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# Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

4.1.1

## Steam/Heat Utility Emissions

Imported steam/heat or steam/heat generated onsite results in GHG emissions due to combustion that occurs to produce the steam. If the method of generation for the steam/heat is known, then the approach to estimate combustion emissions given in Section 4.1 can be used. However, if no information about the steam/heat generation method is known, then a simple approach of assuming that the steam/heat was generated in a natural gas boiler is suggested. A thermal based emission factor for this approach can be developed by dividing a boiler emission factor on a lower heating value (LHV) basis by an assumed boiler efficiency. For example, the LHV natural gas combustion emission factors given in Table 4-1 for CO2 and Table 4-4a for CH4 and N2O (controlled) can be converted to a thermal basis by dividing by an assumed 92% boiler efficiency, as shown below: (Corrected the following emission factors.)
0.0590 tonne/10 6 Btu = 0.0641 tonne CO 2 /10 6 Btu (steam/heat energy basis, LHV) 0.92 1.1 10 -6 tonne/10 6 Btu CH 4 Emission Factor = = 1.20 10 6 tonne CH 4 /10 6 Btu (steam/heat energy basis, LHV) 0.92 3.0 10 -7 tonne/10 6 Btu N 2 O Emission Factor = = 3.26 10 7 tonne N 2 O/10 6 Btu (steam/heat energy basis, LHV) 0.92 CO 2 Emission Factor =

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4.7.3

## Allocation of Cogeneration Emissions

Work Potential Allocation Approach This approach assigns the emissions to the energy streams in proportion to their contribution to the total work potential, or exergy. The work potential for steam is calculated from the specific enthalpy (H) and specific entropy (S) of the stream. This approach sums the work potential of all streams and allocates the total emissions to the individual streams. As with the UK ETS method, the first step is to calculate the total direct CO2 emissions from the combustion of natural gas at the cogeneration facility. The second step is to calculate the work potential of the steam, using 212 F (100 C) saturated water as the reference basis, and 700F (371 C) and 600 psia (4,137 kilo Pascal) for the process steam. The enthalpy and entropy of the steam can be determined from a steam table at the reference and actual conditions. The work potential of the steam is calculated using the following equations. In US units:
Steam work potential (Btu/lb) = (Hi Href) (T ref + 460) (Si Sref)

(Equation 4-11)

and in SI units: Steam work potential (109 J/tonne) = (Hi Href) (Tref + 273) (Si Sref)

(Equation 4-12)

where: Hi = specific enthalpy of the process steam (BTU/lb or 103 J/kilogram) Href = specific enthalpy at the reference conditions (BTU/lb or 103 J/kilogram) Tref = reference temperature (F or C) Si = specific entropy of the process steam (BTU/lb R or 103 J/kilogram K) Sref = specific entropy at the reference conditions (BTU/lb R or 103 J/kilogram K)

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## Table 6-1. Facility-Level Average Fugitive Emission Factors

Emission Factor Original Units 57.21 lb CH4/106scf produced 22.88 lb CH4/106scf produced 0.5164 lb CH4/bbl produced 0.2066 lb CH4/bbl produced 64.32 lb CH4/106scf processed 1,489,000 lb CH4/station Precision ( %) a 44 Not available Not available Not available 69 57 Gas Content Basis of Factor 78.8 mole % CH4 78.8 mole % CH4 78.8 mole % CH4 78.8 mole % CH4 87 mole % CH4 93.4 mole % CH4 93.4 mole % CH4 2 mole % CO2 2 mole % CO2 Negligible 93.4 mole % CH4 2 mole % CO2 2 mole % CO2 Emission Factor b Converted Units 2.595E-02 tonnes CH4/106 scf 9.164E-01 tonnes CH4/106 m3 1.038E-02 tonnes CH4/106 scf 3.665E-01 tonnes CH4/106 m3 2.342E-04 tonnes CH4/bbl 1.473E-03 tonnes CH4/m3 9.371E-05 tonnes CH4/bbl 5.894E-04 tonnes CH4/m3 2.918E-02 tonnes CH4/106 scf 1.030E+00 tonnes CH4/106 m3 6.754E+02 tonnes CH4/station

Source Production Onshore gas production Offshore gas production Onshore oil production Offshore oil production Gas processing plants Gas storage stations Gas transmission pipelines CH4 from pipeline leaks CO2 from oxidation c CO2 from pipeline leaks Crude transmission pipelines Gas distribution pipelines CH4 from pipeline leaks CO2 from oxidation c CO2 from pipeline leaks Refining d

7,923 lb CH4/mile-yr 7.59 lb CO2/mile-yr 466.7 lb CO2/mile-yr Negligible 3,551 lb CH4/mile-yr 1,237 lb CO2/mile-yr 235.6 lb CO2/mile-yr 0.53 kg THC/m3 crude feedstock

84 65 84

3.594E+00 tonnes CH4/mile-yr 2.233E+00 tonnes CH4/km-yr 3.443E-03 tonnes CO2/mile-yr 2.139E-03 tonnes CO2/km-yr 2.117E-01 tonnes CO2/mile-yr 1.315E-01 tonnes CO2/km-yr

