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Technicalspecificationsforconcreteinaproject AssignmentNo.

1
by

IqbalBaig CE09B088
ConcreteTechnology(CE3420)


DepartmentofCivilEngineering IITMadras,Chennai600036 February2,2012

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MillauViaduct
TheMillauViaductisacablestayedroad bridgethatspansthevalleyoftheriverTarn nearMillauinsouthernFrance.Designedby theBritisharchitectNormanFosterand FrenchstructuralengineerMichelVirlogeuxit isthetallestbridgeintheworldwithone mast'ssummitat343.0metres(1,125ft..) abovethebaseofthestructurebuiltinoneof thewindiestareasoftheworldinoneofthe deepestvalleyofFrance.Notonlyisitthetallestonebutitisalsooneofthehighestbridges (12th)oftheworld. Thebridgesoarssohighintheskythatitglidesabovethecloudsfightingwindsgustingat enormousspeedsof130kmph.Theconstructionofbridgealsohadtotackledisasterslike landslidesandstorms.TheMillauViaductislocatedontheterritoryofthecommunesof MillauandCreissels,France,inthedpartementofAveyron.Beforethebridgewas constructed,traffichadtodescendintotheTarnRivervalleyandpassalongtheroute nationaleN9nearthetownofMillau,causing heavycongestionatthebeginningandendof theJulyandAugustvacationseason.The bridgenowtraversestheTarnvalleyaboveits lowestpoint,linkingtwolimestoneplateaus. Thebridgealongwithtwootherhighways providesacontinuoushighspeedroutesouth fromParistoSpain,considerablyreducingthe costofvehicletraffictravellingalongthis route.Manytouristsheadingtosouthern FranceandSpainfollowthisroutebecauseit isdirectandwithouttollsfor340kilometres (210mi). Thebridgeconsistsofsevenpiers.Theconstructionteamovercamemanychallengesthatit encountered.Thefirstpierwasbuiltonasteepslopehighlypronetolandslides.Sotheslope wasstabilisedtopreventanycalamitiesinthefuture.Thesecondpieristhetallestoneand wasmostchallengingtomake.Thethirdoneisalmostthesamebutisontheothersideof theriver.Sothespacingbetweenthesetwoishighmakingtheplacingofthedeckportiona littlemoredifficult.Therestofthepiersfollowthesuit.Theplacingofbridgedeckwas

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BandraWorliSeaLink

Withtechnologyfromacrosstheworldandengineersfromsevencountries,theBandra WorliSeaLink,India'sfirstbridgeacrosstheseaisalongawaiteddreamcometruefor thousandsofcommuterswhotravelbetweenMumbai'ssprawling,prosperousWestern suburbsanditssouthernbusinessheart(themaincityisland).TheBandraWorliSeaLink (BWSL)alsoknownastheRajivGandhiSeaLinkisacablestayedbridgewithprestressed concretesteelviaductsoneithersidethatlinksBandraandthewesternsuburbsofMumbai withWorli.ThebridgeisapartoftheproposedWestIslandFreewaysystemthatlinksthe westernsuburbstoNarimanPointinMumbai'smainbusinessdistrict. TheRs.16billion(US$320million)bridgewascommissionedbytheMaharashtraStateRoad DevelopmentCorporation(MSRDC),andbuiltbytheHindustanConstructionCompany.Due totheunderlyinggeology,thepylonshaveacomplexgeometryandthemainspanoverthe Bandrachannelisoneofthelongestspansofconcretedeckattempted.Complementing theseengineeringcomplexitieswiththeaestheticsofthebridgepresentedsignificant challengesfortheproject. Priortoitsconstruction,Mahimcausewaywastheonlylinkconnectingwesternsuburbsto islandcityofMumbai.Theexistingnorthsouthwesterncorridorwashighlycongestedand duringthepeakhoursresultedina bottleneckatMahimCauseway. Vehiculartrafficadmeasuring about130,000PCUtravelledon theMahimcausewayeveryday andduringpeakhoursandittook aboutfortyminutestotravelfrom MahimcausewaytoWorli,a distanceofmere8km.Inacity thataddsmorethan500vehicles everyday,theSeaLinkistheonlyhopefordriverswhomustcross23signalsbetween BandraandWorli.Itcarries90,000ofthe1.30lakhvehiclesthatpreviouslycrossedMahim causeway. Theconstructionofthebridge'sstructurepresentedmajorengineeringchallenges.These includedthehighlyvariablegeotechnicalconditionsduetotheunderlyingmarinegeologyof theseabed.Surveysoftheseabedundertheplannedroutewereconductedbeforethe bridgedesigncommenced.Themarinegeologyunderneaththebridgeconsistsofbasalts, volcanictuffsandbrecciaswithsomeintertrappeandeposits,overlainbycompletely
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CapitalGate
AbuDhabi,thecapitalcityoftheUnitedArabEmiratesisoneofthecentresofeconomic developmentintheGulfregion.Thedemandoflavishandluxuriousinfrastructureis increasing.CapitalGateisonesuchprojectsatisfyingthethirsttolustreinlife.Thedesignof CapitalGatepropelledthecityofAbuDhabitotheforefrontofinnovation.Providingan iconicandinnovativeentrancetoAbuDhabicity,CapitalGateisconvenientlylinkedtothe AbuDhabiNationalExhibitionCentre(ADNEC),hostsvenueforsomeoftheworldsbiggest exhibitions.CapitalGate(alsoknownasTheLeaningTowerofAbuDhabi)formsthefocal pointofCapitalCentre,theworldsfirstexhibitionslifestyledestination,comprising23 towersincludingbrandedhotels,commercialbuildings,residentialandservicedapartment complexesanddevelopmentsformixeduse,locatedincloseproximitytoADNEC. Thetowerneverceasestoconvergeattentiontoitsgravitydefyingfeatures.Theeye catchingsplashcommencingfromlevel18andsweepingacrossthehistoricgrandstand, connectsthepastwiththenew,creatingawavelikeeffectovertheexhibitioncentre.Right fromtheplanningstage,theproject managersandengineershaddisplayed passionandtogetherputupthismarvel. Theinspirationforthisstructureisthe wavesandthedunessurroundingthis desert.Anotheramazingfeatureabout thisbuildingisthateachpaneofglassis differentandeveryangleisdifferent.It wasdesignedtoprovidenosymmetryso itinspiresthosewithinandoutsidethe tower.Theconceptofsymmetryistotally overruledandheretherearenotwofloorswithsameplanornotworoomswithsame dimensions. Theconstructionusedup7,000cubicmetresofconcreteusedinthefoundation,which contains490pilesdrilledupto30mdeep.Thetowerhas8,500structuralsteeldiagrids. Thereisnomemberthatcanbedifferentiatedasabeamoracolumn.12,500differentglass panesformmorethan720distinctdiamondshapesonthetowersexternalfaade.Some keyfeaturesofthisbuildingthatstandoutamongstothers: Itsgravitydefying18degreelean,widelybelievedtobethemostinclinedinthe world. Thecontinuoustwistofitsformwhichensuresthatthetowerlooksdifferentfrom everyangle. Theuniquenatureofthefloorplate,eachfloorisunique.

