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SYNOPSIS

WIND MILLS OPERATED DRILL MACHINE

SYNOPSIS

Wind mills power is the generation of electricity power is the conversion of mechanical energy in to electricity.

from wind

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge. One study showed that drilling accounts for nearly 90% of all chips produced.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The present situation in our country all the types of drill machine is working on AC main To reduce the power consumption from the electricity board , we need to have some kind of power source system to operate the cutting machine .We are trying to implement a prototype model of an drill machine system within the limited available source and economy .The system can be subjected to further development using advanced techniques.

Wind mills power is the generation of electricity

from wind power is

the conversion of mechanical energy in to electricity.

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge. One study showed that drilling accounts for nearly 90% of all chips produced.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Wind mills BATTERY DC DRILL MACHINE CHARGER BATTERY FRAME FOR HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT DC MOTOR 1
Wind mills
BATTERY
DC DRILL
MACHINE
CHARGER
BATTERY
FRAME FOR
HORIZONTAL
MOVEMENT
DC MOTOR
1
DRILL PLATE
DRILL
PLATE
BLOCK DIAGRAM Wind mills BATTERY DC DRILL MACHINE CHARGER BATTERY FRAME FOR HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT DC MOTOR
FRAME FOR VERTICAL MOVEMENT
FRAME FOR
VERTICAL
MOVEMENT
BLOCK DIAGRAM Wind mills BATTERY DC DRILL MACHINE CHARGER BATTERY FRAME FOR HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT DC MOTOR

DC

MOOR 2

FEATURES

  • 1 Drill upto 9mm

  • 2 No need of main it will work on solar powered battery

  • 3 Economically cheap

  • 4 No montly payment for eletricity

  • 5 It will start when drilling plate is placed at drilling place other wise it will not

6.base plate can be adjustable vertical as well as horizontal movement by motor

LINE CIRCUIT BOTTOM FRAME

12 ‘’

12’’

LINE CIRCUIT BOTTOM FRAME 12 ‘’ 12’’

Drill bit

Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. Bits are held in a tool called a drill, which rotates them and provides torque and axial force to create the hole. Specialized bits are also available for non-cylindrical-shaped holes.

This article describes the types of drill bits in terms of the design of the cutter. The other end of the drill bit, the shank, is described in the drill bit shank article. Drill bits come in standard sizes, described in the drill bit sizes article. A comprehensive drill and tap size chart lists metric and imperial sized drills alongside the required screw tap sizes.

The term drill can refer to a drilling machine, or can refer to a drill bit for use in a drilling machine. In this article, for clarity, drill bit or bit is used throughout to refer to a bit for use in a drilling machine, and drill refers always to a drilling machine.

Drill bit Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. Bits are held indrill , which rotates them and provides torque and axial force to create the hole. Specialized bits are also available for non-cylindrical-shaped holes. This article describes the types of drill bits in terms of the design of the cutter. The other end of the drill bit, the shank, is described in the drill bit shank article. Drill bits come in standard sizes, described in the drill bit sizes article. A comprehensive drill and tap size chart lists metric and imperial sized drills alongside the required screw tap sizes. The term drill can refer to a drilling machine, or can refer to a drill bit for use in a drilling machine. In this article, for clarity, drill bit or bit is used throughout to refer to a bit for use in a drilling machine, and drill refers always to a drilling machine. ∑ " id="pdf-obj-9-35" src="pdf-obj-9-35.jpg">

Metal drills

High speed steel twist bit drilling into aluminium with methylated spirits lubricant

Twist drill

The twist drill bit is the type produced in largest quantity today. It drills holes in metal, plastic, and wood.

The twist drill

bit

was invented by Steven A. Morse [1]

of East

Bridgewater, Massachusetts in 1861. He received U.S. Patent 38,119 for his invention on April 7, 1863. The original method of manufacture was to cut two grooves in opposite sides of a round bar, then to twist the bar to produce the helical flutes. This gave the tool its name. Nowadays, the drill bit is usually made by rotating the bar while moving it past a grinding wheel to cut the flutes in the same manner as cutting helical gears.

Tools recognizable as twist drill bits are currently produced in diameters covering a range from 0.05 mm (0.002") to 100 mm (4"). Lengths up to about 1000 mm (39") are available for use in powered hand tools.

