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1 Advanced Quantum Theory In Pi-Space

1.1 Defining Mass

Next, we need to discuss the Advanced Quantum Theory in Pi-Space. Here well define in
more detail the non-local wave function and its properties. In the earlier sections, I talked
about disturbances to the Gravity and Electric field. I also stated that the Gravity and Electric
field were in the non-local plane. Also, there is the issue of what is mass? It is typically seen
a value which is applied to the equations but where does it come from. We know for
example that it creates a Gravity field for example.

Lets first define what mass is in Pi-Space. In the Advanced Quantum Theory, mass forms
the non-local plane and is wave based.

This is a simple but crucial concept before moving forward.

Lets draw a wave function with mass and then without mass.

In Pi-Space, mass is the non-local wave within the local wave. The higher the amplitude of
the non-local wave the more mass it has. For now, we will not concern ourselves with the
Mathematics around it. This is the concept. Mass is simply the non-local wave within the
local-wave. Therefore Mass has a wave component. I will drill down into the specifics later.
Here we have a mass carrying wave. The local wave is simply Sin[x]. The non-local wave is
the addition. The specifics of the function itself is not important rather the addition of two
waves in this fashion.

Also, we can have a local wave with no non-local wave. This is a massless wave like light.

This is the first rudimentary concept of Advanced Quantum Pi-Space. The fact that mass is a
wave within a wave means we can start visualizing reality as a symphony of vibrating waves
within each other. Some are long, some are short, some curve, some do not and so on. From
this simple idea, we can start talking about Strings and String Theory in more detail. From
this idea we can spring to Strings.

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

Strings are based on Simple Harmonic Motion so lets define this using the Pi-Space
formulas. First we show how its currently solved.

kx F =

and

( ) ( ) e = = t kA t mv t KE
2 2 2
sin
2
1
2
1
) (
Also

( ) ( ) e = = t kA t kx t U
2 2 2
cos
2
1
2
1
) (

We can calculate the period T as well

k
m
T t 2 =
Lets use the Pi-Space formulas now
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * , , , * , , ,
2
2
2
NonLocal Local
t r
c
h
r
GM
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos t r
c
p
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos
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Were dealing with two local field effects of a Spring and a moving mass. Lets add KE and
PE.

( ) ( ) ( )
Local
t r kx t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos m
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2
1
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2

The interesting point to note is that the PE can also be represented by a KE representation.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Local
t r t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos k t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos m
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, , , ,

The single wave functions cancel out, so were left with just Cosine functions and some
constants.

( ) ( ) 0 , , =
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t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos k t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos m

We can solve for the KE of the mass

( ) ( )
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t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos
m
k
t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos , ,

If the wave function is constant, the representation simplifies (we drop them)

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c
x
ArcSin Cos
m
k
c
v
ArcSin Cos

This can also be represented in the other way in terms of the spring.

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c
x
ArcSin Cos
c
v
ArcSin Cos
k
m

The period of Cosine is 2 times the constant Pi. Also these values are the area calculations.
So if we want a diameter calculation we have to square root it. Also from my work on
Special Relativity (see the Introduction to Pi-Space Theory) I showed that time is a diameter
calculation. Please review this if you are unsure.

So it turns out that Period can be calculated as
k
m
T t 2 =

Note: In case you are wondering how can the two representations (Pi-Space and traditional
are similar / equivalent), there is a simplification of the Cos squared function as follows.

( ) ( ) x Cos x Cos 2
2
1
2
1
2
+ =

Also

( ) ( ) x Cos x Sin 2
2
1
2
1
2
=

This would give us something like

1 *
2
1
2 1 *
2
1
2
2 2

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c
x
ArcSin Cos k
c
v
ArcSin mCos

Drop the -1 and we get

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c
x
ArcSin Cos k
c
v
ArcSin mCos *
2
1
2 *
2
1
2
2 2

Drop the 2

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c
x
ArcSin Cos k
c
v
ArcSin mCos *
2
1
*
2
1
2 2

If we compare this with the Classical value, we get a similar formulation.

( ) ( ) e = = t kA t kx t U
2 2 2
cos
2
1
2
1
) (

And

( ) ( ) e = = t kA t mv t KE
2 2 2
sin
2
1
2
1
) (

According to the Pi-Space Theory, these String equations should therefore be relativistic.

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c
x
ArcSin Cos
m
k
c
v
ArcSin Cos

And

Simple Harmonic Motion in Pi-Space, Energy Eqn

0 =
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c
v
ArcSin mCos
c
x
ArcSin kCos

If we use amplitude instead of x, we get

0 =
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c
v
ArcSin mCos
c
A
ArcSin kCos

Multiply the result by C to get back to Newtonian
values

1.3 Simple Harmonic Motion solving for v, x and A

We can solve the equations in the traditional fashion.

Harmonic Velocity

c
c
x
ArcSin Cos
m
k
v *
2
1
1
2 '
2
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Harmonic x (or amplitude A)

c
c
v
ArcSin Cos
k
m
x *
2
1
1
2 '
2
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1.4 Pendulum Described in Pi-Space

We can solve the equations in the usual Hamiltonian way. We use the small angle idea which
is part of the proof normally. However for Pi-Space, we dont need to but lets do it this way
anyway.

Potential Energy of a Pendulum is

2
2
1
u mgL

( ) ( ) ( )
Local
t r mgL t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos m
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2
1
, ,
2
u

And

2
2
2
1
2
1
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L
x
mgL mgLu

Which gives us

2
2
1
x
L
g
m

Represent Pendulum as KE formulation and we get

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Local
t r t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos
L
g
m t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos m
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Dropping m and the wave function

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c
x
ArcSin Cos
L
g
c
v
ArcSin Cos

This is the same as the Harmonic Solution.

We can solve for v

Harmonic Velocity

c
c
x
ArcSin Cos
L
g
v *
2
1
1
2 '
2
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And the other way

c
c
v
ArcSin Cos
g
L
x *
2
1
1
2 '
2
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=

And Period T is

g
L

1.5 The Smallest Local Wave

Its important to describe the scale of things. In our reality, the smallest local wave is the
Planck Length. This is not the smallest wave, this is the smallest local wave. In the Pi-Space
Theory, the smallest local wave and objects made up from larger wave lengths can carry mass
waves or what I call non-local waves. The Planck Length is 10^-35.

