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IAI1 I: I!1ICII\1IC! A!I IA\I\ICI!I


Int roduct i on
In 2006, t he Asian Development Bank (ADB) cooper-
at ed ext ensively w it h a broad range of civil societ y
organizat ions (CSOs), including communit y-based
organizat ions (CBOs), w at er users associat ions
(WUAs), prof essional associat ions, research inst it ut es,
labor unions, and various nongover nment organiza-
t ions (NGOs) t hroughout it s operat ions. This report
provides highlight s of ADBs deepening int eract ion
w it h civil societ y in pursuit of povert y reduct ion in
t he Asia and Pacif ic region.
Highlight s f rom t he past 12 mont hs include
t he ident if icat ion of recipient organizat ions f or NGO
small grant s under t w o regional project s aimed
at prevent ing HIV/AIDS and combat ing corrup-
t ion; launch of t he St af f Guide t o Consult at ion and
Part icipat ion (C&P); elaborat ion of new guidelines
support ing C&P in t he f ormulat ion of t he count ry
part nership st rat egy (CPS); and t he second cont inu-
ous year f eat uring a level of CSO involvement in
ADB-approved loans exceeding 70% . The nat ure
of CSO part icipat ion ranges f rom part icipat ion in
consult at ion meet ings t o surveying communit ies t o
project implement at ion and monit oring.
As in past years, ADB invit ed CSOs t o provide
input int o count ry programming act ivit ies, such as
in preparing t he unique Part nership Framew ork w it h
Thailand, and t he CPS f or Viet Nam.
Background on ADBs Cooperat i on
wi t h NGOs
Last year marked t he f irst year of t he implement at ion
of ADBs new medium-t erm Work Plan f or ADB
Gover nment Civil Societ y Cooperat ion. The Work
Plan, covering t he period 20062008, builds upon
ADBGover nment NGO Cooperat ion: A Framew ork
f or Act ion, 20032005. It is set w it hin t he cont ext of
t he role and mandat e of ADBs Regional and Sus-
t ainable Development Depart ment s (RSDD), w hich
serves as t he inst it ut ions cat alyst of qualit y in opera-
t ions, a know ledge cent er, and source of innovat ive
approaches t o development .
In part icular, t he Work Plan af f irms ADBs
commit ment t o cont inue int egrat ing CSO know l-
edge and experience int o ADB operat ions, engage
civil societ y groups in an ongoing dialogue, ident if y
and develop st rat egic alliances, and improve ADBs
inst it ut ional capacit y t o int eract proact ively w it h
CSOs.
The Work Plan is implement ed by t he NGO
and Civil Societ y Cent er (NGOC), w hich rest s w it hin
RSDDs Gender, Social Development and Civil Societ y
Division (RSGS). This arrangement allow s NGOC t o
capit alize on synergies and overlapping object ives
w it h RSDDs social development t eam.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil1 1 4/27/2007 2:15:56 PM
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IAI1 II: II11I!\ 1II \CIIIIA! I!1C A\1IC!
The Work Plan provides recommendat ions in t hree
areas on how ADB, gover nment s, and NGOs can
move f orw ard in t he pursuit of closer cooperat ion t o
reduce povert y in t he Asia and Pacif ic region. These
are:
1. Support ing Qualit y of ADB Operat ions,
2. Conduct ing Trainings and Building Capacit y,
and
3. Generat ing and Sharing Know ledge.
Part II of t his report discusses ADB int eract ion
w it h CSOs as t hey relat e t o t hese t hree recommen-
dat ions.
A. Suppor t i ng Qual i t y of ADB Operat i ons
ADB has subst ant ially increased it s collabora-
t ion w it h CSOs in t he past years, recognizing t hem
as vit al part ners in addressing t he development
challenges in t he w orlds most populous region. ADB
believes t hat w orking w it h civil societ y direct ly sup-
port s inclusive social development , one of t he t hree
pillars upon w hich ADBs Enhanced Povert y Reduc-
t ion St rat egy is built .
CSOs add value in promot ing sust ainable
development by int roducing:
Innovat ion. Ident if ying new approaches
and models f or specif ic development
act ivit ies, draw ing upon t heir close know l-
edge of local communit ies.
Account abilit y. Helping ensure t hat project
component s are implement ed as envis-
aged and planned.
Responsiveness. Encouraging t he imple-
ment at ion of project s in w ays t hat re-
spond t o local needs.
Part icipat ion. Serving as bridges bet w een
project aut horit ies and af f ect ed communi-
t ies, and providing st ruct ures f or cit izen
part icipat ion.
Sust ainabilit y. Nurt uring cont inuit y in proj-
ect w ork, especially w hen implement ing
agencies lack capacit y or w hen st af f ing
changes.
1. Civil Societ y Cooperat ion in Loans
ADB approved 70 public sect or loans in 2006.
Of t hese, 55 (79% ) f eat ured some element s of CSO
part icipat ion. This is t he highest percent age ever
recorded. The comparable f igures f or 2004 and 2005
w ere 65 % and 74% , respect ively.
