skills. (Hinrichs, 2004) 5.2.6 Achievements and Awards 1915 Served as the President of the American Psychological Association (APA) 1919 Published Psychology From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist 1925 Published Behaviorism 1928 Published Psychological Care of Infant and Child 1957 Received the APAs award for contributions to psychology

Selected Publications by John Watson Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Watson, J.B. & Rayner, R. (1920) Conditioned emotional reactions. Contribution of J.B Watson John B. Watson (1903) received his doctorate from the University of Chicago. 1905 Dr. Watson's first child, Mary, was born. He enrolled at John Hopkins University. 1906 Watson was hired as an instructor at the University of Chicago. 1907 Watson was hired as an associate professor of psychology at John Hopkins University. It was at JHU that he became known as the Founder of Behaviourism. 1913 Watson gave the lecture and published the article entitled "Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It." 1914 He published Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. 1919 Watson published Psychology from the Standpoint of Behaviourists. 1920 Watson was dismissed from John Hopkins University. He published the "Little Albert" Experiment. He turned his focus to advertising. 1924 Watson became Vice President of J Walter Thompson Agency he published Behaviorism. 1928 Watson published the Psychological Care of Infant and Child. 1945 He retired as Vice President of William Esty Agency. (Bandura, 1989) 13

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5.2.7 Experiment Little Albert Experiment The Little Albert experiment was a case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. This study was also an example of stimulus generalization. It was conducted in 1920 by John B. Watson along with his assistant Rosalie Rayner. The study was done at Johns Hopkins University. John B. Watson, after observing children in the field, was interested in finding support for his notion that the reaction of children, whenever they heard loud noises, was prompted by fear. Furthermore, he reasoned that this fear was innate or due to an unconditioned response. He felt that following the principles of classical conditioning, he could condition a child to fear another distinctive stimulus which normally would not be feared by a child. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) This experiment led to the following progression of results: Introduction of a loud sound (unconditioned stimulus) resulted in fear (unconditioned response), a natural response. Introduction of a rat (neutral stimulus) paired with the loud sound (unconditioned stimulus) resulted in fear (unconditioned response). Successive introductions of a rat (conditioned stimulus) resulted in fear (conditioned response). Here, learning is demonstrated. The experiment showed that Little Albert seemed to generalize his response to furry objects so that when Watson sent a non-white rabbit into the room seventeen days after the original experiment, Albert also became distressed. He showed similar reactions when presented with a furry dog, a seal-skin coat, and even when Watson appeared in front of him wearing a Santa Claus mask with white cotton balls as his beard, although Albert did not fear everything with hair. (Feldman, 2005) Subject matter of study of behavirist He said that psychology must deal with act that can be objectively measurable and 14

BEHAVIORISM desirable in term of stimulus and response. He classified responses in 2 ways. Learned or unlearned responses. Explicit or implit responses.

5.2.8 Specific Views and Concept of Watson According to him all area of behaviorism e.g emotions, feelings and thoughts should be treated in objective stimulus response term. Instincts:He first talked about instincts in early ways of his theory.He eccepted the role of instinct and described eleven instincts in his book "an introduction to comparative society" Learning: About learninghe said that there is low capacity, he also said that adulthood is the product of childhood conditioning after knowing the childhood experience we can be aware of later stages of life. He rejected Thorndike law of effect and stress on law of exercise. He said that correct responses are the more recent one and it occurs more and more frequently during the process of learning. He also talked about emotions. He defined emotions as stimulus and response to environmental emotions as stimulus. He said that there are 3 primary emotions fear, rage and love. These three emotions are unlearned responses. Thought: He also talked about thinking, he said that thinking is implicit speech movement occurs in brain. Criticism of Watson Behaviourism: He was criticised by Mic Bougall that behaviour is the result of instinct, so he criticised Watson role of instinct in behaviour. Watson focused on observable act while MIC bougall said that the data of consciousness is equally indispensable without introspection, how can psychology determine the meaning of subject's speech, behaviour, and fantasies and believes. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) 15