3
c
G
l
p

=

So how do we make larger local waves? In the Pi-Space Theory, this is achieved for example
by moving upwards in a Gravitational Potential.

1.6 Why Particles Have Discrete Mass?

A valid question to ask is why do certain elementary particles have fixed mass? The answer
in Pi-Space is that the Mass carrying local wave has a specific amplitude and wavelength that
limits the amount of mass that it can carry.

A local wave of a certain amplitude can only carry so many non-local waves of another
amplitude. The non-local wave amplitudes are what we call Mass in Classical physics
according to Pi-Space. Therefore we must have exact masses for particles with certain
amplitudes like say an electron.

Pi-Space Rule of Thumb: Mass is carried by the Local Wave. It can only carry a fixed
number of Non-Local waves.

In my Quantum Doc, I showed how when one falls into a Black Hole all that is left in the
formula is the Mass wave functions (which are the non local ones)

( ) ( ) t r m , * +

1.7 Why The Fine Constant Exists (Ratio of Local to Non Local)

Also what follows from this is the Fine Structure constant which falls out from this which is
the ratio of the local wave to the non local wave namely the coupling constant characterizing
the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. The formula is

Pi-Space Rule of Thumb: The Fine Constant is the ratio of the local wave to the non local
wave.

h
c e
2
0 2

o =

Note: EM (Magnetic piece) and Gravity are non local waves in Pi-Space. Recall in the
Quantum Section that the EM wave is out of phase with the Gravity Wave. This is how they
can both travel on the same local wave.

1.8 Explaining Why The Non Local Waves (aka Strings) always
perpendicular to the direction of motion

It is assumed to be quite mysterious why Strings or (what I call) non Local waves are
perpendicular to the direction of movement. In Pi-Space, its pretty straightforward how to
explain this. Take a look at the diagram and look at the non local waves. They are always
perpendicular to the direction of movement.

Non local waves carry the non local Mass waves which ultimately generate the Gravity field
proper. As described already, the minimum size of these local waves is the Planck Length
and maximum speed of light. Importantly, Maxwell also discovered the perpendicular
relationship between electricity and magnetism and this was formalized by Heaviside using
the Cross Product (which is another way to describe perpendicular behavior). Therefore, in
the Pi-Space Theory both the Mass and the Magnetic Field waves are non local and out of
phase with one another.

1.9 Simple Proof Why 10 Dimensions Describes Gravity, EM
and Our Reality

Consider a local wave with maximum velocity c and which has a three dimensional reality
plus time. This is three dimensions plus one equaling four.

Consider two other properties of this reality which is the magnetic field and the gravity field
which are non local.

Both EM and Gravity are out of phase with one another.

Squaring the amplitudes for each effect produces a tiny compressed Pi-Shell which String
Theorists could call curled up dimension.

The size of these theoretical Pi-Shells are smaller than the Planck Length but are part of the
Local Wave whose smallest size is the Planck Length.

If we add up the total number of dimensions if we choose to use this concept, then we get 3
+ 1 for the local wave and 3 + 3 for the non local wave.

Its a matter of debate whether these are really dimensions as in other realities but in Pi-
Space, it is completely valid to model them as tiny curled up dimensions as was described by
Kaluza Klein.

1.10 Unifying String Theory with Pi-Space Gravity To Complete
The Gravity Work (Very Large to Very Small)

To unify String Theory with Pi-Space all one needs to do is take the current Pi-Space
formulas derived for Navier Stokes and Classical Gravity and add the String Theory
Harmonic String in place of the Mass component of Newtons Gravity.

Using this approach we have an initial complete Theory of Gravity which combines Newton,
Einsteins Relativity and String Theory.

Therefore, we have the very large to the very small.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * , , , * , , ,
2
2
2
NonLocal Local
t r
c
h
r
GM
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos t r
c
p
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos
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In String Theory, we know what M^2 is a Harmonic Oscillator based on the Regge and
Chew-Frautschi Plot. All we need to do is replace solved for M with this. Therefore String
Theory in the Newtonian Analogue describes the Mass component of Gravity. Later, Ill
flesh this out some more. However, for any engineering student trying to understand how to
fit String Theory into Gravity this is where it fits into the Pi-Space Equations for Gravity.

Quantum Gravity lies in the non local wave and is determined by the Mass value using the
classical analogue.

1.11 Adding a Wave Within a Wave In Pi-Space Using A Mass
String

Ive stated already that String Theory in Pi-Space is about defining the non local wave. In
particular, these waves within waves explain the Gravity due to mass and the EM (Magnetic)
effect.

Lets do the math!

We need a wave within a wave formula.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * , , , * , , ,
2
2
2
NonLocal Local
t r
c
h
r
GM
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos t r
c
p
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos
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Were only interested in the non local part, so we drop the local piece for this example.

( ) ( ) ( ) * , , , *
2
2
NonLocal
t r
c
h
r
GM
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos
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The mass is the non local part, so we define mass as a String. This is taken from A First
Course In String Theory by Barton Zwiebach.
L
Energy
Force T = =
0

We have Tension and we have mass per unit length
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2
0 2
0
v v
L
M
T = =

This becomes

0
2
2
0
0
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
t
y
T x
y

Which is a Harmonic Oscillator

Ive done these before (see earlier). This gives us.

( ) ( ) 0 , ,
0 0
=
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t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos T t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos

According to the Pi-Space Theory this is the relativistic version.

Note that this is the Energy version of the String which represents Mass in terms of the Local
Wave.

( ) ( )
2
0 0
, , M t r
c
x
ArcSin Cos T t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos ~
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Now if we want to plug this into the Local Wave formula for Gravity where the non local
wave (or String even representing Mass) creates a Gravity field in the classical sense, we
need to determine the amplitude of this wave. Recall in Pi-Space, that the Gravity field is
created by a Mass based area change to the atoms in the Gravity field. Gauss described this
as an area change to a volume. Einstein called this a warping on Space Time and using the
Equivalence it altered the Mass Density of an atom. So these Mass waves alter the area of a
Pi-Shell (atom). Later, Ill formalize Einstein Space Time Fabric but for now, Ill show a
formula for a non local wave inside a local wave which is quantized.