The geometry and sharpening of the cutting edges is crucial to the performance of the bit. Users often throw away small bits that become blunt, and replace them with new bits, because they are inexpensive and sharpening them well is difficult. For larger bits, special grinding jigs are available. A special tool grinder is available for sharpening or reshaping cutting surfaces on twist drills to optimize the drill for a particular material.

Manufacturers can produce special versions of the twist drill bit, varying the geometry and the materials used, to suit particular machinery and particular materials to be cut. Twist drill bits are available in the widest choice of tooling materials. However, even for industrial users, most holes are still drilled with a conventional bit of high speed steel.

The most common twist drill (the one sold in general hardware stores) has a point angle of 118 degrees. This is a suitable angle for a wide array of tasks, and will not cause the uninitiated operator undue stress by wandering or digging in. A more aggressive (sharper) angle, such as 90 degrees, is suited for very soft plastics and other materials. The bit will generally be self-starting and cut very quickly. A shallower angle, such as 150 degrees, is suited for drilling steels and other tougher materials. This style bit requires a starter hole, but will not bind or suffer premature wear when a proper feed rate is used.

Drills with no point angle are used in situations where a blind, flat-bottomed hole is required. These drills are very sensitive to changes in lip angle, and even a slight change can result in an inappropriately fast cutting drill bit that will suffer premature wear.The twist drill does most of the cutting with the tip of the bit. There are flutes to carry the chips up from the cutting edges to the top of the hole where they are cast off.· Some of the parts of a drill bit are diagramed below as viewed from the cutting tip of the drill,

· Some other features of the drill bit are shown below for a side view of

· Some other features of the drill bit are shown below for a side view of the drill bit,

· Some other features of the drill bit are shown below for a side view of

· Typical parameters for drill bits are,

1. - Material is High Speed Steel 2. - Standard Point Angle is 118°

Harder materials have higher point angles, soft materials have lower point angles.The helix results in a positive cutting rake.Drill bits are typically ground (by hand) until they are the desired shape. When done grinding, the lips should be the same length and at the same angle, otherwise and oversized hole may be produced.Drill sizes are typically measured across the drill points with a micrometer

GEARS

4. GEARS(ref:11.4.a):

Gears are defined as toothed wheels or multi lobbed cams, which transmits power and motion from one shaft to another by means of successive engagement of teeth. Gear drives offer the following advantage compared with chain and belt drives.

It is a positive transmission drive. Its velocity ratio remains constant. The center distance between the shafts is relatively small, which results in the compact construction. It can transmit very large power, which is not possible with the belt drives. The efficiency of gear drives is very high even up to 99% in case of spur gears. A provision can be made in the gearbox for gear shifting; thus velocity ratio can be changed over a wide range.

Gear drives however can only be used for small center distances, and their maintenance cost is also higher. The manufacturing processes for gears are complicated and highly specialized. Gear drives require attention for lubrication and cleanliness. The also require precise alignment of the shafts.

4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS(ref: 11.2.b)

There are various types of gears to suit various applications. They differ in the shape of the gear wheel like cylindrical, conical, or elliptical and the orientation of their axis and angle at which they mesh.

Gear drives transmit power between shafts when their axis is:

1.Parallel

2.Intersecting

3.Neither parallel nor intersecting. The different types of gears used in these cases are:

Spur Gears

- For parallel axes shafts.

Helical Gears

- For parallel and neither parallel nor

intersecting. Spiral Gears

Bevel Gears

- For non-parallel and non-intersecting. - For intersecting axes shafts.

Elliptical Gears variable motion.

- For parallel axes shafts to obtain

Worm Gears shafts.

- For non-parallel and non co-planar axes

Rack and Pinion motion.

- For converting rotary motion to linear

4.2 SPUR GEAR(ref:11.4.a)

Spur gears are the most commonly used gear type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are by far the most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive. They are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large gear reductions. Spur gears are used in many devices that you can see all over like electric screw driver, oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing machines, clothes dryers, etc,

Figure:4.1

4.2.1 Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the two shafts is required. 4.2.2 Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find, inexpensive, and efficient.

4.3 BEVEL GEARS(ref:11.4.a)

Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hyoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth -- as each tooth engages, it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once.