48 69 45 Not available

1.611E+00 tonnes CH4/mile-yr 1.001E+00 tonnes CH4/km-yr 5.611E-01 tonnes CO2/mile-yr 3.486E-01 tonnes CO2/km-yr 1.069E-01 tonnes CO2/mile-yr 6.640E-02 tonnes CO2/km-yr 8.43E-05 tonnes THC/bbl feedstock 5.30E-04 tonnes THC/m3 feedstock

Source: Shires, T.M. and C.J. Loughran. GHGCalc Version 1.0 Emission Factor Documentation, Draft, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), January 2002, Tier 1 fugitive emission factors from Table 4-26.
a b c

Precision is based on a 90% confidence interval from the data used to develop the original emission factor. The CH4 emission factors can be adjusted based on the relative concentrations of CH4 and CO2 to estimate CO2 emissions A portion of CH4 emitted from underground pipeline leaks is oxidized to form CO2.

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Table 62. Fugitive Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment
Reference Emission Factor, Precision ( %) a Original Units 8,208 scfy CH4/well 22 20,171 scfy CH4/separator 73 20,978 scfy CH4/heater 145 97,043 scfy CH4/compressor 106 5.55106 scfy CH4/compressor 3.088106 scfy CH4/station 16,072 32,551 825 84.5 112.9 scfy CH4/meter scfy CH4/dehydrator lb CH4/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr 169 102 133 37 108 66 107 Emission Factorb, Converted Units 1.80E-05 tonne CH4/well-hr 4.42E-05 tonne CH4/separator-hr 4.59E-05 tonne CH4/heater-hr 2.12E-04 tonne CH4/compressor-hr 1.22E-02 6.59E-03 3.52E-05 7.13E-05 4.27E-05 2.65E-05 4.38E-06 2.72E-06 5.85E-06 3.63E-06 tonne CH4/compressor-hr tonne CH4/station-hr tonne CH4/meter-hr tonne CH4/dehydrator-hr tonne CH4/mile-hr tonne CH4/km-hr tonne CO2/mile-hr tonne CO2/km-hr tonne CO2/mile-hr tonne CO2/km-hr

Equipment Basis Gas wellheads Separators Gas Heaters Small reciprocating gas compressor Large reciprocating gas compressor c Large reciprocating gas compressor stations c Meters/piping Dehydrators Gathering pipelines CO2 from oxidation d CO2 from pipeline leaks

Source: Shires, T.M. and C.J. Loughran. GHGCalc Version 1.0 Emission Factor Documentation, Draft, Gas Technology Institute, January 2002. Cite data from Sections 4.2.1 and 4.3.1. Notes:
a b

Precision is based on a 90% confidence interval from the data used to develop the original emission factor.

Emission factors converted from scfy are based on 60 F and 14.7 psia. The average CH4 concentration associated with these emission factors is 78.8 mole %; the average CO2 concentration (for buried pipelines) is 2 mole %. If the actual concentration differs from the default value, the emission factors shown above can be adjusted by the ratio of the site concentration to the default concentration. Large compressors are those with more than 3 stage of compression. Large compressor stations are those with five or more compressors. A portion of CH4 emitted from underground pipeline leaks is oxidized to form CO2.

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## Table 63. Fugitive Emission Factors Gas Distribution Equipment

Reference Emission Factor, Original Units 129.15 scf/meter-yr 207,018 scf/station-yr 1,357 1,205 105.7 1,067 54.0 63.9 lb CH4/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr lb CH4/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr lb CO2/mile-yr Precision ( %) a 22 90 69 71 63 142 114 142 Emission Factor b, Converted Units 2.83E-07 tonne CH4/meter-hr 4.53E-04 tonne CH4/stationhr 7.03E-05 tonne CH4/mile-hr 4.37E-05 tonne CH4/km-hr 6.24E-05 tonne CO2/mile-hr 3.88E-05 tonne CO2/km-hr 5.47E-06 tonne CO2/mile-hr 3.40E-06 tonne CO2/km-hr 5.52E-05 tonne CH4/mile-hr 3.43E-05 tonne CH4/km-hr 2.79E-06 tonne CO2/mile-hr 1.74E-06 tonne CO2/km-hr 3.31E-06 tonne CO2/mile-hr 2.06E-06 tonne CO2/km-hr

Equipment Basis Customer Meters Distribution Meter/Reg. Stations Distribution Pipelines CO2 oxidation EF for distribution pipeline c CO2 leaks from distribution pipeline Distribution Services CO2 oxidation EF for distribution services c CO2 leaks from distribution services

Source: Shires, T.M. and C.J. Loughran. GHGCalc Version 1.0 Emission Factor Documentation, Draft, Gas Technology Institute, January 2002. Cites data from multiple tables. Notes:
a b

Precision is based on a 90% confidence interval from the data used to develop the original emission factor.

Emission factors converted from scfy are based on 60 F and 14.7 psia. The average CH4 concentration associated with these emission factors is 93.4 mole %; the average CO2 concentration (for buried pipelines) is 2 mole %. If the actual concentration differs from the default value, the emission factors shown above can be adjusted by the ratio of the site concentration to the default concentration. c A portion of CH4 emitted from underground pipeline leaks is oxidized to form CO2.

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