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RAID-Definitions

RAID 0 : Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance RAID 1 : Mirroring and Duplexing RAID 2 : Hamming Code ECC RAID 3 : Parallel transfer with parity RAID 4 : Independent Data disks with shared Parity disk RAID 5 : Independent Data disks with distributed parity blocks RAID 6 : Independent Data disks with two independent distributed parity schemes RAID 7 : Optimized Asynchrony for High I/O Rates as well as High Data Transfer Rates RAID 10 : Very High Reliability combined with High Performance RAID 53 : High I/O Rates and Data Transfer Performance RAID 0+1 : High Data Transfer Performance

RAID 0 : Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance

RAID Level 0 requires a minimum of 2 drives to implement

Advantages
RAID 0 implements a striped disk array, the data is broken down into blocks and each block is written to a separate disk drive No parity calculation overhead is involved

Disadvantages
Not a 'True' RAID because it is NOT fault-tolerant The failure of just one drive will result in all data in an array being lost Should never be used in mission critical environments

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Very simple design Easy to implement

RAID 1 : Mirroring and Duplexing

RAID Level 1 requires a minimum of 2 drives to implement

Advantages
One Write or two Reads possible per mirrored pair 100% redundancy of data means no rebuild is necessary in case of a disk failure, just a copy to the replacement disk Simplest RAID storage subsystem design

Disadvantages
Highest disk overhead of all RAID types (100%) inefficient Typically the RAID function is done by system software, loading the CPU/Server and possibly degrading throughput at high activity levels. Hardware implementation is strongly recommended.

RAID 2 : Hamming Code ECC

Each bit of data word is written to a data disk drive (4 in this example: 0 to 3). Each data word has its Hamming Code ECC word recorded on the ECC disks. On Read, the ECC code verifies correct data or corrects single disk errors.

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Advantages
'On the fly' data error correction Extremely high data transfer rates possible The higher the data transfer rate required, the better the ratio of data disks to ECC disks

Disadvantages
Very high ratio of ECC disks to data disks with smaller word sizes - inefficient Entry level cost very high - requires very high transfer rate requirement to justify. No commercial implementations exist.

RAID 3 : Parallel transfer with parity

The data block is subdivided ('striped') and written on the data disks. Stripe parity is generated on Writes, recorded on the parity disk and checked on Reads. RAID Level 3 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement

Advantages
Very high Read data transfer rate Very high Write data transfer rate Disk failure has an insignificant impact on throughput Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency

Disadvantages
Transaction rate equal to that of a single disk drive at best (if spindles are synchronized) Controller design is fairly complex Very difficult and resource intensive to do as a 'software' RAID

RAID 4 : Independent Data disks with shared Parity disk

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Each entire block is written onto a data disk. Parity for same rank blocks is generated on Writes, recorded on the parity disk and checked on Reads. RAID Level 4 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement

Advantages
Very high Read data transaction rate Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency High aggregate Read transfer rate Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency

Disadvantages
Quite complex controller design Worst Write transaction rate and Write aggregate transfer rate Difficult and inefficient data rebuild in the event of disk failure Block Read transfer rate equal to that of a single disk

RAID 5 : Independent Data disks with distributed parity blocks

Each entire data block is written on a data disk; parity for blocks in the same rank is generated on Writes, recorded in a distributed location and checked on Reads.RAID Level 5 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement

Advantages

Disadvantages

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Highest Read data transaction rate Medium Write data transaction rate Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency Good aggregate transfer rate

Disk failure has a medium impact on throughput Most complex controller design Difficult to rebuild in the event of a disk failure (as compared to RAID level 1) Individual block data transfer rate same as single disk

RAID 6 : Independent Data disks with two independent distributed parity schemes

Each entire data block is written on a data disk; parity for blocks in the same rank is generated on Writes, recorded in a distributed location and checked on Reads.RAID Level 5 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement

Advantages
RAID 6 is essentially an extension of RAID level 5 which allows for additional fault tolerance by using a second independent distributed parity scheme (twodimensional parity)

Disadvantages
Very complex controller design Controller overhead to compute parity addresses is extremely high

Data is striped on a block level across a set of drives, Very poor write performance just like in RAID 5, and a second set of parity is calculated and written across all the drives; RAID 6 Requires N+2 drives to implement because of twoprovides for an extremely high data fault tolerance and dimensional parity scheme can sustain multiple simultaneous drive failures Perfect solution for mission critical applications

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RAID 7 : Optimized Asynchrony for High I/O Rates as well as High Data Transfer Rates

Fully implemented process oriented real time operating system resident on embedded array control microprocessor. RAID 7 is a registered trademark of Storage Computer Corporation.

Advantages
Overall write performance is 25% to 90% better than single spindle performance and 1.5 to 6 times better than other array levels Host interfaces are scalable for connectivity or increased host transfer bandwidth Small reads in multi user environment have very high cache hit rate resulting in near zero access times No extra data transfers required for parity manipulation

Disadvantages
One vendor proprietary solution Extremely high cost per MB Very short warranty Not user serviceable Power supply must be UPS to prevent loss of cache data

RAID 10 : Very High Reliability combined with High Performance

RAID Level 10 requires a minimum of 4 drives to implement

Advantages
RAID 10 is implemented as a striped array whose segments are RAID 1 arrays

Disadvantages
Very expensive / High overhead All drives must move in parallel to proper track lowering

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RAID 10 has the same fault tolerance as RAID level 1 RAID 10 has the same overhead for fault-tolerance as mirroring alone Excellent solution for sites that would have otherwise gone with RAID 1 but need some additional performance boost

sustained performance Very limited scalability at a very high inherent cost

RAID 53 : High I/O Rates and Data Transfer Performance

RAID Level 53 requires a minimum of 5 drives to implement

Advantages
RAID 53 should really be called 'RAID 03' because it is implemented as a striped (RAID level 0) array whose segments are RAID 3 arrays RAID 53 has the same fault tolerance as RAID 3 as well as the same fault tolerance overhead High data transfer rates are achieved thanks to its RAID 3 array segments Maybe a good solution for sites who would have otherwise gone with RAID 3 but need some additional performance boost

Disadvantages
Very expensive to implement All disk spindles must be synchronized, which limits the choice of drives Byte striping results in poor utilization of formatted capacity

RAID 0+1 : High Data Transfer Performance

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RAID Level 0+1 requires a minimum of 4 drives to implement

Advantages
RAID 0+1 is implemented as a mirrored array whose segments are RAID 0 arrays RAID 0+1 has the same fault tolerance as RAID level 5 RAID 0+1 has the same overhead for fault-tolerance as mirroring alone

Disadvantages
RAID 0+1 is NOT to be confused with RAID 10. A single drive failure will cause the whole array to become, in essence, a RAID Level 0 array Very expensive / High overhead Very limited scalability at a very high inherent cost

Excellent solution for sites that need high performance All drives must move in parallel to proper track lowering but are not concerned with achieving maximum sustained performance reliability

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