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5.3 B. F. SKINNER 5.3.1 Biography (1904-1990) B. F. Skinner Is Best Known For: Operant conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement 5.3.2 Early Years B. F. Skinner was born March 20, 1904 B.F and died on March 20, 1904. Skinner described his Pennsylvania childhood as "warm and stable." As a boy, he enjoyed building and inventing things; a skill he would later use in his own psychological experiments. He received a B.A. in English literature in 1926 from Hamilton College, and spent some time as a struggling writer before discovering the writings of Watson and Pavlov. Inspired by these works, Skinner decided to abandon his career as a novelist and entered the psychology graduate program at Harvard University. (Bandura, 1989) 5.3.3 Career In 1945, B.F. Skinner moved to Bloomington, Indiana and became Psychology Department Chair and the University of Indiana. In 1948, he joined the psychology department at Harvard University where he remained for the rest of his life. He became one of the leaders of behaviorism and his work contributed immensely to experimental psychology. He also invented the 'Skinner box,' in which a rat learns to obtain food by pressing a lever. (Santrock, 2008) 5.3.4 Awards 1968 - National Medal of Science from President Lyndon B. Johnson 1971 - Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation 1972 - Human of the Year Award 1990 - Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology 16

BEHAVIORISM 5.3.5 Research B.F. Skinner is famous for his research on operant conditioning and negative reinforcement. He developed a device called the "cumulative recorder," which showed rates of responding as a sloped line. Using this device, he found that behavior did not depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and Pavlov maintained. Instead, Skinner found that behaviors were dependent upon what happens after the response. Skinner called this operant behavior. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) In his research on operant conditioning, Skinner also discovered and described schedules of reinforcement: Fixed-ratio schedules Variable-ratio schedules Fixed-interval schedules Variable-interval schedules B.F. Skinner also invented the "baby tender." It is important to note that the baby tender is not the same as the "Skinner box," which was used in Skinner's experimental research. He created the enclosed heated crib with a Plexiglas window in response to his wife's request for a safer alternative to traditional cribs. Ladies Home Journal printed an article on the crib with the title "Baby in a Box," contributing in part to the misunderstanding of the crib's intended use. (Hinrichs, 2004) Select Publications by B.F. Skinner Skinner, B. F. (1935) two types of conditioned reflex and a pseudo type . Skinner, B. F. (1938) 'Superstition in the pigeon . Skinner, B. F. (1950) Are theories of learning necessary? Skinner, B. F. (1971) Beyond Freedom and Dignity. Works: The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: AppletonCentury, 1938. 17

BEHAVIORISM Walden Two. New York: Macmillan Co., 1948. Schedules of Reinforcement. (With C.B. Ferster). New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1957. Verbal Behavior: New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957. The Technology of Teaching: New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York: Knopf, 1971. About Behaviorism. New York: Knopf, 1974. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007)

5.3.6 Behaviour Modification Behaviour modification often referred to as b-mod-- is the therapy technique based on Skinners work. It is very straight-forward: Extinguish an undesirable behavior (by removing the reinforcer) and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement. It has been used on all sorts of psychological problems -- adactions, neuroses, shyness, autism, even schizophrenia -- and works particularly well with children. There are examples of back-ward psychotics who havent communicated with others for years who have been conditioned to behave themselves in fairly normal ways, such as eating with a knife and fork, taking care of their own hygiene needs, dressing themselves, and so on. (Feldman, 2005) There is an offshoot of b-mod called the token economy. This is used primarily in institutions such as psychiatric hospitals, juvenile halls, and prisons. Certain rules are made explicit in the institution, and behaving yourself appropriately is rewarded with tokens -poker chips, tickets, funny money, recorded notes, etc. Certain poor behavior is also often followed by a withdrawal of these tokens. The tokens can be traded in for desirable things such as candy, cigarettes, games, movies, time out of the institution, and so on. This has been found to be very effective in maintaining order in these often difficult institutions. (Morris & Maisto, 2001)