Table 1. ADB Loan Project s w it h CSO Involvement

Loans
w it h Tot al
CSO Loans
Year Involvement Approved Percent age

2004 48 74 65%
2005 48 65 74%
2006 55 70 79%
On a count ry basis, Pakist an boast ed t he
largest number of approved loan project s w it h CSO
involvement (11). The f igure w as f ollow ed by t he
Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Viet Nam,
w here each count ry has seven new ly approved proj-
ect s t hat f eat ure some aspect of CSO cooperat ion.
2006 ADB Loans wi t h CSO Invol vement
Accordi ng t o Count r y
7
7
7
4
4
4
3
2
1 1 1 2
2
2
2
2
AFG
BHU
TAJ
CAM
MON
NEP
PNG
SRI
UZB
IND
BAN
INO
LAO
PRC
VIE
PAK
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil2 2 4/27/2007 2:15:58 PM
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Aquacult ure Development f or Food Securit y and Pov-
ert y Reduct ion Project . NGO part icipat ion w ill include
conduct ing part icipat ory needs assessment s.
In M ongolias Urban Development Sect or
Project , NGOs w ill f acilit at e t he mobilizat ion of com-
munit ies and f ormat ion of communit y associat ions.
NGOs w ill build capacit y and carry out t raining needs
assessment s in communit ies and, w here appropriat e,
conduct t raining programs.
Addressi ng Gender Concer ns i n Land
Improvement
ADB is cooperat ing w it h t he Associat ion
of Womens NGOs in Uzbekist an t o carry out t he
gender component of a new ly approved project .
In part icular, t he associat ion, w hich comprises 53
local w omens NGOs, is monit oring gender-relevant
t arget s and indicat ors. Organizat ions like mahallas
(urban commit t ees), WUAs, privat e dehkan f arm
associat ions, and ot her civic groups are expect ed t o
part icipat e in t he project .
Communi t y Empower ment f or Rural
Devel opment
The Communit y Empow erment f or Rural
Development Project is designed t o reduce
povert y by increasing t he incomes of 85,000
f amilies in six provinces of Indonesia: Cent ral
Kalimant an, East Kalimant an, Sout h Kalimant an,
Cent ral Sulaw esi, Nort h Sulaw esi, and Sout heast
Sulaw esi. Approved in 2000, t he project aims t o
increase t he incomes of t he poor rural communi-
t ies in t he peripheral areas of regional grow t h
cent ers by addressing a range of social exclusion
issues t hat lead t o capabilit y deprivat ion among
t he poor. Specif ically, t he project aims t o (i) em-
pow er rural communit ies by st rengt hening t heir
capacit y t o plan and manage t heir ow n develop-
ment act ivit ies in a socially inclusive manner, and
(ii) support invest ment s and f ost er rural urban
linkages by est ablishing rural inf rast ruct ure t o
promot e agricult ural product ivit y and of f -f arm
business ent erprises.
NGO f acilit at ors and f ield monit ors have
been involved in t he int roduct ion of planning
13
5
6
Agr i cul t ure & Nat ural Resources
Educat i on
Energy
Fi nance
Indust r y & Trade
Law, Economi c Management & Publ i c Pol i cy
Mul t i sect or
Transpor t & Communi cat i ons
Wat er Suppl y, Sani t at i on & Wast e Management
2006 ADB Loans wi t h CSO Invol vement
Accordi ng t o Sect or
10
5
2 1
6
7
The sect or w it h t he most project s w it h CSO
involvement w as agricult ure and nat ural resources,
w it h 13. This compares t o 10 loans in t he w at er sup-
ply, sanit at ion and w ast e management sect or, and 7
in t he t ransport and communicat ions sect or.
Follow ing are select ed examples of CSO par-
t icipat ion in ADB loans t hat w ere approved in 2006.
Creat i ng Communi t y Awareness on HIV/AIDS
and Human Traf f i cki ng
The Nort hSout h Corridor Project in Af -
ghanist an w ill engage NGOs in act ivit ies t hat aim t o
height en aw areness relat ed t o t he prevent ion of HIV/
AIDS and human t raf f icking. The project w ill sup-
port capacit y development of local NGOs t o enhance
t heir compet encies and equip t hem f or communit y
out reach act ivit ies.
Mobi l i zi ng Communi t i es f or Act i on
NGOs and CBOs w ill assist in developing and
implement ing t he sanit at ion improvement com-
ponent of t he Secondary Tow ns Wat er Supply and
Sanit at ion Sect or Project in Bangladesh. In addi-
t ion, NGOs w ill manage t he process of const ruct ing
communit y inf rast ruct ure, and conduct inf ormat ion
campaigns on t arif f s and met ering.
Similarly, in Indonesia, NGOs and CBOs w ill be
act ively involved in social preparat ion and commu-
nit y empow erment act ivit ies under t he Sust ainable
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil3 3 4/27/2007 2:15:58 PM
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processes, relat ed t raining and ot her inst it u-
t ional capacit y-building act ivit ies t o help com-
munit ies develop communit y-based planning
mechanisms, and f ormulat e village development
plans f or f unding by project implement at ion
unit s. M ost of t he 400 project f acilit at ors f ielded
belong t o local NGOs.
NGOs provided assist ance t o project
communit ies in est ablishing 324 communit y-
based savings and loan organizat ions. Dist rict
NGO monit ors w ere also engaged f or oversight
act ivit ies t hat involved review ing procurement
and assessing qualit y and st andard of const ruc-
t ion, among ot hers. In addit ion, ext er nal and
independent monit oring w as provided by NGOs,
namely: Yayasan Cakraw ala Hijau Indonesia
(YCHI) in Banjarbaru, Lembaga Kajian Keislaman
& Kemasiarakat an (LK3) in Banjarmasin, and
Yayasan Dut a Aw am (YDA).
