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Panchal 1 Jeet Panchal Mrs. Sharif AP Biology 7/8 A 20 September 2011 PLANTS: 80 Vocabulary Words 1.

Apical meristem - Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies the cells for the plant to grow in length 2. Alternation of generation - A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte , and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristics of plants and some algae 3. Gametophyte - In organisms undergoing alternation of generation, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation 4. Sporophyte - In organisms undergoing alternation of generation, the multicellular diploid that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation 5. Gametegenia - The process by which gametes are produced in the mammalian body 6. Antheridia - In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop 7. Archegonia - plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop 8. Embryophytes - Another name for land plants; recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos 9. Cuticle - A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that act as an adaption to prevent desiccation in the terrestrial plants 10. Vascular Tissue - Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water ant nutrients throughout the plant body 11. Bryophytes - A moss, liverwort, hornwort; a nonvasular plant that inhibits the land but lacks many of the adaptations of vascular plants 12. Lycophytes - An informal name for any member of the phylum Lycophyta, which includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts 13. Pterophytes - An informal name for any member of the phylum Pterophyta, which includes ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns, and the genus Tmesipteris 14. Heterospory - a term referring to plant that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes 15. Gymnosperm - A vascular plant that bears naked seeds-seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers 16. Microspore - A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte

Panchal 2 17. Megaspore - A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte 18. Pollen Grain - Structures that contain male gametophyte of seed plants 19. Ovule - structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte 20. Seed - An adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat 21. Angiosperm - A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary 22. Double fertilization - A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unit with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and the endosperm 23. Embryo Sac - The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei 24. Monocot - A clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledons. 25. Dicot - A term traditionally used to refer to flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons. Recent molecular evidence indicates that dicots do not form a clade 26. Epidermis - (1) The dermal tissue system of non woody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells. (2) The outer covering of animals 27. Xylem - Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and mineral upwards from roots to the rest of the plants 28. Phloem - a vascular plant tissue consisted of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant 29. Parenchyma - a relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries most of the metabolism, synthesizes and store organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type 30. Collenchyma - A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth 31. Sclerenchyma - A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthening by lignin at maturity 32. Vessel Elements - A short, wide, water conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels 33. Sieve-tube members - A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. they form chains called sieve tubes 34. Meristems - Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for intermediate growth 35. Primary Growth - Growth produced by apical meristems, lengthening stems and roots 36. Secondary Growth - Growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants 37. Passive Transport - The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane

Panchal 3 38. Active Transport - The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins 39. Chemiosmosis - An energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as ATP synthesis (most of which occur by chemiosmosis 40. Water Potential - The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure 41. Solute Potential - A component of water potential that is proportional to the number of dissolved solute molecules in a solution and measures the effect of solutes on the direction of water movement; also called osmotic potential, it can either be zero or negative 42. Pressure Potential - A component of water potential that consists of physical pressure on a solution, which can be positive, zero, or negative 43. Mycorrhizae - Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi 44. Endodermis - The innermost layer of cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder 45. Casparin Strip - A water impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls 46. Essential Elements - In plants, a chemical element that is required for the plant to grow and complete the life cycle, producing another generation of seeds 47. Macronutrients - A chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts 48. Micronutrients - An element that an organism needs in very small amounts and the functions as a component or cofactor of enzymes 49. Topsoil - A mixture of particles derived from rocks, living organisms, and humus 50. Loams - The most fertile of all soils, made up of roughly equal amounts of clay, sand, and silt 51. Nitrogen Fixation - The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can directly be used by plants 52. Nitrogenase - An enzyme complex, unique to certain prokaryotes, that reduces N2 and NH3 53. Nodules - A swelling on the root of a legume. Nodules are composed plant cells that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Rhyzobium 54. Epiphytes - A plant that nourishes itself but grows in the surface of another plant for support, usually on the branches of trunks on tropical trees 55. Sepals - A modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect flower before it opens 56. Anther - in an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains with male gametes form 57. Stigma - The sticky part of a flower's carpal, which traps pollen grains 58. Ovary - In flowers, the portion a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop 59. Pistil - A single carpal or a group of carpals

Panchal 4 60. Complete Flower - A flower that has four basic organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals 61. Incomplete Flower - A flower in which one or more of the basic floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals) are either absent or nonfunctional 62. Endosperm - A nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two nuclei during double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds 63. Seed Coat - A tough outer covering of a see, formed from outer coat of an ovule, In a flowering plant, the seed coat encloses and protects the embryo and endosperm 64. Hypocotyl - In an angiosperm embryo, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotlydon(s) and above the radicle 65. Radicle - an embryonic root of a plant 66. Epicotyl - In an angiosperm embryo, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotlydon(s) 67. Vegetative Reproduction - Cloning of plants by asexual means 68. Second messengers - A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein 69. Hormones - In multicellular organisms, one of many types of circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells to change their functioning 70. Phototropism - Growth of a plant shoot towards or away from light 71. Auxins - A term that primarily refers to indoleacetic acid (IAA), a natural plant hormone that has a variety of effects, including cell elongation, root formation, secondary growth, and fruit growth 72. Gibberellins - A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stems and the leaves, trigger the germination seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin 73. Abscisic Acid (ABA) - A plant hormone that slows down growth, often antagonizing actions of growth hormones. Two of its many affects are to promote seed dormancy and facilitate drought tolerance 74. Cytokinins - A class of related plant hormones that retard aging and act in concert with auxin to stimulate cell division, influence the pathway of differentiation, and control apical dominance 75. Ethylene - The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening 76. Apoptosis - The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die 77. Photoperiodism - a physiological response to a photo period, the relative lengths of night and day. An example of photoperiodism is flowering

Panchal 5 78. Florigen - A flowering signal, not chemically identified, that may be a hormone or may be a change in relative concentrations of multiple hormones 79. Gravitropism - A response of a plant or animal to gravity 80. Thigmotropism - A directional growth of a plant in response to touch