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BEHAVIORISM There is a drawback to token economy: When an inmate of one of these institutions leaves, they return to an environment that reinforces the kinds of behaviors that got them into the institution in the first place. The psychotics family may be thoroughly dysfunctional. The juvenile offender may go right back to the hood. No one is giving them tokens for eating politely. The only reinforcements may be attention for acting out, or some gang glory for robbing a Seven-Eleven. In other words, the environment doesn't travel well. (Hinrichs, 2004) 5.3.7 Experiment Superstition in the pigeon One of Skinner's experiments examined the formation of superstition in one of his favourite experimental animals, the pigeon. Skinner placed a series of hungry pigeons in a cage attached to an automatic mechanism that delivered food to the pigeon "at regular intervals with no reference whatsoever to the bird's behavior." He discovered that the pigeons associated the delivery of the food with whatever chance actions they had been performing as it was delivered, and that they subsequently continued to perform these same actions. (Santrock, 2008) One bird was conditioned to turn counter-clockwise about the cage, making two or three turns between reinforcements. Another repeatedly thrust its head into one of the upper corners of the cage. A third developed a 'tossing' response, as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it repeatedly. Two birds developed a pendulum motion of the head and body, in which the head was extended forward and swung from right to left with a sharp movement followed by a somewhat slower return. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) Skinner suggested that the pigeons behaved as if they were influencing the automatic mechanism with their "rituals" and that this experiment shed light on human behavior:The experiment might be said to demonstrate a sort of superstition. The bird behaves as if there were a causal relation between its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. There are many analogies in human behavior. Rituals for changing one's fortune at cards are good examples. A few accidental connections between a ritual and favourable 19

BEHAVIORISM consequences suffice to set up and maintain the behavior in spite of many unreinforced instances. The bowler who has released a ball down the alley but continues to behave as if she were controlling it by twisting and turning her arm and shoulder is another case in point. These behaviors have, of course, no real effect upon one's luck or upon a ball half way down an alley, just as in the present case the food would appear as often if the pigeon did nothingor, more strictly speaking, did something else. Modern behavioral psychologists have disputed Skinner's "superstition" explanation for the behaviors he recorded. Subsequent research (e.g. Staddon and Simmelhag, 1971), while finding similar behavior, failed to find support for Skinner's "adventitious reinforcement" explanation for it. (Feldman, 2005) By looking at the timing of different behaviors within the interval, Staddon and Simmelhag were able to distinguish two classes of behavior: the terminal response, which occurred in anticipation of food, and interim responses, that occurred earlier in the inter food interval and were rarely contiguous with food. Terminal responses seem to reflect classical (as opposed to operant) conditioning, rather than adventitious reinforcement, guided by a process like that observed in 1968 by Brown and Jenkins in their "auto shaping" procedures. The causation of interim activities (such as the schedule-induced polydipsia seen in a similar situation with rats) also cannot be traced. (Hinrichs, 2004)

5.4 Valid Mir Bekhteref 5.4.1 Biography (1857-1927) 1881 Degree from military medical academy. 1907 founded psychoneurogical institute. 1893 accepted the chair of mental and nervous diseases at the military medical academy. 5.4.2 Contributation Another important figure in the movement of animal psychology is valid MIR. 20

BEHAVIORISM He works in motor conditioning response. he said that conditioning response can not only be elicited (draw out information by reasoning or questioning) or produced by the unconditioned stimulus by it can also be produced by other stimulus and present at that time in the enviroment,intensity,light and colour of the room. He study lapsing, Bertin and Paris and return to Russia to take the chair of mental diseases at the University of Karan. In 1907 he found the psych neurological institute and begins a pregame of neurological research. He argued for completely objective approach to psychological phenomenas and against the use of mentalist term and concept. Asstanas was express in objective psychology published in 1907. (Morris & Maisto, 2001)

6. EARLY BEHAVIORISM 6.1 Edwin B Holt 1901 P.H.D Howard. 1915 "The Faurdian Wishes and its place in ethics". He also rejected the study of consciousness and introspection. His main influence was in term of philosophical frame work. He presents the concept of epistemological realism. He said according to this concept the object exist as perceive them.

6.1.1 Conciousness 21

BEHAVIORISM It is just the name given to a process of sensor motor adjustment of the organism to the environment. Through primary way it involves learning, externaland internal motors. Second way through prevention in childhood pattern of behaviour. (Santrock, 2008)

6.2 Albert P Weis (1879-1931) 1916 P.H.D a book is "A Theorictical bases of human behaviour's. He works on biosocial. (Involve both biological and social aspects). 6.2.1 Views 1. Weis was born in Germany. 2. He was basically inserted in child development. 3. He said that psychology must operate as a natural science. 4. It should reject introspection. 5. According to him psychology was actually a branch of physics. 6. Therefore it should not be taken into nonphysical entity like consciousness. 7. He said that human beings are not only biological but also the product of social environment. 8. He coined the term biosocial to denote. 9. He said that we are biological beings only in infancy but as we mature and come into interaction with other people we become social beings. 10. So the task of psychology to study how biological beings develops into a social beings or social adults. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007) 6.3 Karl Lashley (1890-1958) In 1951 P.H.D. 22