The NGOs played a key role in f acilit at ing
a complaint t hat w as sent t o ADBs Of f ice of t he
Special Project Facilit at or on 9 M arch 2005 re-
garding inf rast ruct ure qualit y and minimum level
of communit y part icipat ion in t he f ive villages of
Kiram, Handil Baru, Kali Besar, Handil Negara,
and M andiangin Barat in Sout h Kalimant an.
A set t lement on t he complaint w as reached in
Sept ember 2005 and f eedback sessions involving
ADB, gover nment of f icials, NGOs, and f ormer
complainant s w ere held on 2 February 2006.
Follow ing are loans t hat w ere being imple-
ment ed in 2006 and f eat ure civil societ y involvement
in t heir implement at ion.
Empower i ng Communi t i es f or Devel opment i n
Paki st an
In Pakist an, local NGOs provided healt h care
and f amily planning services in villages t hrough t he
ADB-f inanced Womens Healt h Project . NGOs helped
deliver ambulance services, hospit al support , and
f amily planning services at t he communit y level.
NGOs also prepared village prof iles and conduct ed
part icipat ory rural appraisal act ivit ies in t he project s
benef iciary villages.
In t he Barani Area Development Project , local
NGOs w ere engaged t o carry out communit y-based
approaches, such as organizing male and f emale
communit y associat ions and helping incorporat e
social considerat ions int o project design and imple-
ment at ion. NGOs conduct t raining f or benef iciaries
on microf inance and microent erprise, and provide
support in est ablishing f inancial linkages and syst ems
t o ensure project sust ainabilit y.
Managi ng Local Wat er Inf rast r uct ure i n
Uzbeki st an
Under t he Ak Alt in Agricult ural Development ,
approved in 2001, WUAs w ere est ablished in t he
area t o manage w at er dist ribut ion in t he irrigat ion
syst em rehabilit at ed under t he project . WUAs played
an import ant role in operat ing and maint aining
irrigat ion syst ems and collect ing w at er service f ees
f rom t he members. They are also paying part of t he
const ruct ion cost of on-f arm development w orks,
such as subsurf ace horizont al drainage syst ems, and
on-f arm irrigat ion syst ems.
Responsibilit ies in relat ion t o t he irrigat ion
drainage syst ems w ill be t ransf erred t o WUAs af t er
project complet ion. St rengt hening of WUAs is one of
t he key project component s.
2. Civil Societ y Cooperat ion in Technical
Assist ance (TA) Project s
Ci vi l Soci et y Cooperat i on i n Count r y TAs
During 2006, ADB approved 174 TA project s,
of w hich 74 or 43% include some t ype of coopera-
t ion w it h CSOs. This compares t o 86 out of 223 TA
project s (39% ) t hat f eat ured element s of civil societ y
part icipat ion and w ere approved in 2005.
On a count ry basis, Nepal could claim t he
largest number of TAs w it h CSO involvement ap-
proved in 2006 (9), f ollow ed by India w it h 7, and
Pakist an and t he PRC, w it h 6 respect ively. The sect or
w it h t he most TAs w it h CSO involvement w as agri-
cult ure and nat ural resources (14), f ollow ed closely
by mult isect or, w it h 13. This compares t o 11 TAs in
t he t ransport and communicat ions sect or, and 10 in
t he law, economic management , and public policy
sect or.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil4 4 4/27/2007 2:15:59 PM

Follow ing are examples of CSO involvement in


ADB-f inanced count ry TAs.
Devel opi ng Communi t y-Dr i ven St rat egi es f or
Wat er Resources Management
The Int egrat ed Cit arum Wat er Resource M an-
agement aims t o est ablish river basin management
t hrough part icipat ion of st akeholders. Support ed
t hrough a mult it ranche f inancing f acilit y, various
gover nment inst it ut ions, t he privat e sect or, and CSOs
have part icipat ed in it s init ial st udy. M eet ings have
been held w it h key st akeholders including gover n-
ment of f icials, academic expert s,CBOs, and ot her
civil societ y groups w ho have been involved in t he
w at er sect or in Indonesia.
The project recognizes communit y resources,
int erest s, needs, and priorit ies in carrying out devel-
opment st rat egies and in creat ing a model conserva-
t ion village. ADB is w orking w it h Indonesian part ners
t o ident if y CSOs t o f acilit at e communit y part icipat ion
in various st ages of t he project s development , f ocus-
ing on issues of environment , healt h, and livelihoods.
Where f easible, t he project w ill support t he com-
munit y t o organize t hemselves int o self -help groups,
users associat ion, cooperat ives, and environment al
w at ch t o ensure project sust ainabilit y.