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MilwaukeeArtMuseum
ItislocatedinthedowntownofMilwaukee,WisconsinonthewestshoreoftheLake Michigan.Milwaukeeisacitywhichisbaseforanartcommunitythathaslongedfora strongiconwithwhichthecitycanassociatewithonagloballevel.Forchildrenontheirway tothenearbyODonnellPark,LincolnMemorialDrivecanbeespeciallydangeroustotryto cross.LincolnMemorialDriveisaverybusyroadanditwasmuchtoodangeroustotryand crosswithouttheinstallationofastoplightwhichwouldhaveslowedtheflowoftrafficon theroad.Soabridgewasrequiredtoeliminatethisproblem.Butthemuseumcameinthe wayofthebridge.Stitchingallthesolutionstotheseproblems,arevampedstructurewas designedforthemuseum.

TheMilwaukeeArtMuseumisanarchitecturallandmark,comprisesofthreebuildings designedbythreelegendaryarchitects:EeroSaarinen,DavidKahler,andSantiagoCalatrava. TheWarMemorialCenter,completedin1957,wasdesignedbyFinnishAmericanarchitect EeroSaarinentocreateanewhomefortwopreviouslyseparateartcollectionsanda veteransmemorial.TheMuseumgroundswereredesignedinconjunctionwiththe QuadracciPavilion,withanetworkofgardens,plazas,andfountainscreatedbylandscape architectDanKileytoparalleltheaddition.TheMilwaukeeArtMuseum(MAM) commissionedSantiagoCalatravatodesigna58,000squarefootadditiontotheMuseumin 1994.Sincecompletionofthefirstmodelin1995andasfundraisingthatexceeded expectations,theMuseummadeastrategicdecisiontoexpandthescopeoftheproject. Majorvisitoramenities,suchasthesouthterraceandaparkinggarage,wereaddedtothe design,andspacefortheexpansionwasincreasedto142,050squarefeettoaccommodate theadditions. ThegracefulQuadracciPavilionisa sculptural,postmodernadditiontothe MilwaukeeArtMuseumcompletedin 2001.Itismadeupofthreemajor components:

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SolomonR.GuggenheimMuseum
TheSolomonR.GuggenheimMuseum(oftenreferredtoas"TheGuggenheim")isawell knownmuseumdesignedbyfamousarchitectFrankLloydWright,locatedontheUpperEast SideofManhattaninNewYorkCity,UnitedStates.Manhattanisdenselypopulated, metropolitanareawithanarrayofskyscrapersand FrankLloydWrighthatedcities.Thedesignofthe guggenhiemwasanaggressiveacttowardstheboxy architectureofManhattanarea.TheSolomonR. GuggenheimMuseumisarguablythemostimportant buildingofWright'slatecareer.Amonumentto modernism,theuniquearchitectureofthespace,with itsspiralrampridingtoadomedskylight,continuesto thrillvisitorsandprovideauniqueforumforthepresentationofcontemporaryart. TheGuggenheimbrokeaway fromthedictatesofthetrendsof modernarchitecturalmovements andrepresentedthemost poeticallylinkedofallhisworks. Entrustingittoanorganicimage ofconstruction,Wrightintended includingthesamefunctionof thebuildingasthatintheworld ofnature,establishingadialectic rapportbetweenformand functionandnotofacasualtype asthatintendedbythemainexposersoftheModernMovement.Fromanurbanisticpoint ofviewitcontradictstheusualchessboardtypeofbuilding.Theinsidespaceisacontinual upwardsmovementusingasixfloorspiralwithgallerieswhichspreadoutfromthefirst rampindicatedbyalargewaterfountaininthe centralroomonthegroundfloor. Thediameterofthespiralasitcurvesupwards allowsfortheentranceoflightateachlevel installinginthevisitorasenseofluminosityand tranquillity.Theoverlapscorrespondtothe expandingrampsvisiblefrombelow culminatinginatransparentdomecoveringthe centralarea.Surelythisisoneofthemost
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