Standard bevel gears have teeth, which are cut straight and are all parallel to the line pointing the apex of the cone on which the teeth are based. Spiral bevel gears are also available which have teeth that form arcs. Hypocycloid bevel gears are a special type of spiral gear that will allow non-intersecting, non-parallel shafts to mesh. Straight tool bevel gears are generally considered the best choice for systems with speeds lower than 1000 feet per minute: they commonly become noisy above this point.

Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They

Figure:4.2

Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. These spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively spreads across the whole tooth.

Figure:4.2 Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear

Figure:4.3

On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must be perpendicular to each other, but they must also be in the same plane. If you were to extend the two shafts past the gears, they would intersect. The hypoid gear, on the other hand, can engage with the axes in different planes.

Figure:4.3 On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must be perpendicular to each other, but

Figure:4.4

This feature is used in many car differentials. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. This allows the input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. Since the driveshaft of the car is connected to the input pinion, this also lowers the driveshaft. This means that the driveshaft doesn't intrude into the passenger compartment of the car as much, making more room for people and cargo.

4.3.1 Limitations:

Limited availability. Cannot be used for parallel shafts. Can become noisy at high speeds.

4.3.2 Advantages:

Excellent choice for intersecting shaft systems.

DC MOTOR

DC MOTOR

An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current- carrying conductors. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.

Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa.

Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.

The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.

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History and development Electromagnetic experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821. <a href= The principle The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical ener gy b y electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael " id="pdf-obj-29-2" src="pdf-obj-29-2.jpg">

History and development

History and development Electromagnetic experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821. <a href= The principle The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical ener gy b y electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael " id="pdf-obj-29-7" src="pdf-obj-29-7.jpg">

Electromagnetic experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821. [1] The principle

The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by

electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael

Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury,

on which a permanent magnet was placed. When a current was passed

through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the

current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. [2] This motor

is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine (salt water) is

sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury. This is the simplest form of

a class of devices called homopolar motors. A later refinement is the

Barlow's Wheel. These were demonstration devices only, unsuited to

practical applications due to their primitive construction. [citation needed]

<a href=Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a p ool of mercury , on which a permanent magnet was placed. When a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercur y . This is the simplest form of a class of devices called homopolar motors . A later refinement is the Barlow's Wheel . These were demonstration devices onl y , unsuited to practical applications due to their primitive construction. Jedlik ' s "lightning-magnetic self-rotor", 1827. (Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest.) In 1827, Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices he called "lightning-magnetic self- rotors". He used them for instructive purposes in universities, and in 1828 " id="pdf-obj-30-44" src="pdf-obj-30-44.jpg">

Jedlik's "lightning-magnetic self-rotor", 1827. (Museum of Applied Arts,

Budapest.)

In 1827, Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with

electromagnetic rotating devices he called "lightning-magnetic self-

rotors". He used them for instructive purposes in universities, and in 1828

demonstrated the first device which contained the three main components

of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator. Both

the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic, employing no

permanent magnets. [3][4][5][6][7][8] Again, the devices had no practical

application

Categorization of electric motors

The classic division of electric motors has been that of Alternating

Current (AC) types vs Direct Current (DC) types. This is more a de facto

convention, rather than a rigid distinction. For example, many classic DC

motors run on AC power, these motors being referred to as universal

Rated output power is also used to categorise motors, those of less than

746 Watts, for example, are often referred to as fractional horsepower

motors (FHP) in reference to the old imperial measurement.

The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the

distinction, as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the

motor shell. For this new breed of motor, driver circuits are relied upon to

generate sinusoidal AC drive currents, or some approximation thereof.

The two best examples are: the brushless DC motor and the stepping

motor, both being poly-phase AC motors requiring external electronic

control, although historically, stepping motors (such as for maritime and

naval gyrocompass repeaters) were driven from DC switched by contacts.

Considering all rotating (or linear) electric motors require synchronism

between a moving magnetic field and a moving current sheet for average

torque production, there is a clearer distinction between an asynchronous

motor and synchronous types. An asynchronous motor requires slip

between the moving magnetic field and a winding set to induce current in

the winding set by mutual inductance; the most ubiquitous example being

the common AC induction motor which must slip to generate torque. In

the synchronous types, induction (or slip) is not a requisite for magnetic

field or current production (e.g. permanent magnet motors, synchronous

SOLAR CELL:-

SOLAR CELL:-

In our country there are so many types of power generator available ie Solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy, geo- thermal energy, tidal energy etc, are now considered the

suitable successors to the fossil fuels in near future. Solar energy among these stands out as the ultimate unending source of energy coming from the sun to the earth’s surface. The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy has been in continuous use for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy.