We solve for x which maps to the amplitude of the mass string in Pi-Space.

' *
2
1
1
2 '
2 '
0
0
c
c
v
ArcSin Cos
T
x M
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= =

Note that this is the non local speed of light, which just means the maximum speed that this
wave can travel in the non local frame. From the perspective of the local frame, speed here is
infinite (infinite frame) because its already at the speed of light.

Well add an additional dash notation to express the fact that this is not the local max speed
of light or local velocity v.

( ) ( ) ( )
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t r
c
h
r
c
c
v
ArcSin Cos
T
G
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos ,
' *
2
1
1
, , *
2
2
2 '
2 '
0
0

All Ive done is replace Mass with the String Theory version of Mass. This is a Wave Within
a Wave Formulation.

And this is what it looks like.

Note: I'll explain how Pi-Space sees Speed of Light in terms of a non local wave.

1.12 Spooky Action At A Distance / Quantum Entanglement

The wave within wave formula contains the description of defining the non local wave and
how its part of the mass wave which generates the Gravity field. The inner wave is non
local. The non local wave operates within the local wave which has maximum speed of light.
It is generated first and to an observer in the local reality based on the local wave, any
updates to a non local wave will appear instant! However, the key point to make is that this
does not violate cause and effect. The non local wave is generated first, then the local wave
(>= Planck length) is created from the non local waves. The ordering ensures that cause and
effect are protected, so a wave which is perceived to travel > local wave speed C does not
cause weird time effects. Also Quantum Entanglement is related to EM properties. The
Magnetic component of EM is also non local waves as Ive shown before. Ill cover this
later. This is one of the meanings of Mass as a String in the Pi-Space Theory.

( ) ( ) ( )
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t r
c
h
r
c
c
v
ArcSin Cos
T
G
t r t r
c
v
ArcSin Cos ,
' *
2
1
1
, , *
2
2
2 '
2 '
0
0

1.13 Basic Concept of The Higgs Field In Pi-Space and Fields
In General

Lets just define the basic concepts initially. One of the consequences of the wave within
wave formulation is that we can map the non local wave to the Standard model Higgs Field
which is the mass giver. In Pi-Space we consider free space with no particles or energy to
be made from just non local waves. In the Pi-Space Theory, free space is seen as a sea of
non local waves. Therefore it is not empty. Some of these non local waves may carry atoms
(what I call Pi-Shells) and the non local waves form the mass component. A light wave for
example which carries no mass is a pure local wave. See my earlier post on a massless
wave. Also, what arises from this sea of non local waves are particles which can appear and
disappear momentarily. Therefore, virtual particles are created by interacting non local
waves. Also, this leads us into the Einstein Space Time fabric idea. At the simplest level, the
gravitational fabric in Pi-Space is made from these non local space time waves interacting
with the atoms non local mass wave component. Also, the fact that non local waves complete
before local waves provides us with fields which are always in place around us. For example,
we do not see a Gravity field partially constructed or a magnetic field (N S pole) partially in
place. They are always there fully formed. This was one of the puzzles which Newton
accepted as unsolved in his work but focused on the local wave formulas (energy, velocity
and force) which we use today. This was sufficient because we operate primarily in local
wave space with maximum speed of light C as Einstein pointed out in his SR work.

Note: There are exchange particles in Pi-Space which I will cover later but some are non
local.

1.14 Quantum Spin States

Lets map the idea of Spin states to Pi-Space next. Pauli and Dirac produced unique Spin
states for EM and Gravitons. Electrons and Fermions have spin +1/2 and spin -1/2.
Gravitons have Spin 2. Lets show how this can be mapped to the Pi-Space approach. In Pi-
Space, we extend the idea of the pure probability approach to have two orthogonal waves
combining with one another. If you are unsure of this please read the Quantum Doc. There
is the EM case and the Gravity wave case which is the product of Mass waves which I have
mapped to String Theory strings. Essentially, Magnetic and Gravity fields are both created
by Non Local waves which are waves within local waves. So when two orthogonal local
waves combine to form the diameter of an observable particle, they are also carrying non
local Mass waves and EM charge.

The unit of length of a local wave is the Planck Length with max speed C. First, we cover the
EM case. Here we draw the Local wave only. I do not draw the Non Local wave so I draw
the local part only. I indicate where 1 Planck Length is.

Spin Down (-)
Spin Up (+)
ElectroMagnetic Field E + M in two Axes.
Spanning 1 Planck Length Carried on Local
Wave Max Speed C
Max Amplitude Case 1
Max Amplitude Case 2
-
y
A
x
i
s

E
-zAxis M
+
y
A
x
i
s

E
+zAxis M
M
E
y=sinx, x[0,2]
y=-sinx, x[0,2]
O
1
-1
/2
2

3/2
y
x
y=sinx, x[0,2]
y=-sinx, x[0,2]
O
1
-1
/2
2

3/2
y
x
Spin Up +
M
E
Spin Down -
M
1 Planck Length
M
E
E
M

From this one can see one can fit either a spin up or a spin down inside on Planck length. It
is analogous to a Cosine wave (starts at 1)

Using the Pauli/Dirac Matrices notation, this is

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 0
0 1
,
0
0
,
0 1
1 0
i
i

From this he derived the Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues. I wont go into the full detail of this
now, rather the concept of the mapping to a local wave.

e.g.
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
2
1

Next we take a look at the local wave which carries the Mass. The EM wave is analogous to
a Cosine wave where its starting point is 1 and then it goes to 0. In the case of the local
wave, this is analogous to a Sine wave, which starts at 0. It spans 2 wave functions (2 Planck
lengths) which gives it equivalent Spin 2. The wave function just covers one axis but both
axes form three dimensions.

Mass Carrying Wave Creating 3D Space
Max Amplitude Case 1
Max Amplitude Case 2
-
y
A
x
i
s
-zAxis
+
y
A
x
i
s
+zAxis
Max Amplitude Case 4
Max Amplitude Case 3
E
y=sinx, x[0,2]
y=-sinx, x[0,2]
O
1
-1
/2
2

3/2
y
x
Mass Carrying Wave
(Graviton) Spin 2
1 Planck Length
E

We can see using the Pi-Space approach, the Mass carrying wave has spin 2 (2 Planck length)
and is like a Sine wave. The Non Local Mass it is carrying is modeled as a String Theory
String. (See earlier work). Running alongside this is a EM field local wave carrying charge
which is analogous to a Cosine wave and has Spin +1/2 and -1/2.