BEHAVIORISM 1952, he summarize his research in finding brain mechanism and intelligence. (Hinrichs, 2004) 6.3.1 Works 1. He is best known for his work involving the effect of brain on learning. 2. He concluded that brain must function as a whole. 3. The result of his research led him to postulate two famous principles. 6.3.2 Principles Mass action equeipotentiality

1. Law of Mass Actions: This law states that the more cortical tissue available the better is the learning. 2. Law of Equipotentiality: This law states that one part of cortex is essential equal to another in terms of its contribution to task such as maze learning e.g. visual perception of shape or pattern. (Eggen, P & Kauchak, 2007) 7. NEO BHEAVIOURISM 7.1 Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1951) 1951, Ph.D. from Harward. 1932, Purpose behavior in animal swim.

7.1.2 Introduction The first person who influence behaviorism was Edward Chance Tolman. He basically study engineering but later on changes his mind and study psychology.

7.1.3 Views and contributions 23

BEHAVIORISM He concluded different experiments to study the different phenomena of rats. He also rejected the introspection and the study of consciousness. He said that what is happing with the organisms private matter and cannot be available to objective observation. Therefore we should focus on observable behavior. (Hinrichs, 2004)

7.1.4 Dolman Purpose of Behaviorism He presented the concept of purpose behaviorism and related the purpose with organism. He said that behavior is the result of striving toward some goal that is behavior has always a purpose. Tolman was only concern with observable behavior, he said that consciousness awareness is objective and unless because we can feel it but cannot explain it. Intervening Variable He was not interested in studying behavior on monocular lever to setup Stimulus response reconnection whether he focus on the motor behavior that is total response of the organism. His main contribution to the behavior as the presentation of intervening variable. He held that psychology should be able to define objectively and operationally initiating the causes of behavior as well as response of an organism. Dependent Variable S- environmental stimuli P- Psychological derive H- Heredity T- Previous training

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BEHAVIORISM So the behavior is the function of these five intervening variables with animals, we can control these variables but with human beings it is difficult to control them. Demand Variable It includes basic need of organism like hunger, sex and thirst. Cognitive Variable It includes ability to know about the stimulus and perception of objective and motors skills In 1951 Tolman receives intervening variable establish three categories. Need System Believe Values Motives Behavior space

Need System: It refers to physiological deprivation at a given moment in time. Believe Values Motives: It refers to intensity of the motives in satisfying different needs. Behavior Space: It refers to behavior that take place within the behavior space of the individual. 7.1.5 Theory of Learning He rejected the Thorndike law of effect and said that all behavior of animal and human being can be modifying through experience. He presented cognitive theory of learning such as there are different sign present in the environment and by linking those learning take place e.g. traffic signals. (Feldman, 2005)

8. BEHAVIOURAL THERAPIES 8.1 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

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BEHAVIORISM It is a way of talking about: how you think about yourself, the world and other people How what you do affects your thoughts and feelings. CBT can help you to change how you think ('Cognitive') and what you do ('Behaviour'). These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the 'here and now' problems and difficulties. Instead of focusing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) CBT has been shown to help with many different types of problems. These include: anxiety, depression, panic, phobias (including agoraphobia and social phobia), stress, bulimia, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and psychosis. CBT may also help if you have difficulties with anger, a low opinion of yourself or physical health problems, like pain or fatigue. (Hinrichs, 2004) CBT can help you to make sense of overwhelming problems by breaking them down into smaller parts. This makes it easier to see how they are connected and how they affect you. These parts are a situation - a problem, event or difficult situation. (Bandura, 1989) From this can follow:

Thoughts Emotions Physical feelings Actions

Each of these areas can affect the others. How you think about a problem can affect how you feel physically and emotionally. It can also alter what you do about it. There are helpful and unhelpful ways of reacting to most situations, depending on how you think about them.