But in a world where environmental protection and energy conservation are growing concerns, the development of solar powered vehicles (SPV’s) has become a global issue. To meet these challenges, we have to take initiative for creative changes and to ensure sustainable continuous development.

Solar-powered vehicles (SPV’s), such as cars, boats, bicycles, and even airplanes, use solar energy to either power an electric motor directly, and/or use solar energy to charge a battery, which powers the motor. They use an array of solar photovoltaic (PV) cells (or modules made of cells) that convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity either goes directly to an electric motor powering the vehicle, or to a special storage battery. The PV array can be built (integrated) onto the vehicle body itself, or fixed on a building or a vehicle shelter to charge an electric vehicle (EV) battery when it is parked. Other types of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy or hydropower, can also produce electricity cleanly to charge EV batteries.

SPV’s that have a built-on PV array differ from conventional vehicles (and most EV's) in size, weight, maximum speed, and cost. The practicality of these types of SPV’s is limited because solar cells only produce electricity when the sun is shining. Even then, a vehicle completely covered with solar cells receives only a small amount of solar energy each day, and converts an even smaller amount of that to useful energy. At present, most SPV’s with built-on PV arrays are only used as

research, development, and educational tools, and/or to participate in the various SPV races held around the world.

Additionally SPV’s are much more energy efficient than ICE vehicles. Not only is the propulsion system itself much more efficient, but energy losses through the transmission and idling simply do not exist. Because there is no transmission, acceleration is “seamless”; no jerking or noise….just nice and smooth.

2. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

research, development, and educational tools, and/or to participate in the various SPV races held around the

Bulk

These bulk technologies are often referred to as wafer-based manufacturing. In other words, in each of these approaches, self-supporting wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick are processed and then soldered together to form a solar cell module.

Crystalline silicon

Main articles: Crystalline silicon, Silicon, and list of silicon producers Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism.

By far, the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si), also known as "solar grade silicon". Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot, ribbon, or wafer.

  • 1. monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): often made using the Czochralski process. Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells.

  • 2. Poly- or multicrystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells, but are less efficient. US DOE data shows that there were a higher number of multicrystalline sales than monocrystalline silicon sales.

  • 3. Ribbon silicon [32] is a type of multicrystalline silicon: it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a multicrystalline structure. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si, but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste, as this approach does not require sawing from ingots.

Thin films

Main article: Thin film solar cell

The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell. This can lead to reduced processing costs from that of bulk materials (in the case of silicon thin films) but also tends to reduce energy conversion efficiency (an average 7 to 10% efficiency), although many multi-layer thin films have efficiencies above those of bulk silicon wafers.

They have become popular compared to wafer silicon due to lower costs and advantages including flexibility, lighter weights, and ease of integration.

Cadmium telluride solar cell

A cadmium telluride solar cell is a solar cell based on cadmium telluride, an efficient light- absorbing material for thin-film cells. Compared to other thin-film materials, CdTe is easier to deposit and more suitable for large-scale production.

There has been much discussion of the toxicity of CdTe-based solar cells. The perception of the toxicity of CdTe is based on the toxicity of elemental cadmium, a heavy metal that is a cumulative poison. While the toxicity of CdTe is presently under debate, it has been shown that the release of cadmium to the atmosphere is impossible during normal operation of the cells and is unlikely during fires in residential roofs. [33] Furthermore, a square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell Nickel-cadmium battery, in a more stable and less soluble form. [33]

Copper-Indium Selenide

Main article: Copper indium gallium selenide solar cell Possible combinations of (I, III, VI) elements in the periodic table that have photovoltaic effect

The materials based on CuInSe 2 that are of interest for photovoltaic applications include several elements from groups I, III and VI in the periodic table. These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device [34] .

CIS is an abbreviation for general chalcopyrite films of copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 ), CIGS mentioned below is a variation of CIS. CIS films (no Ga) achieved greater than 14% efficiency. However, manufacturing costs of CIS solar cells at present are high when compared with amorphous silicon solar cells but continuing work is leading to more cost-effective production processes. The first large-scale production of CIS modules was started in 2006 in Germany by Würth Solar. Manufacturing techniques vary and include the use of Ultrasonic Nozzles for material deposition. Electro-Plating in other efficient technology to apply the CI(G)S layer.