Inst i t ut i onal i zi ng Communi t y Par t i ci pat i on i n
Proj ect Desi gn
The design f or t he Sindh Coast al Communit y
Development Project w as f irmly based on a part icipa-
t ory process t hat included rapid assessment surveys,
int erview s, and f ocus group discussions w it h f armer
groups, f isherf olk, t he landless, and w omen. St ake-
holder w orkshops w it h CSOs and ot her st akeholders
result ed in t he development of an act ion plan of
int ervent ions, and a mechanism t o inst it ut ionalize lo-
cal communit y part icipat ion. St akeholder w orkshops
w ere held in 2005; t hese w ere f ollow ed by sepa-
rat e consult at ions w it h CSOs and village meet ings
t hroughout t he coast al areas of Badin and That t a in
Sept ember 2006.
CSOs such as t he Nat ional Rural Support
Programme, t he World Conservat ion UnionIUCN,
World Wide Fund f or Nat ure Pakist an, t he Pakist an
Fisherf olk Forum, and several local organizat ions
serve on t he Project St eering Commit t ee.

Consul t at i on wi t h CSOs
Si ndh Cost al Communi t y Devel opment Proj ect
A consult at ion at t ended by about 50
represent at ives f rom 25 CSOs w as organized in
That t a, Pakist an on 3 April 2006. The purpose
of t he meet ing w as t o inf orm NGO represent a-
t ives on t he object ives, scope, and implement -
ing arrangement s of t he proposed Sindh Cost al
Inland and Communit y Development Project
(SCICDP) and t o gat her input s and suggest ions
on t he possible role of NGOs in implement ing
t he communit y-based component of t he project
w hich relat es t o mangrove plant ings, f ish ponds,
and small-scale communit y development int er-
vent ions.
While part icipant s agreed t hat t he project
w ould assist in increasing incomes and liveli-
hood opport unit ies of t he coast al communit ies
in t he f ace of serious environment al damage and
ext reme povert y in t he project area, several CSOs
raised concer ns part icularly in relat ion t o t he po-
t ent ial negat ive impact s of t he Lef t Bank Out f all
Drain (LBOD) project . Once det ails of t he SCICDP
project w ere given, part icipant s realized t hat t he
SCICDP provides an opport unit y t o address many
of t he environment al concer ns surrounding t he
project area and t he pot ent ial f or communit ies
t o f ulf ill several of t heir basic needs. CSOs also
realized t hat concer ns raised earlier w ere mainly
due t o misinf ormat ion and f ocus on issues w hich
w ere divert ing t he pot ent ial of t he SCICDP t o
improve t he environment al and socioeconomic
condit ions of t he coast al communit ies in t he
area. CSOs t hat earlier planned t o st age a pro-
t est demonst rat ion decided t o call of f t he act ivit y
and inst ead joined t he discussions t o provide
input and suggest ions on how t hey could part ici-
pat e in t he project t o improve it s design.
Through exchange of view s on t he proj-
ect , CSO represent at ives t ur ned t heir f ocus on
implement ing arrangement s t hat w ould allow
w ider part icipat ion of CSOs in part nership w it h
gover nment and privat e sect or agencies t o en-
sure direct benef it s t o t he communit ies. Discus-
sions covered select ion crit eria in engaging CSOs
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil5 5 4/27/2007 2:15:59 PM
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and t he possibilit y of select ing an umbrella NGO
t o coordinat e t he main act ivit ies of t he project
w hile engaging specialist and/or t hemat ic NGOs
t o implement specif ic int ervent ions. Suggest ions
w ere made on f orming a dist rict coordinat ing
commit t ee t o oversee t he management of t he
project and perf ormance of CSOs as w ell as t o
approve f unding f or t he small-scale communit y
int ervent ions under t he social uplif t and povert y
alleviat ion program, one of t he subcomponent s
of t he project .
At t he end of t he consult at ion, part ici-
pant s commended ADBs init iat ive t o engage
CSOs early in t he project s development and sup-
port ed t he general direct ion of t he project .
Del i ver i ng Wat er Ser vi ces t o Sl um Areas i n
Bangl adesh
The main purpose of t he proposed Dhaka
Wat er Supply Project is t o improve t he qualit y and
service of t he Dhaka Wat er Supply and Sew erage
Aut horit y (DWASA) t o t he people of Bangladeshs
capit al cit y. It also aims t o develop met hodologies t o
improve saf e w at er supplies and develop ef f ect ive
sust ainable management of t he net w ork. Toget her
w it h several CSOsincluding Wat erAid, Dusht ha
Shast hya Kendra (DSK), NGO Forum f or Wat er Sup-
ply and Sanit at ion, and Plan Int er nat ional Bangla-
deshADB has assessed t he ext ent of t he w at er-ac-
cess problem in low -income communit ies and slums
of Dhaka, t he ef f ect s of ongoing int ervent ions, and
recommendat ions f or how t o address challenges in
t he area.
While many public agencies, CSOs, and
gover nment agencies have undert aken innovat ive
approaches in delivering ef f ect ive w at er supply and
sanit at ion services t o t hese areas, t hey address only
a very small proport ion of t he low -income communi-
t ies.
Challenges ident if ied in service provision t o
t he low income and slum areas of Dhaka include t he
need t o ref orm DWASA policies t o consider more
af f ordable w at er service, t he building up t he capac-
it y of public ut ilit ies t o provide ef f icient services and
int roduce alt er nat ive service providers, coordinat e
st akeholders f or harmonized act ions, and develop
new models of service delivery t hat support t he aim
of improving access t o clean w at er by t hose w it hout
it .