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BEHAVIORISM

This 'vicious circle' can make you feel worse. It can even create new situations that make you feel worse. You can start to believe quite unrealistic (and unpleasant) things about yourself. This happens because, when we are distressed, we are more likely to jump to conclusions and to interpret things in extreme and unhelpful ways. CBT can help you to break this vicious circle of altered thinking, feelings and behaviour. When you see the parts of the sequence clearly, you can change them - and so change the way you feel. CBT aims to get you to a point where you can 'do it yourself', and work out your own ways of tackling these problems. (Feldman, 2005) 8.2 Dialectical behaviour therapy Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a system of therapy originally developed by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) .DBT combines standard cognitivebehavioural techniques for emotion regulation and reality-testing with concepts of distress tolerance, acceptance, and mindful awareness largely derived from Buddhist meditative practice. DBT may be the first therapy that has been experimentally demonstrated to be generally effective in treating BPD.A meta-analysis found that DBT reached moderate effects. Research indicates that DBT is also effective in treating patients who present varied symptoms and behaviours associated with spectrum mood disorders, including self-injury. Recent work suggests its effectiveness with sexual abuse survivors and chemical dependency. (Santrock, 2008)

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BEHAVIORISM DBT strives to have the patient view the therapist as an ally rather than an adversary, in the treatment of psychological issues. Accordingly, in DBT the therapist aims to accept and validate the clients feelings at any given time while nonetheless informing the client that some feelings and behaviors are maladaptive, and showing them better alternatives. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007) 8.3 Applied behaviour analysis Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science that involves using modern behavioral learning theory to modify behaviors. Behavior analysts reject the use of hypothetical constructs and focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment. By functionally assessing the relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment, the methods of ABA can be used to change that behavior. (Hinrichs, 2004) 8.3.1 Definition ABA is defined as the science in which the principles of the analysis of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior, and in which experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for change in behavior. It is one of the three fields of behavior analysis. The other two are behaviorism, or the philosophy of the science; and experimental analysis of behavior, or basic experimental research. (Morris & Maisto, 2001) Baer, Wolf, and Risley's 1968 article is still used as the standard description of ABA .t describes the seven dimensions of ABA: application; a focus on behavior; the use of analysis; and its technological, conceptually systematic, effective, and general approach. 8.3.2Areas of application ABA-based interventions are best known for treating people with developmental disabilities, most notably autism spectrum disorders. However, applied behavior analysis contributes to a full range of areas including: AIDS prevention, conservation of natural resources, education, gerontology, health and exercise, industrial safety language acquisition, littering, medical procedures, parenting, seatbelt use, severe mental disorder sports, and zoo management and care of animals. 28

BEHAVIORISM

8.4 Functional analytic psychotherapy Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) is an approach to clinical psychotherapy that uses a radical behaviorist position informed by B.F. Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior.Although sufficient for use alone, this approach is offered as something that may be practiced in addition to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). FAP focuses on in-session clienttherapist interactions as the basis for clinical change. Clinically relevant behavior (CRB) represents the categories of client change in FAP and there are three general categories of CRBs. CRB1s represent problematic behavior that occur in-session that are the focus of change. CRB2s are the behaviors that manage or deal with CRB1s. CRB3s represent client statements or rules about positive changes that are encouraged in FAP. The concept of CRB3s might be seen as being akin to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, despite these similarities, the interpretation and theoretical justification for them are different. (Feldman, 2005)

9. Behaviorism Today
Strict behaviorism, or the belief that psychology should only focus on observable behaviors, has largely fallen out of favor and very few psychologists today would identify themselves as strict behaviorists. Critics of behaviourism note that this approach to psychology failed to address factors such as free will, internal thoughts, and other methods of learning. Nevertheless, behaviourists had a major impact on psychology with their emphasis on scientific method. As opposed to shunning behaviour that cannot be directly observed, psychologists now embrace it. But the bottom line is still observable, verifiable evidence. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007) Behaviourism may not be a dominant perspective in psychology, but many of basic techniques and principles from behavioural psychology are still widely used today in behaviour modification, psychotherapy, education, and parenting. (Morris & Maisto, 2001)

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BEHAVIORISM REFERENCES Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In Vasta, R. (Ed.) Annals of child development. Greenwich: JAI. Eggen, P & Kauchak, D. 2007. Educational psychology windows on classrooms. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Feldman, R. S. 2005. Understanding psychology. 7th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill. Hinrichs, B. H. 2004. Psychology: the essence of a science. Boston: Pearson. Morris, C. G. & Maisto, A. 2001. Understanding psychology. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. 2007. Human development. 10th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill. Santrock, J. W. 2008. Educational psychology. 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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