When gallium is substituted for some of the indium in CIS, the material is referred to as CIGS, or copper indium/gallium diselenide, a solid mixture of the semiconductors CuInSe 2 and CuGaSe 2 , often abbreviated by the chemical formula CuIn x Ga (1-x) Se 2 . Unlike the conventional silicon based solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model. The best efficiency of a thin-film solar cell as of March 2008 was 19.9% with CIGS absorber layer. [35] Higher efficiencies (around 30%) can be obtained by using optics to concentrate the incident light or by using multi-junction tandem solar cells. The use of gallium increases the optical bandgap of the CIGS layer as compared to pure CIS, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage, but decreasing the short circuit current. In another point of view, gallium is added to replace indium due to gallium's relative availability to indium. Approximately 70% [36] of indium currently produced is used by the flat- screen monitor industry. However, the atomic ratio for Ga in the >19% efficient CIGS solar cells is ~7%, which corresponds to a bandgap of ~1.15 eV. CIGS solar cells with higher Ga amounts have lower efficiency. For example, CGS solar cells (which have a bandgap of ~1.7 eV have a record efficiency of 9.5% for pure CGS and 10.2% for surface-modified CGS. Some investors in solar technology worry that production of CIGS cells will be limited by the availability of indium. Producing 2 GW of CIGS cells (roughly the amount of silicon cells produced in 2006) would use about 10% of the indium produced in 2004. [37] For comparison, silicon solar cells used up 33% of the world's electronic grade silicon production in 2006.

Se allows for better uniformity across the layer and so the number of recombination sites in the film are reduced which benefits the quantum efficiency and thus the conversion efficiency. [citation

Gallium arsenide multijunction

High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration, but at present, their use in terrestrial concentrators might be the lowest cost alternative in terms of $/kWh and $/W. [38] These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs, Ge, and GaInP 2 . [39] Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which, loosely speaking, causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color, or more precisely, to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum. The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum, thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible.

GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching a record high of 40.7% efficiency under "500-sun" solar concentration and laboratory conditions. [40]

This technology is currently being utilized in the Mars rover missions.

Tandem solar cells based on monolithic, series connected, gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), gallium arsenide GaAs, and germanium Ge pn junctions, are seeing demand rapidly rise. In just the past 12 months (12/2006 - 12/2007), the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg. Additionally, germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000–$1200 per kg this year. Those materials include gallium (4N, 6N and 7N Ga), arsenic (4N, 6N and 7N) and germanium, pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals, and boron oxide, these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry.

Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch four-time World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2005 and 2007, and also by the Dutch solar cars Solutra (2005) and Twente One (2007).

The Dutch Radboud University Nijmegen set the record for thin film solar cell efficiency using a single junction GaAs to 25.8% in August 2008 using only 4 µm thick GaAs layer which can be transferred from a wafer base to glass or plastic film. [41]

Light-absorbing dyes (DSSC)

Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of light-absorbing material. The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200–300 m 2 /g TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10

m 2 /g of flat single crystal). The photogenerated electrons from the light absorbing dye are passed on to the n-type TiO 2 , and the holes are passed to an electrolyte on the other side of the dye. The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte, which can be liquid or solid. This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials, and is typically manufactured by screen printing and/or use of Ultrasonic Nozzles, with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells. However, the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light, and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly. In spite of the above, this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade. The first commercial shipment of DSSC solar modules occurred in July 2009 from G24i Innovations (www.g24i.com).

Organic/polymer solar cells

Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors such as polymers and small-molecule compounds like polyphenylene vinylene, copper phthalocyanine (a blue or green organic pigment) and carbon fullerenes and fullerene derivatives such as PCBM. Energy conversion efficiencies achieved to date using conductive polymers are low compared to inorganic materials. However, it improved quickly in the last few years and the highest NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) certified efficiency has reached 6.77% [42] . In addition, these cells could be beneficial for some applications where mechanical flexibility and disposability are important.