CSOs experienced in providing urban w at er
supply and sanit at ion services w ere consult ed t o gain
insight s on t he models used in servicing t he low -
income and slum areas of Dhaka. Based on project
experiences, meaningf ul communit y involvement in
t he decision-making process and in t he planning and
implement at ion of services can lead t o great er public
accept ance and ow nership of syst ems, w it h benef it s
f or bot h t he af f ordabilit y and sust ainabilit y of sys-
t ems. In t his project , CSOs w ill not only help deliver
w at er services, but also undert ake advocacy w ork t o
help improve t he DWASAs perf ormance.
Ci vi l Soci et y Cooperat i on i n Regi onal Act i vi t i es
At t he regional level, 30 out of 91 regional
t echnical assist ance (RETA) project s (33% ) approved
in 2006 involve CSO collaborat ion. The law, econom-
ic management , and public policy sect or, w it h 11
RETAs, post ed t he largest number of RETAs w it h CSO
involvement . This compares t o six RETAs w it h CSO
involvement in t he mult isect or cat egory, and f our in
t he t ransport and communicat ions area.
Follow ing are examples of CSO involvement in
ADB-f inanced RETA project s.
Communi t y Broadcast i ng t o Reduce HIV/AIDS
Vul nerabi l i t y and Ri sk
The Asian Development Communit y Broad-
cast ing Init iat ive is a pilot project in t he Lao Peoples
Democrat ic Republic t hat makes use of inf ormat ion
communicat ion t echnology st rat egies t o raise aw are-
ness in remot e villages of t he count ry. ADB is col-
laborat ing w it h First Voice Int er nat ional, a CSO t hat
w orks w it h communit y groups, int er nat ional organi-
zat ions, and gover nment agencies t o deliver inf or-
mat ion on pressing issues building upon it s t echnol-
ogy endow ment of 5% of t he channel capacit y of
t he Af riSt ar and AsiaSt ar broadcast sat ellit es.
The purpose of t he TA is t o broadcast via sat -
ellit e available audiot apes of radio dramas produced
in Hmong and Khmu languages t o reduce HIV/AIDS
vulnerabilit y and risk among remot e Hmong and
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil6 6 4/27/2007 2:15:59 PM
/
Khmu et hnic minorit y groups. ADB w ill broadcast
t hrough sat ellit e available audiot apes of radio dra-
mas produced in Hmong and Khmu in t w o select ed
provinces. In each locat ion w here t his demonst rat ion
pilot project w ill occur, appropriat e personnel (Lao
Nat ional Radio st af f , local communit y radio pract it io-
ners and leaders, et c.) are t rained in t he use of t he
sat ellit e receivers and in t he use of alt er nat ive pow er
sourcessolar panels in part icular. This t raining w ill
ensure local capacit y in using t he equipment and
providing t he vit al linkage bet w een t he sat ellit e and
t he ground st at ions.
Ci vi l Soci et y Ant i cor r upt i on Ini t i at i ves
Working w it h t he Part nership f or Transparency
Fund, ADB launched a t echnical assist ance grant of
$150,000 t o st rengt hen t he role of civil societ y in
t he f ight against corrupt ion in t he pilot count ries
of Pakist an, Philippines, and M ongolia. The call f or
proposals result ed in t he submission of 15 project
proposals f rom CSOs f rom t he eligible count ries. The
grant s have been aw arded t o f ive CSOs: t w o each
f rom M ongolia and t he Philippines, and one f rom
Pakist an.
Regul at i on of Conf l i ct of Int erest i n Mongol i a
M ongolia has recent ly joined t he UN Con-
vent ion on Ant icorrupt ion w hich requires t hat it
make changes in t he count rys legal f ramew ork.
One such area is conf lict of int erest s, w hich are
not f ully covered in exist ing M ongolian law s,
part icularly t he new ly adopt ed ant icorrupt ion law.
Through t he regional t echnical assist ance Civil
Societ y Init iat ives on Ant icorrupt ion, a local CSO,
Women f or Social Progress, aims t o inf luence legis-
lat ors and decision makers t o produce regulat ions
and/or law s on conf lict of int erest s t o minimize
opport unit ies f or corrupt ion. Ef f ort s are made t o
int roduce int er nat ional st andards and pract ices
concer ning conf lict s of int erest and promot e public
aw areness, advocacy, and lobbying. It also aims t o
enhance: (a) t he t ransparency and account abilit y
of t he gover nment ; (b) ef f ect ive cit izen oversight ,
as w ell as int ra-gover nment al checks and balances;
(c) cit izens aw areness of et hical issues including
conf lict s of int erest s, and (c) capacit y of CSOs t o
cont ribut e and inf luence posit ive changes in regu-
lat ing conf lict s of int erest .
The project consist s of t he f ollow ing
groups of act ivit ies: (a) development of a t ool
kit def ining conf lict s of int erest and providing
specif ic examples, et hical st andards, disclosure
met hods, and case st udies; and (b) engaging of
int er nat ional expert s f or review and recommen-
dat ions of t he required law on conf lict of int erest
in M ongolia. The recommendat ions w ill be sub-
mit t ed t o t he Parliament and Nat ional Council,
and used f or public discussions. The project also
support s a public campaign involving t elevision
and radio programs, new spaper art icles, dist ribu-
t ion of leaf let s, and publicat ion of t he new law
and regulat ions in t he new spaper.