1.15 Evolution Of Ideas So Far

Lets cover the ideas so far to get to this point.

Concentrate on a sphere in terms of its diameter and area.

Formalize the mapping of velocity to the diameter change and area to the energy of the
sphere.

Define the Square Rule mapping velocity to energy

Define the observer and relativity.

Show a new Proof for Pythagorean Theorem based on Spheres

Total compressed Pi-Shell means traveling at speed of light.

Potential Energy is area gain.

Kinetic Energy is area loss.

Reverse Engineer existing Special Relativity and Newtonian Gravity work to show it works. Mainly
use diagrams.

Call this sphere a Pi-Shell and not just an atom because a planet can be modeled like this and
also String Theory extra dimensions.

Map the total area of a Pi-Shell to Einsteins formula.

Derive a new Kinetic Energy formula where at V=C we get E=MC^2 as opposed to infinity.

Derive a new version of Lorentz Fitzgerald Transformation which returns same values based
on Trig

Use the same Newtonian logic to derive Potential Energy formulas and equivalent Newtonian
style formulas.

Produce a document showing formulas and calculations which match Newton's values

Derive a general solution for Orbits

Explain how a Black Hole works

Move onto Quantum Theory

Extend the Probability approach to show that what is missing is Non Local waves.

Provide a Schrdingers Wish formula where we deal with waves and not just probabilities.

Use Hamiltonians for each wave plane

Formalize Non Local waves

Explain Quantum Entanglement as Non Local behavior

Solve for Local and Non-Local waves which are orthogonal

Show how Pi-Space is compatible with Gaussian Gravity

Solve for Bernoulli

Solve for Navier Stokes explaining where Turbulence comes from

Begin work on Advanced Quantum Theory.

Reverse Engineer Harmonic Motion.

Explain ten dimensions

Formalize the Non Local waves. Show how they are String Theory Strings.

Produce a new formula Very Big to Very Small Gravity formula (Newton, Quantum,
Relativity, String for Mass)

Begin work reverse engineering Charge and the Standard Model

I just want to write this for the record about probabilities and Pi-Space.

Pi-Space does not say that the probabilities approach is wrong! Probabilities are correct
experimentally. All that Pi-Space says is that we have not modeled the Non-Local waves in
the equations for these events (which would explain the percentage of one result over
another).

Because Physics doesn't currently believe there are Non Local waves, we are forced to use
Probabilities.

I realize this goes against Orthodoxy but this is Pi-Space.

If we can successfully model the Non Local waves interaction with Local waves we won't
need Probabilities is what Pi-Space says, or even help explain why its happening...

BTW: The Math for the Non Local waves is the same as the Local Wave. It's how they
interact which produces one result over another.

1.16 Modeling Charge In Pi-Space

Charge is another example of waves within waves.

Conventional Physics models charge as positive and negative. When like charges come
together, they repel. Unlike charges attract.

Pi-Space can explain why this happens using the wave within wave design pattern.

Coulomb and Newton are similar

2
r
GMm
Fg =

2
r
Qq
K Fc
e
=

There are three distinct cases.

1. + and charges attract.
2. -- repel
3. ++ repel

The Pi-Space rule of Thumb for movement is that a Pi-Shell or particle will move towards the
place where the Non Local waves are the smallest. This is how Gravity works in Pi-Space.
Mass moves towards the Center of Gravity where the Non Local mass waves are the smallest
and the Pi-Shell become smaller. This is the Principle of Least Action.

Recall that Mass waves are Non Local and carried on the Local Wave.

Charge is also Non Local in Pi-Space. It is carried on the EM wave. At present, we model
the Charge as a Non Local wave on the Electric wave.

In this case, we can see that we can model the Force between Charge and Mass using the
same formula. This is why the Newtonian and Coulomb formula match.

However, this does not explain Positive and Negative Charge and why there is attraction and
repulsion.

To explain this we need to add another set of waves within the Non Local. For the purposes
of this discussion we can call this the Charge Type Waves.

Therefore we can define two charge type waves within the Non Local charge.

The Charge Type waves are out of Phase with one another (Sine and Cosine).

We arbitrarily choose the Sine wave as the Positive Charge Wave and the Cosine wave as the
Negative wave. We could define this the other way around if we wanted. The point is that
they define the two Charge states of Positive and Negative.

Therefore we have

Electric Wave (Local) =>(carries) Charge Quantity (Non Local) =>(carries)
Positive/Negative Charge Type Wave (Non-Non Local)

We can define a simple notation called N(x)

N(0) = Local Wave (Electrical)
N(1) = Non Local Wave (Charge Quantity)
N(2) = Non Non Local Wave (Charge Type, Positive, Negative)

Lets draw the Charge Type Wave

For Positive Charge (we use N(2) Sine wave). Note the three terms in the formula below
indicating N(0), N(1) and N(2).

For Negative Charge (we use N(2) Cosine wave)

So, lets consider what happens when we combine two of these diagrams.

There are three cases.

We can think of N(2) Sine as +-+-+-+- and Cosine as -+-+-+-

Case (1) Positive and Negative Charge combine. Both N(2) Sine and Cosine cancel

+-+-+-+- -+-+-+-+ = 0

Thefore N(2) cancels and we end up with the a Gravity style Mass Non Local Diagram.

The + and - charges attract. Moving towards one another, the Non Local waves become the
smallest. If they move away, the Positive and Negative N(2) charges grow stronger so the
particle does not want to move in this direction. This is the Principle of Least Action.

Case(2) Positive and Positive N(2) charges combine. Two Sine waves combine and the
amplitude of the N(2) charges increases.

+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+ = N(2) amplitude 2

The two positively charge particles will repel as their Non Local waves become larger. So as
they move away from one another, they become smaller. Once again the Principle of Least
Action.

Case(3) Negative and Negative N(2) charges combine. Two Cosine waves combine and the
amplitude of the N(2) charges increases.

-+-+-+-+- -+-+-+-+ = N(2) amplitude 2

The two negatively charge particles will repel as their Non Local waves become larger. So as
they move away from one another, they become smaller.