These devices differ from inorganic semiconductor solar cells in that they do not rely on the large built-in electric field of a PN junction to separate the electrons and holes created when photons are absorbed. The active region of an organic device consists of two materials, one which acts as an electron donor and the other as an acceptor. When a photon is converted into an electron hole pair, typically in the donor material, the charges tend to remain bound in the form of an exciton, and are separated when the exciton diffuses to the donor-acceptor interface. The short exciton diffusion lengths of most polymer systems tend to limit the efficiency of such devices. Nanostructured interfaces, sometimes in the form of bulk heterojunctions, can improve performance. [43]

Silicon thin films

Silicon thin-film cells are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma- enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas. Depending on the deposition parameters, this can yield: [44]

It has been found that protocrystalline silicon with a low volume fraction of nanocrystalline silicon is optimal for high open circuit voltage. [45] These types of silicon present dangling and twisted bonds, which results in deep defects (energy levels in the bandgap) as well as deformation of the valence and conduction bands (band tails). The solar cells made from these materials tend to have lower energy conversion efficiency than bulk silicon, but are also less expensive to produce. The

quantum efficiency of thin film solar cells is also lower due to reduced number of collected charge carriers per incident photon.

Amorphous silicon has a higher bandgap (1.7 eV) than crystalline silicon (c-Si) (1.1 eV), which means it absorbs the visible part of the solar spectrum more strongly than the infrared portion of the spectrum. As nc-Si has about the same bandgap as c-Si, the nc-Si and a-Si can advantageously be combined in thin layers, creating a layered cell called a tandem cell. The top cell in a-Si absorbs the visible light and leaves the infrared part of the spectrum for the bottom cell in nc-Si.

Recently, solutions to overcome the limitations of thin-film crystalline silicon have been developed. Light trapping schemes where the weakly absorbed long wavelength light is obliquely coupled into the silicon and traverses the film several times can significantly enhance the absorption of sunlight in the thin silicon films. [46] Thermal processing techniques can significantly enhance the crystal quality of the silicon and thereby lead to higher efficiencies of the final solar cells. [47]

A silicon thin film technology is being developed for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the form of semi-transparent solar cells which can be applied as window glazing. These cells function as window tinting while generating electricity.

Nanocrystalline solar cells

Main article: Nanocrystal solar cell

These structures make use of some of the same thin-film light absorbing materials but are overlain as an extremely thin absorber on a supporting matrix of conductive polymer or mesoporous metal oxide having a very high surface area to increase internal reflections (and hence increase the probability of light absorption). Using nanocrystals allows one to design architectures on the length scale of nanometers, the typical exciton diffusion length. In particular, single-nanocrystal ('channel') devices, an array of single p-n junctions between the electrodes and separated by a period of about a diffusion length, represent a new architecture for solar cells and potentially high efficiency.

Schema of Concentrating photovoltaics

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV)

See also: Solar concentrator

Concentrating photovoltaic systems use a large area of lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells. [48] High concentration means a hundred or more times direct sunlight is focused when compared with crystalline silicon panels. Most commercial producers are developing systems that concentrate between 400 and 1000 suns. All concentration systems need a one axis or more often two axis tracking system for high precision, since most systems only use direct sunlight and need to aim at the sun with errors of less than 3 degrees. The primary attraction of CPV systems is their reduced usage of semiconducting material which is expensive and

currently in short supply. Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of high efficiency photovoltaic cells. [49] Despite the advantages of CPV technologies their application has been limited by the costs of focusing, sun tracking and cooling equipment. On October 25, 2006, the Australian federal government and the Victorian state government together with photovoltaic technology company Solar Systems announced a project using this technology, Solar power station in Victoria, planned to come online in 2008 and be completed by 2013. This plant, at 154 MW, would be ten times larger than the largest current photovoltaic plant in the world. [50]

Silicon solar cell device manufacture

currently in short supply. Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of high efficiency photovoltaic Despite the advantages of CPV technologies their application has been limited by the costs of focusing, sun tracking and cooling equipment. On October 25, 2006, the Australian federal government and the Victorian state government together with photovoltaic technology company Solar Systems announced a project using this technology, Solar power station in Victoria , planned to come online in 2008 and be completed by 2013. This plant, at 154 MW, would be ten times larger than the largest current photovoltaic plant in the world. Silicon solar cell device manufacture Solar-powered scientific calculator Because solar cells are semiconductor devices, they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips . However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells. Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells, but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production. Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped. To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer. This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface. Antireflection coatings, which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell, are typically next applied. Over the past decade, silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation qualities (i.e., it prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell). It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). " id="pdf-obj-42-18" src="pdf-obj-42-18.jpg">

Solar-powered scientific calculator

Because solar cells are semiconductor devices, they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips. However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells. Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells, but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production.

Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped. To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer. This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface.

Antireflection coatings, which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell, are typically next applied. Over the past decade, silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation qualities (i.e., it prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell). It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).

Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that, like antireflection coatings, serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell. Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon, though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed.

The wafer then has a full area metal contact made on the back surface, and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" are screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste. The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste, typically aluminium. Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell, though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern. The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon. Some companies use an additional electro- plating step to increase the cell efficiency. After the metal contacts are made, the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons, and assembled into modules or "solar panels". Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front, and a polymer encapsulation on the back. Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.

Miniaturization

It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled photovoltaic mini and microcell. (Discuss)

Polycrystalline paper-thin solar cell extends the operating life of mobile phones and other portable systems. LROGC03 type panel is going to have a surface of 41 x 33 millimetres, half the size of the first LROGC02 panel. [51]

Tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells (from 14 to 20 micrometers thick) could have intelligent controls, inverters and even storage built in at the chip level. [citation needed] Glitter photovoltaic cells use 100 times less silicon to generate the same amount of electricity. They have 14.9 percent efficiency and off-the-shelf commercial modules range from 13 to 20 percent efficient. [52]

Lifespan

Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency. The typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25 – 30 years, wherein the output shall not fall below 85% of the

rated capacity. [citation needed]

Costs

Cost is established in cost-per-watt

and in cost-per-watt

in

24 hours

for infrared

capable

photovoltaic cells. Manufacturing costs are also calculated including the energy required for

manufacturing of the cells and modules in a kWh basis. These figures are added to the end price for solar investors and the energy payback is calculated from the point of power plant initialization or connection to the grid. another method of calculating the payback is to use the feed in tariff mechanism in place for power plant remuneration. Solar-specific feed in tariffs vary worldwide, and even state by state within various countries. The energy payback time will vary depending on the country of application and the level of the feed in tariff. [53]

Slicing costs

University of Utah engineers devised a new way to slice thin wafers of the chemical element germanium for use in the most efficient type of solar power cells. The new method should lower the cost of such cells by reducing the waste and breakage of the brittle semiconductor. [54]

Low-cost solar cell

This cell is extremely promising because it is made of low-cost materials and does not need elaborate apparatus to manufacture, so it can be made in a DIY way allowing more players to produce it than any other type of solar cell. In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs. It can be engineered into flexible sheets. Although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells, its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow it to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation.

Current research on materials and devices

There are currently many research groups active in the field of photovoltaics in universities and research institutions around the world. This research can be divided into three areas: making current technology solar cells cheaper and/or more efficient to effectively compete with other energy sources; developing new technologies based on new solar cell architectural designs; and developing new materials to serve as light absorbers and charge carriers.

Silicon processing

One way of reducing the cost is to develop cheaper methods of obtaining silicon that is sufficiently pure. Silicon is a very common element, but is normally bound in silica, or silica sand. Processing silica (SiO 2 ) to produce silicon is a very high energy process - at current efficiencies, it takes one to two years for a conventional solar cell to generate as much energy as was used to make the silicon it contains. More energy efficient methods of synthesis are not only beneficial to the solar industry, but also to industries surrounding silicon technology as a whole.

The current industrial production of silicon is via the reaction between carbon (charcoal) and silica at a temperature around 1700 °C. In this process, known as carbothermic reduction, each tonne of silicon (metallurgical grade, about 98% pure) is produced with the emission of about 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide.

Solid silica can be directly converted (reduced) to pure silicon by electrolysis in a molten salt bath at a fairly mild temperature (800 to 900 °C). [55][56] While this new process is in principle the same as the FFC Cambridge Process which was first discovered in late 1996, the interesting laboratory finding is that such electrolytic silicon is in the form of porous silicon which turns readily into a fine powder, with a particle size of a few micrometres, and may therefore offer new opportunities for development of solar cell technologies.