Fi ght i ng HIV/AIDS i n Asi a and t he Paci f i c
In 2006, ADB began implement ing a $1.5
million regional TA project t hat w ill provide grant s
f or CSO init iat ives t o prevent HIV/AIDS. Financed by
t he ADB-administ ered HIV/AIDS Trust Fund, f inanced
by t he Gover nment of Sw eden, t he TA project is part
of a package of subproject s set up t o help f ight t he
communicable disease. Grant proposals w ere sought
f rom CSOs based in ADBs developing member
count ries (DM Cs) in Asia and t he Pacif ic, and w hich
are act ive in HIV/AIDS prevent ion, care, and/or t reat -
ment . The TA project boost s ADBs abilit y t o w ork
closely w it h CSOs t o help ident if y, document , and
support ef f ect ive out reach and delivery of essent ial
HIV/AIDS services t o poor, vulnerable, and high-risk
groups.
Bef ore t he end of t he year, ADB had approved
grant s t o 13 CSOs t o deliver services in t he f ollow -
ing count ries: Af ghanist an, Bangladesh, Cambodia,
Fiji Islands, Kazakhst an, Kyrgyz Republic, M ongolia,
PRC, Philippines, Tajikist an, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
Pi l ot i ng Par t i ci pat or y Assessment
Met hodol ogi es f or Wat er Suppl y and
Sani t at i on
Anot her ADB regional TA project is assist -
ing t he gover nment , implement ing agencies, and
communit ies in Sri Lanka and Viet Nam t o achieve
sust ainable and equit able w at er supply and sanit a-
t ion services. The aim of t he project is t o int roduce
an enhanced met hodology f or part icipat ory assess-
ment s t hat t ake bet t er account of part icipat ion,
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil7 7 4/27/2007 2:15:59 PM
8
demand, gender, and povert y perspect ives. The
met hod w as used t o evaluat e st rengt hs and w eak-
nesses of t he w at er supply and sanit at ion (WSS)
syst ems implement ed under t he Rural Inf rast ruct ure
Sect or Project and Third Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion
Sect or Project .
The TA project has demonst rat ed an ef f ect ive
part icipat ion model t hat improves t he st akeholders
capacit y t o design, plan, implement , and monit or
pro-poor, part icipat ory, gender-sensit ive, and de-
mand-responsive WSS services. Lessons lear ned f rom
t he assessment w ill assist in improving t he design
and planning WSS services of ensuing project s in
bot h part icipat ing count ries.
St akeholders engaged during t he project have
underscored t he f act t hat t he met hodology is a very
usef ul mechanism t o t rack gender, povert y, part icipa-
t ion, and demand issues in t he Rural Inf rast ruct ure
Sect or Project and Third Wat er Supply and Sanit a-
t ion Sect or Project . It also helps t hem measure t he
progress of t heir goal t o provide sust ainable w at er-
relat ed services f or all. Use of t he enhanced met hod-
ology f or part icipat ory assessment s has also been an
eye-opener f or communit ies and empow ered t hem
t o look int o bet t er planning and management of t he
WSS syst ems. The civil societ y-led assessment pro-
cess involved key st akeholders including gover nment
agencies, local communit y leaders, and w omens
groups.
Est abl i shi ng t he Cent ral Asi a Educat i on
Cooperat i on Net wor k
The ADB-Open Societ y Inst it ut e (OSI) Cen-
t ral Asia Educat ion Cooperat ion Net w ork has con-
t ribut ed t o t he enhancement of educat ion ref orm
processes in t he Cent ral Asian republics by develop-
ing a regional net w ork of educat ion st akeholders.
Int eract ing primarily t hrough t he Int er net int erf ace,
part icipant s share inf ormat ion on educat ion ref orms,
project s, legislat ion, st at ist ics, analyt ical report s,
and ot her resources. The TA w as co-prepared and
cof inanced by Budapest -based OSI and covered f our
count ries: Kazakhst an, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikist an,
and Uzbekist an. OSI is a grant -making f oundat ion
t hat aims t o shape public policy t o promot e demo-
crat ic gover nance, human right s, and ot her social
ref orm.
The main TA out put s have included (i) open-
ing t he educat ion ref orm process t o a variet y of
st akeholders groups, (ii) developing t he capacit y of
local educat ion prof essionals f or educat ional policy
research, analysis, report ing, monit oring, and advo-
cacy, (iii) increasing t he aw areness among Cent ral
Asian policy makers regarding int er nat ional experi-
ence in ref orming educat ion, and (iv) creat ing a
plat f orm f or discussing and init iat ing cooperat ion
and part nership bet w een educat ion st akeholders in
Cent ral Asia.
Shar i ng Exper t i se on Remi t t ances and Pover t y
A project on remit t ances and povert y in
Cent ral Asia and Sout h Caucasus aims t o increase
t he posit ive ef f ect s of remit t ances on povert y in
several f ormer Soviet republics t hat are ADB member
count ries. It is expect ed t o produce regional report s
on t he f inancial sect or and remit t ances and on
remit t ances and povert y in Cent ral Asia and Sout h
Caucasus.