So as we can see it is reasonably simple to model Charge in Pi-Space. We map various
attributes like charge to the Waves Within Waves Pi-Space design pattern. Also we dont
need to add any new concepts. We are reusing the same ideas over and over again and from
this we can derive the attribute of charge and its behavior.

1.17 Modeling Size of Mass and Charge Using The Pi-Space
Notation

At the present time, using the notation we can model Mass and Charge. We can also model a
positive and negative charge and explain where there is attraction and repulsion. Next, Ill
explain how we can model quantity of charge or mass. We say something has more mass or
less mass, or more charge or less charge.

Pi-Space uses what I call a pack mule design pattern. Waves are inside waves but waves
also can be said to carry other waves. Some particles are heavier which means that there
are more waves carried either by the EM waves or the Mass wave.

In the example diagrams we have the wave function, for example Cosine or Sine. Inside it
are the parameters which detail the number of waves.

Outside it is the amplitude of the wave. In Pi-Space, the changing amplitude changes the size
of the particle or wave amplitude. This is related to energy and Ill talk about that later.

Newtonian Mass is a combination of the Number of Non Local waves which are carried
times their amplitude which is measured under Gravity.

Typically, we talk about the Rest Mass. In Pi-Space, this refers to the number of Non Local
waves carried by Local wave. For the most part, the number of waves remains constant
except for fusion or fission which is how they are altered.

Charge is also the measured in the same way, except for the N(2) waves which produce the +
and charge.

1. Zero Charge/Mass (0 mass/charge waves)

2. Increasing Mass/Charge (10 mass/charge waves)

3. Greater Mass/Charge (50 mass/charge waves)

Note that the number of N(1) waves (traditionally called Mass or Charge) carried determines
how strongly or otherwise the particle interacts and alters the field(s) around it.

1.18 Modeling A Quark In Pi-Space

Ive already modeled the Charge Type Carrying wave. Typically for an electron this is
charge -1 and for a Proton its +1. Murray Gell-Mann showed up how the Quark creates the
+1 charge using +2/3 and -1/3. In Pi-Space, the reason why we tend to have triples is the
nature of the wave states. We have min amplitude, max amplitude and the case where the
two waves cancel each other out which Ill call zero amplitude. Typically this are three
states. Carried on each waves are two inner waves which are out of phase with one another
equivalent to a positive and negative charge carrier wave. See earlier work on modeling
charge. Combined, they form a simple addition and subtraction mechanism which the

Now, a Quark is therefore a way of breaking down the charge carrier wave as modeled in Pi-
Space.

Lets draw both Quark types. (+2/3 and -1/3)

+2/3 Quark (We model +2/3 as 0.666 of the Sin wave)

-1/3 Quark (We model -1/3 as 0.333 of the Cos wave)

If we add +2/3, +2/3 and -1/3 we get +1 which is the Charge Type wave, we get the original
Charge Type +1 wave I defined earlier (A positron in this case, as opposed to Electron
charge). (We add two 0.666 Sin waves and one 0.333 Cos wave)

Next, these Quarks in turn carry QCD color which is another wave within this wave. Ill
cover this next but at this stage one could almost begin to predict what I can write if one
understands this simple design pattern.

So if we draw a Proton which is charge, charge type and 3 quarks, this is what it looks like as
a simple formula with a visual representation.

1.19 Modeling Quark QCD Color In Pi-Space

QCD Color has three forms Red, Green and Blue. The way these are modeled in Pi-Space is
that they are waves which are contained within the Quark waves (-1/3 or +2/3).

There are three cases.

We will arbitrarily model them in the following way.

Red: Quark carrying a Cosine wave
Green: Quark carrying a Sine wave
Blue: Quark carrying neither Cosine nor Sine waves.

These are the three states.
Lets extend the last example.

So if we draw a Proton which carries a charge wave, a charge type wave which is made from
3 quarks, this is what it looks like as a simple formula with a visual representation.

Note: We do not precisely model the number of carried waves at each level. We keep it
simple 10, 20, 30 Also we assume that the contained Color wave is the same size as the
Quark wave.

Further down , each quark can carry three possible colors.

For this discussion, we consider the Quark -1/3 and show how it can carry color.

Red Quark -1/3 (Cosine wave)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos+0.3333Cos,{,0,20}]

Green Quark -1/3 (Sine wave)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos+0.3333Sin,{,0,20}]

Blue Quark -1/3 (No wave carried)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos,{,0,20}]

1.20 QCD Quark Confinement In Pi-Space

There is presently no analytic proof for why QCD Quark Confinement exists. Lets try to
explain how this works in the Pi-Space analytically using the Wave within Wave model and
show why it makes sense according to this Theory.

Lets take a look at one of the Quarks that was defined earlier.

Green Quark -1/3 (Sine wave)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos+0.3333Sin,{,0,20}]

If one looks at this diagram, one can see that the Quark carrying color is confined inside
individual larger parent waves. Therefore one cannot simply take out a quark with Color.
It is an intrinsic part of the part charge type wave which is an intrinsic part of the charge
wave. Put another way, the waves are embedded inside one another. Also if one wants to
move a Quark from one wave to another, this will produce the Quark , AntiQuark pattern
which means that they must move outside the confines of their parent wave.

One cannot see a Quark because it is Non Local. However, it is there on the Non Local
plane. The QCD color also holds the waves together and I will discuss force later but not
now. Therefore the scatter plots should reveal the Non Local waves within the local
scattering. I will discuss asymptotic freedom next for a quark according to the theory and
show how this works according to this design pattern.

1.21 QCD Quark Asymptotic Freedom Pi-Space

Lets describe Asymptotic Freedom. It has been discovered experimentally that the Color
force is a multiple of distance. Traditionally, force is divided by distance and falls away as
one moves objects apart but not in this case. How can we describe this?

Lets consider the following formula.

r k
r
k
V
2
1
+ =
Where

K1 = strength of Coulomb attraction of the Quarks
K2 = strength of the Color force attraction about 1 GeV/fm

In Pi-Space, the potential is about a Pi-Shell or wave getting larger. KE is about a Pi-Shell or
wave getting smaller.