Another approach is also to reduce the amount of silicon used and thus cost, is by micromachining wafers into very thin, virtually transparent layers that could be used as transparent architectural coverings. [57] The technique involves taking a silicon wafer, typically 1 to 2 mm thick, and making a multitude of parallel, transverse slices across the wafer, creating a large number of slivers that have a thickness of 50 micrometres and a width equal to the thickness of the original wafer. These slices are rotated 90 degrees, so that the surfaces corresponding to the faces of the original wafer become the edges of the slivers. The result is to convert, for example, a 150 mm diameter, 2 mm- thick wafer having an exposed silicon surface area of about 175 cm 2 per side into about 1000 slivers having dimensions of 100 mm × 2 mm × 0.1 mm, yielding a total exposed silicon surface area of about 2000 cm 2 per side. As a result of this rotation, the electrical doping and contacts that were on the face of the wafer are located at the edges of the sliver, rather than at the front and rear as in the case of conventional wafer cells. This has the interesting effect of making the cell sensitive from both the front and rear of the cell (a property known as bifaciality). [57] Using this technique, one silicon wafer is enough to build a 140 watt panel, compared to about 60 wafers needed for conventional modules of same power output.

Thin-film processing

Main article: Thin-film

Thin-film photovoltaic cells can use less than 1% of the expensive raw material (silicon or other light absorbers) compared to wafer-based solar cells, leading to a significant price drop per Watt peak capacity. There are many research groups around the world actively researching different thin-film approaches and/or materials. However, it remains to be seen if these solutions can achieve a similar market penetration as traditional bulk silicon solar modules. [58]

One particularly promising technology is crystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates. This technology combines the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material (abundance, non- toxicity, high efficiency, long-term stability) with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach. [59]

Another interesting aspect of thin-film solar cells is the possibility to deposit the cells on all kind of materials, including flexible substrates (PET for example), which opens a new dimension for new applications. [61]

Metamorphic multijunction solar cell

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory won a R&D Magazine's R&D 100 Awards for its Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cell, an ultra-light and flexible cell that converts solar energy with record efficiency. [62]

The ultra-light, highly efficient solar cell was developed at NREL and is being commercialized by Emcore Corp. [63] of Albuquerque, N.M., in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratories Space Vehicles Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque.

It represents a new class of solar cells with clear advantages in performance, engineering design, operation and cost. For decades, conventional cells have featured wafers of semiconducting materials with similar crystalline structure. Their performance and cost effectiveness is constrained by growing the cells in an upright configuration. Meanwhile, the cells are rigid, heavy and thick with a bottom layer made of germanium.

In the new method, the cell is grown upside down. These layers use high-energy materials with extremely high quality crystals, especially in the upper layers of the cell where most of the power is produced. Not all of the layers follow the lattice pattern of even atomic spacing. Instead, the cell includes a full range of atomic spacing, which allows for greater absorption and use of sunlight. The thick, rigid germanium layer is removed, reducing the cell's cost and 94% of its weight. By turning the conventional approach to cells on its head, the result is an ultra-light and flexible cell that also converts solar energy with record efficiency (40.8% under 326 suns concentration).

SPCIFICATION

SOLAR CELL

1. OUTPUT 18 VOLT DC 2.SIZE 12’’ X 12’’ 3.10 watts

DC MOTOR

  • 1. OPERATE VOLTAGE

= 12 VOLT DCV

  • 2. RPM

= 1500

  • 3. POWER

= 400 WATTS

COST EFFECT

  • 1 Solar plate

10 watts

= 1 Nos

2500.00

  • 2 Secondary battery

=

1 Nos

3000.00

  • 3 DC drill machine

=1

2500.00

  • 4 Frame to carry drill machin

=1

4000.00

  • 6 DC geared motor

1 nos

=1

1500.00

4 Frame to carry drill machin =1 4000.00 6 DC geared motor 1 nos =1 1500.00

CONCLUSION

The present situation in our country all the drill machine is working on AC main To reduce the power consumption from the electricity board to avoid this problem , we need to have some kind of power source system to operate the drill machine .

We are trying to implement a prototype model of an drill machine system within the

limited available source and economy. The system can be subjected to further development using advanced techniques.

It may become a success if our project can be implemented through out our country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.www.google.com

2 www.dc motor.com 3.www.solar .com