CSOs such as t he Cent re f or Social and
Economic ResearchKyrgyzst an (CASEKyrgyzst an,
Kyrgyz Republic); Economic Development and
Research Cent re (EDRC, Armenia); Int er nat ional
Cent re f or Human Development (ICHD, Armenia);
Public Policy Research Cent re (PPRC, Kazakhst an);
and Research Cent re SHARQ (SHARQ, Tajikist an) are
sharing t heir expert ise by providing research assis-
t ance in t he f ield of remit t ances. In part icular, CSOs
are providing input t o t he project s analyt ical f rame-
w ork, and are assist ing in t he preparat ion of survey
quest ionnaires and ot her project met hodologies. The
organizat ions conduct t raining f or f ield int erview ers,
and undert ake f inancial sect or or household surveys.
CSO expert ise is used in preparing count ry report s
on remit t ances, and collaborat ing t ow ard a regional
report on remit t ances and povert y in Cent ral Asia
and Sout h Caucasus.
3. Civil Societ y Cooperat ion in Count ry
Programming
The Count ry Part nership St rat egy (CPS) is
ADBs new count ry programming document . It
ident if ies major count ry-specif ic development issues
and const raint s based on an analysis of a count rys
development priorit ies and povert y reduct ion pro-
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil8 8 4/27/2007 2:15:59 PM
'
grams. The CPS is grounded on a sound analyt ical
basis just if ying it s sect or and/or t hemat ic f ocus areas.
It is result s orient ed and specif ies key approaches t o
remove const raint s on count ry development , and
explicit ly st at es t he st rat egys object ives
In January 2007, ADB published t he CPS
Guidelines t o assist st af f responsible f or count ry
programming in underst anding t he result s-based
management approach and det ailed processes
involved in preparing, implement ing, monit oring,
and evaluat ing t he CPS. As ADBs primary planning
inst rument f or guiding operat ions in a developing
count ry, t he CPS is prepared w it h t he count rys act ive
part icipat ion t hrough ext ensive consult at ion w it h
gover nment and ot her count ry st akeholders, includ-
ing civil societ y, t he privat e sect or, and ot her devel-
opment agencies. The CPS is normally aligned w it h
t he count rys ow n planning cycle (e.g., 5 years).
Par t nershi p Framewor k bet ween Thai l and and
ADB 20072011
A st akeholder consult at ion on t he Part nership
Framew ork bet w een t he Royal Gover nment of Thai-
land and ADB w as held on 17 July 2006 in Bangkok
t o seek f eedback and input f rom ADBs gover nment
count erpart s and represent at ives f rom t he privat e
sect or, academia, and civil societ y on t he draf t Part -
nership Framew ork, 20072011.
The Part nership Framew ork w ill support t he
nat ional development st rat egy. It ident if ies ADBs
role in Thailand as support ing gover nment al ef f ort s
t o promot e sust ainable grow t h by addressing chal-
lenges and const raint s of privat e invest ment , and by
nurt uring great er ef f iciency and product ivit y in t he
public sect or.
A meet ing w it h CSOs held at ADBs Thailand
Resident M ission f ollow ed t he st akeholder consult a-
t ion. ADB st af f present ed t he Subregional Develop-
ment Plan f or Tsunami Af f ect ed Andama Region,
w hich w as draf t ed w it h cont ribut ions f rom CSOs.
The discussions covered t he process undert aken t o
consult w it h civil societ y, t he project out comes, and
lessons lear ned.
Vi et Nams Count r y Par t nershi p St rat egy
20072010
On 15 M arch 2006, ADB carried out a con-
sult at ion w it h CSOs t o present an overview of how
civil societ y input s have been accommodat ed in t he
draf t ing of t he Viet Nam CPS 20072010. The meet -
ing w as t he t hird in a series of consult at ions during
t he preparat ion of CPS. Feedback f rom CSOs in
previous consult at ions w as cit ed and explanat ions of -
f ered as t o how t hese concer ns w ould be addressed
in t he new CPS.
In part icular, CSOs had raised concer ns on: (i)
ensuring a balance bet w een economic grow t h and
social equit y, (ii) clarif ying t he rat ionale f or f ocusing
on nat ural resources sect or, (iii) ADBs support t o
gover nance and crosscut t ing issues, (iv) consider-
ing et hnic minorit ies and disabled groups, (v) ADBs
int ervent ions f or support ing poor and vulnerable
groups, and (vi) chart ing t he role of civil societ y and
building t ripart it e collaborat ion. These concer ns w ere
cit ed in t he CPS.
The Viet Nam Resident M ission is put t ing int o
place mechanisms f or great er involvement of civil
societ y groups at t he upst ream st ages of project
preparat ion. The CPS consult at ions highlight ed t he
usef ulness of inst it ut ionalizing t he process f or t ripar-
t it e cooperat ion.
4. Japan Fund f or Povert y Reduct ion (JFPR)
The JFPR, an unt ied grant f acilit y t hat t he
Japanese gover nment est ablished, support s ADB cli-
ent s t o provide direct relief t o t he poorest and most
vulnerable segment s of societ y w hile building up
t heir capacit ies f or self -help and income generat ion.