Force is therefore an area change (gain/loss) or wave change (wavelength longer/shorter)

In Pi-Space, we have the concept of our reality like a wave onion. We have two pairs of
waves on each layer which are out of synch with each other. Mathematically, we can
represent these two waves by the Exponent using imaginary numbers which is how Quantum
Mechanics handles a single layer of the wave onion so to speak.

x i x e
ix
sin cos + =

Each wave can in turn carry other pair of waves so the waves are inside waves. We can
assign arbitrary wave layer numbers to them using the N(x) notation. Each wave affects the
other. The size of an N(1) wave be affected by the N(2) child waves.

Lets show how our reality breaks down using this idea and focus just on the EM wave.
Later, I will show how Gravity fits into this overall design pattern. Note: It resides in the
N(0) and N(1) layer and is out of phase with EM.

Typically there are three states. Parent wave carrying Cosine, Sine and Neutral (carrying
neither Cosines nor Sine)

N(0) = Local Wave (Electrical)
N(1) = Non Local Wave (Charge Quantity)
N(2) = Non Non Local Wave (Charge Type, Positive, Negative)
N(3) = Non Non Non Local Wave (2/3 Quark Charge Type, 1/3 Quark)
N(4) = Non Non Non Non Local Wave (QCD Color Red, Green, Blue)

All N(x) states affect the size of the N(0) wave state which is where we define our
experimental reality with Force and Momentum. Therefore a change in the N(3) state can
affect N(0). The same is also true of the N(4) state.

Recall in Pi-Space that waves moves towards a location where their waves become smaller.
This is the Principle of Least action described in Pi-Space.

Lets add the wave location to the formula described earlier.

Lets consider the following formula.

r k N
r
k
N V
2
1
) 4 ( ) 3 ( + =

N(3) represents the Quark-Quark interaction and the changes in the wave sizes. They are
bound to the Charge Type Wave which they form.

N(4) represents the Color type waves inside the Quark wave. Their wave length is
dramatically smaller and these waves reside inside N(3). If one stretches N(3) wave, what we
typically think of as 3 Quarks, then the N(4) waves resist this by k2 times the distance.

The way this is described is 3 balls held together by springs which resist being pulled apart.
In Pi-Space, the way we model this is 3 N(3) waves forming the charge type wave N(2). The
3 N(3) waves (the three balls so speak) carry N(4) charge type waves (red,blue,green) which
we can model as springs/waves. They resist as N(3) Quarks are pulled apart because they
want to be smaller. This is the principle of least action.

These N(4) waves typically do not form particles. Recall in Pi-Space that to form a particle
from a wave all one has to do is have two waves collide orthogonally. This is why we square
diameters using the Square Rule. The squaring of these waves form the Quark particles from
the Quark waves. Once we have these, then we can model the force in terms of area change
of Quark particles and divide by r.

Recall, here is how we model QCD Color

Green Quark -1/3 (Sine wave)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos+0.3333Sin,{,0,20}]

N(1) = Sin(x) = Charge
N(2) = Sin(10x) = Charge Type
N(3) = 0.3333Cos(20x) = Quark -1/3
N(4) = 0.3333Sin(30x)= QCD Green

Note: 10,20,30 are arbitrary and do not reflect actual charge/quark/color settings.

1.22 Modeling Gravity and EM in Pi-Space

Now all the major pieces are in place to model Gravity and EM. Both are wave based. The
Electric component of EM is carried on the same wave as the Gravity wave which carries the
Mass wave. Both EM and Gravity are out of Phase with one another.

For the purposes of this discussion, we make Gravity (Sine) and EM (Electric Cosine) but
this is arbitrary.

The Gravity component is derived from the Mass wave. Lets break down the layers.

N(0) = Sin(x) = Gravity wave
N(1) = Sin (10x) = Mass waves

Note: The Gravity wave is the product of the N(1) mass wave.

The Electric wave

N(0) = Cos(x) = Electric wave
N(1) = Cos(10x) = Charge waves

From earlier treatment, we can dive further in the Electric component to Quarks and QCD
color but for now, we just focus on EM and Gravity at N(0) and N(1).

This design pattern explains why both EM and Gravity cause force. As the N(1) waves
change, either can alter the field or the particle, causing movement. Later, Ill explain the
respective strengths of the forces.

It also explains why both can use the same type for formula for Coulombs Charge and
Newtonian Force. We just replace Mass with Charge and have a different Force Constant.

So, lets draw this.

Note how both EM and Gravity are almost identical, thus similar force formulas Fg and Fc.
Gravity is the product of Mass and Electric force is the product of Charge. In the case of EM
+ Gravity both are carried by the same particle. In the case of a non-charged particle, just the
Gravity (Mass wave) is carried.

Note: I have not covered Magnetic Field as this is the Non Local field interaction piece. In
earlier work, I also showed that Turbulence is similar to the Magnetic Field in that it is also a
Non Local field interaction piece.

We can map the Non Local field interaction piece in Pi-Space in the following way.

Field interaction is the Boson idea in the Standard Model.

Field interaction is also the Brane idea in String Theory.

Bringing both diagrams together

1.23 Modeling Strong and Weak Force in Pi-Space

Some forces are strong and others are weak. Forces emanate from different N(x) layers and
therefore exhibit different properties on the local plane.

In terms of a particle, Force deals with the area change of said Particle relative to an observer
particle. See earlier work on Pi-Space. Also force change can also manifest itself as a
wavelength becoming shorter for example.

We have Gravity, EM, Weak Force and the Strong Force. So far I have covered Gravity, EM
and the Strong Force.

Electric Force and Gravity Force both emanate from the N(1) layer but with different parent
N(0) waves.

Electric Force is stronger because there are more charge waves on the N(1) layer.

The ratio of charge waves N(1) to electric waves N(0) is defined by the Fine Constant which
works out at 1/137. I will do a separate post on this.

Therefore one can conclude that the ratio is smaller for N(1) mass Waves to N(1) Gravity
waves.

There is also the ratio of the difference in the Coulombs Electric Constant and the
Gravitational Constant G. This is a comparison of two N(1) waves (mass and charge) sharing
two different parent N(0) waves (Gravity wave, Electric wave)

N(1) waves affect the N(0) wave directly and their span.

In the case of the Strong Force, we are dealing with Force waves which reside in the Color
N(4) layer. These waves exist inside the N(3) Quark waves and have a much shorter
wavelength than the N(1) waves. Therefore their force is much stronger. However, because
they exist inside the Quarks N(3) their range is limited by the size of these parent waves. So
although they have stronger force, their range is limited.

The closer a Non Local wave is to the Local Wave N(0), the more widespread the force is in
the local space.

The more waves that are carried the greater the force.

The lower the wave is in terms of layers relative to the Local wave, the greater the force is
due to the smaller Ultra relativistic wavelength but the force range is more limited.

1.24 Modeling A Neutron In Pi-Space

A Neutron has no charge

We can define a simple notation called N(x)

N(0) = Local Wave (Electrical)
N(1) = Non Local Wave (Charge Quantity)
N(2) = Non Non Local Wave (Charge Type, Positive, Negative)

Therefore N(2) is not present.

1.25 Modeling the Neutrino in Pi-Space

Lets extend the Local N(0) notation to point to either the parent Electric or Gravity wave
which are out of phase.

So

Ne(0) = Local Electric Wave
Ng(0) = Local Gravity Wave

The fact that the Standard Model states that a Neutrino has no mass but it's found that it has
some which oscillates, indicates (according to Pi-Space Theory) that the Neutrino wave(s)
is/are actually on the Ng(2) layer. Note Ng(1) is the Mass wave. So the oscillations at the
Ng(2) layer cause the Mass to "appear" when they are in phase.

Therefore

Ng(0) = Local Gravity Wave
Ng(1) = Mass wave
Ng(2) = Oscillating Neutrino wave

Also

Ne(2) is where the Quarks live. There are 3 of them and there are 3 Neutrino flavors.

Although Ne(2) and Ng(2) are out of phase they do cross one anothers path.

Drawing the Neutrino therefore, we get

We notionally model a small amount of mass as 11x versus 10x. Therefore, a Neutrino has
very little mass on the Ng(0) wave

Plot[Cos[]+Cos+Cos,{,0,20}]

Note that this mass also lives alongside the Neutral charge which is modeled as a Sine wave

Lets see how we can demonstrate how we can get oscillations when we combine the Ng(x)
and the Ne(x) wave.

Plot[{Cos[]+Cos+Cos,Sin[]+Sin},{,0,20}]

1.26 Modeling the W+,W- and Z Bozons in Pi-Space

Bozons mediate force. In the case of the Weak force, we have W+,W- and Z Bozons.

These have mass which is carried on Ng(x). Lets focus on the Ne(x) versions of them.

W+

For Positive Charge (we use Ne(2) Sine wave). Note the three terms in the formula below
indicating Ne(0), Ne(1) and Ne(2).

W-

For Negative Charge (we use Ne(2) Cosine wave)

Z
Neutral charge which is modeled as a Sine wave

1.27 Modeling the Photon

The Photon is a gauge Bozon. This is pretty straightforward to model. We define just the
Ne(x) Electric wave for now. The Nm(x) Magnetic wave is the same just orthogonal. Its
Ne(0).

1.28 Modeling an Electron and Positron In Pi-Space

An Electron -1 charge

Ne(0) = Sine = Electric Sine wave (photon)
Ne(1) = Sine = Charge
Ne(2) = Cosine = -1 Charge

For Positron Charge +1 (we use Ne(1) Cosine wave). Note the three terms in the formula
below indicating Ne(0), Ne(1) and Ne(2).

Ne(0) = Sine = Electric Sine wave (photon)
Ne(1) = Cosine = Anti Charge (Positron)
Ne(2) = Sine = +1 Charge

A Positron is an antiparticle. If it comes in contact with an electron they will annihilate.

Therefore Ne(0) stays the same. So the charge is an anticharge. By this I mean Ne(1) is a
Cosine as opposed to a Sine. Inside this is a positive charge type wave which is a Sine wave.

So if these two collide they will cancel and produce gamma ray photons.

1.29 Mass Gap In Pi-Space

The question is "How can a wave moving at the speed of light have rest mass?"

The answer in Pi-Space Theory is that Ng(0) is the Gravity wave which is local, traveling
max speed of light.

Inside this is Ng(1) where we have the "Rest Mass" waves. These are carried by Ng(0).

I've already described this in previous posts.

Mass is carried according to the Pi-Space Theory. It's the "Pack Mule" design pattern.

1.30 QCD Anti-Blue in Pi-Space

For Positron Charge +1 (we use Ne(1) Cosine wave). Note the three terms in the formula
below indicating Ne(0), Ne(1) and Ne(2).

Ne(0) = Sine = Electric Sine wave (photon)
Ne(1) = Cosine = Anti Charge (Positron)
Ne(2) = Sine = +1 Charge

We can extend this to become a QCD Anti-Blue. The Charge Type wave is made up of three
Quarks and the Quarks contain QCD Blue.

Previously we defined

Blue Quark -1/3 (No wave carried)

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+0.3333Cos,{,0,20}]

So from this we can derive

Ne(0) = Sine = Electric Sine wave (photon)
Ne(1) = Cosine = Anti Charge (Positron)
Ne(2) = 0.3333 Sin = Anti Quark
Ne(4) = Empty (which means QCD Blue in our case this is arbitrary)

Note: QCD anti-blue is the simplest example because Ne(4) is empty. For red and green we
have waves for Ne(4). This means that the odds of a particle canceling with an anti-particle
are higher if Ne(4) is not occupied. Therefore, QCD waves do not automatically cancel with
anti-particles because both wave patterns are equal and opposite which is more difficult to
achieve when Ne(4) is occupied for example. In the case of a Positron and an Electron the
odds of annihilation are higher because the depth of the waves are less.

1.31 Modeling the Higgs Boson in Pi-Space

Lets extend the Local N(0) notation to point to either the parent Electric or Gravity wave
which are out of phase.

So

Ne(0) = Local Electric Wave
Ng(0) = Local Gravity Wave

Ng(1) is the Mass wave.

Ng(0) = Local Gravity Wave
Ng(1) = Mass wave
Ng(2) = Oscillating Neutrino wave

Therefore the Higgs Boson is the Ng(1) wave which is either absorbed or emitted. Free
Space contains these oscillating waves.

A Light Wave is part of Ne(0) and does not contain any Ng(x) waves, therefore it can travel
at the Speed of Light C.

Also, if a particle contains Ng(1) waves (aka Mass) they move slower. This is how to explain
the Higgs Boson in Pi-Space.

Zero Charge/Mass (0 mass/charge waves)

Note: We use Sine as the Ng(x) carrier wave (this is arbitrary)

1. Increasing Mass/Charge (10 mass/charge waves)

2. Greater Mass/Charge (50 mass/charge waves)

1.32 Beta Decay Feynman Diagram in Pi-Space

We can covert the Feynman diagram for Beta Decay into a Pi-Space wave diagram.

 Neutron

Ne(0) = Local Wave (Electrical)
Ne(1) = Non Local Wave (Charge Quantity)
Ne(2) = Non Non Local Wave (Charge Type, Positive, Negative)

2/3 -1/3 -1/3 waves cancel out (udd) at N(2)

Therefore N(2) is not present.

 Proton

So if we draw a Proton which is charge, charge type and 3 quarks (udu), this is what it looks
like as a simple formula with a visual representation.

Ne(0) = Local Wave (Electrical)
Ne(1) = Non Local Wave (Charge Quantity)
Ne(2) = Non Non Local Wave (Charge Type, Positive, Negative)

Ne(2) is present

 W Minus Bozon

A Bozon is emitted which is a W minus to take into account balance the wave change.

W-

For Negative Charge (we use Ne(2) Cosine wave)

 Electron Anti Neutrino

Note: So far we have just deal with the Electric Charge wave piece. There is also a mass
discrepancy, so we need an Electron Neutrino to ensure that Mass is conserved as well. We
also model mass as a wave. This is where the Electron Anti Neutrino comes in.

Ng(0) = Local Gravity Wave
Ng(1) = Mass wave
Ng(2) = Oscillating Neutrino wave

We notionally model a small amount of mass as 11x versus 10x. Therefore, a Neutrino has
very little mass on the Ng(0) wave

Plot[Cos[]+Cos+Cos,{,0,20}]

Note: I never did an electron anti-neutrino but an anti-neutrino has Ng(2) wave which is a
Sine as opposed to Cosine. Therefore, the mass is conserved.

 Electron

The final piece of Beta Decay is the emission of the Electron. This is created by the W-
Boson.

An Electron -1 charge

Ne(0) = Sine = Electric Sine wave (photon)
Ne(1) = Sine = Charge
Ne(2) = Cosine = -1 Charge

Conclusion

We can see that the Feynman diagrams are an excellent way to drill down into a Pi-Space
wave diagram. What the Pi-Space diagrams offer is a way to understand that underlying
wave algebra and symmetries at the deepest level of our reality.

Exercise

Take any other Feynman diagram[s] and reverse engineer them in the same way using the Pi-
Space notation.

1.33 Simple Proof Faster Than Speed of Light In Pi-Space

This is just a simple proof for Non Local waves which can operate faster than the Speed of
Light

Consider the Universe expanding based on Ng(2) waves
This is where the "Dark Matter" is and where the Higgs Field is
The Ng(2) field is Non Local and completes faster than the Local Wave which has max speed
C
The Ng(2) mass waves are responsible for the expansion of the Universe
It has been observed that the Universe is expanding faster than the Speed of Light
Therefore Non Local waves can travel faster than Speed of Light.

Note: In Pi-Space, "space" is composed of Ng(2) waves not some "other thing" capable of >
C. It's _all_ waves in case one tries to play with the meaning of "space".

1.34 Modeling Matter and Anti Matter Using The Pi-Space
Notation

We model mass on Ng(1) as a Sine wave

1. Mass (10 mass waves)

Anti-Matter is Ng(1) and is a Cosine wave. If both collide they cancel each other out.

Energy is released as Bosons.

1.35 Modeling an Anti Neutrino Using The Pi-Space Notation

Anti-Matter is Ng(1) and is a modeled as a Cosine wave (similar to anti-matter).

The Anti-Neutrino is inside this Ng(2). We model a small amount of neutrino mass.

Plot[Sin[]+Cos+Cos,{,0,20}]

Versus a normal neutrino. If both collide they cancel.

Plot[Sin[]+Sin+Sin,{,0,20}]

1.36 Modeling all the forces EM, Strong Force, Weak Force, G
plus the Strong Dark Matter Force in Pi-Space

In Pi-Space, the four well known forces are EM, Strong Force, Weak Force and Gravity.
However, Pi-Space also models the Strong Dark Matter force which is where dark matter lies
and is responsible for the >C expansion of the Universe.

The building block of this design pattern is Ne(x) for the electric wave and Ng(x) for the
Gravity waves.

Ne(0) and Ng(0) are out of phase with one another. Therefore they can both be modeled
using the Newtonian Fg and Coulomb Fc force notation except with different constants.

EM, Strong Force and Weak Force are modeled in Ne(x)

Ne(0) is the Electric Wave. The Magnetic wave is paired with this orthogonally.

Ne(1) is the charge type wave.

Ne(2) is the charge type wave made of Quarks.

Ne(3) is where the QCD wave is and this is where the Strong Force is. The waves are smaller
but stronger.

Beta Decay which demonstrates the weak force is how the wave types change and decay.
The exchange Bozons are also waves but are emitted or absorbed by Ne(x).

These are the major forces on the Electric wave side.

On the Mass side modeled as Ng(x), we start with the Gravity wave.

Ng(0) is where the Gravity waves are and it is modeled by the inner mass waves.

Ng(1) are the mass waves themselves

Ng(2) are the inner mass waves which form Neutrinos.

Ne(3) and beyond is where the dark matter is. Similar to Ne(3) these dark matter waves have
very strong force but it is localized to a small area.

Therefore, we think of dark matter in Pi-Space as small localized mass waves which are non
local. They complete before Ng(0) and therefore appear to complete faster than the speed of
light. This is why our Universe appears to be expanding faster than the speed of light. The
Ng(3) dark matter waves are expanding our points of space with great strength and speed
but are localized to a single point similar to Ne(3).

There are many more Ng(3) waves than Ng(0)/Ng(1) waves thus accounting for all the
hidden mass in our Universe.

Ng(3) and beyond is termed the Strong Dark Matter Force in Pi-Space, similar to the
Strong Force on the Electric Wave.