The f acilit y:
init iat es and support s innovat ive programs
t hat have high pot ent ial f or improving t he
af f ect ed count ries' sit uat ions;
provides relat ively rapid, demonst rable
benef it s t hrough init iat ives t hat have posi-
t ive prospect s of developing int o sust ain-
able act ivit ies over t he long t erm; and
assist s programs designed and implement -
ed by local populat ions and civil societ y.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil9 9 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
10
The JFPR is a t ool f or local communit ies and
CSOs, including NGOs, t o act ively part icipat e in t he
development process. JFPR grant s may be execut ed
by recipient gover nment s or by CSOs. The execut -
ing agency may engage t he services of civil societ y
groups in implement ing specif ic grant act ivit ies.
In 2006, JFPR approved 13 project s w ort h $
45.37 million in 12 developing count ries.
Wor ki ng wi t h Communi t i es t o Del i ver Rural
Power Suppl y i n Taj i ki st an
The Communit y-Based Rural Pow er Sup-
ply Project , f inanced by JFPR, aims t o improve
t he qualit y of lif e during w int er in remot e rural
areas in Tajikist an by improving elect ric supply
services. The init iat ive w ill est ablish sust ainable
and cost -ef f ect ive communit y-based micro-hy-
dropow er supply syst em.
Project preparat ory act ivit ies involved
f ield visit s, int erview s and consult at ions w it h key
st akeholders, including t he Aga Khan Founda-
t ion and Jamoat resource cent ers (JRCs). Or-
ganized t o implement local development proj-
ect s, JRCs are regist ered NGOs t hat emphasize
part icipat ory approaches in decision making. In
t his project , JRCs w ill mobilize communit ies t o
ensure local part icipat ion and achieve project
benef it s and sust ainabilit y.
5. Ot her Funds Support ing Civil Societ y
Engagement and Part icipat ion
To enhance count ry-based result s of ADBs
povert y reduct ion st rat egy, t w o mult idonor f und-
ing init iat ives w ere set up and are joint ly managed
under f ully harmonized administ rat ive procedures.
The Cooperat ion Fund in Support of t he Formulat ion
and Implement at ion of Nat ional Povert y Reduct ion
St rat egies helps ADBs DM Cs f ormulat e, priorit ize,
implement , monit or, and ref ormulat e nat ional pov-
ert y reduct ion st rat egies t hrough t echnical assist ance
grant s, regional t raining and capacit y building act ivi-
t ies, and pilot ing of part icipat ion act ivit ies f or pov-
ert y reduct ion and gover nance.
The Povert y Reduct ion Cooperat ion Fund (PRF)
support s t echnical assist ance and small-scale pilot
invest ment project s w it h syst emic povert y reduct ion
impact s t hat serve as good examples f or broader
ADB invest ment s and ref ocus it s operat ions t o be
more povert y relevant .
Given t he nat ure, purpose, and design of
bot h f unds, maximum opport unit ies w ere provided
f or civil societ y cooperat ion. Of t he 119 approved
project s w ort h $64 million, an est imat ed $16 million
(25% ) has been cont ract ed t o NGOs and ot her CSOs
t o implement a great variet y of act ivit ies. In addit ion,
civil societ y has direct ly and act ively been involved
in 90 of t he 119 project s, w hile in t he remaining
29 project s, mainly st udies and research, t he role of
civil societ y has included providing inf ormat ion and
f eedback during dat a gat hering, w orkshops, and
seminars.
In t he PRC, f or example, PRF-assist ed TA
project s cont inue t o support povert y reduct ion w ork.
The NGOGover nment Part nerships in Village-Level
Povert y Alleviat ion Project demonst rat es modalit ies
f or NGOGover nment part nership and explores new
models f or rural microf inance and alt er nat ive rural
livelihoods.
The project promot es rural povert y reduct ion,
w it h NGOs mainst reamed w it hin more ef f ect ive, ef f i-
cient , and w ell-t arget ed povert y alleviat ion programs
t hroughout t he PRC. The init iat ive f urt her aims t o
f ormulat e and demonst rat e replicable models and
mechanisms f or NGO part icipat ion in gover nment -
f unded village-level povert y reduct ion ef f ort s. The
PRF allot t ed $1 million f or t his project .
The PRF also f inanced some TA project s men-
t ioned above: Communit y Broadcast ing t o Reduce
HIV/AIDS Vulnerabilit y and Risk (t ot al $850,000);
Pilot ing Part icipat ory Assessment M et hodologies f or
Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion ($550,000); and t he
project on Remit t ances and Povert y in Cent ral Asia
and Sout h Caucasus ($1 million).
Rebui l di ng Communi t i es af t er Tsunami
ADBs Ext ended M ission in Sumat ra signed an
agreement on July 2006 w it h NGOs headed by t he
M uslim Aid, w hich w ill result in 650 more houses be-
ing built in t he t sunami-af f ect ed area of Banda Aceh
in Indonesia. The t sunami of December 2004 killed
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil10 10 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
11
or lef t missing more t han 200,000 people around
t he Indian Ocean rim, most of t hem in Aceh. M uslim
Aid has been able t o successf ully build t radit ional
Aceh houses using local mat erials and expert ise.
The NGO w ill cont inue t o build t radit ional w ooden
houses in Banda Aceh, along w it h houses made of
brick. The init iat ive is part of t he Eart hquake and
Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP), a $290
million mult isect or grant f acilit y t hat provides reha-
bilit at ion and reconst ruct ion assist ance t o mit igat e
damage cause by t he devast at ing December 2004
eart hquake and t sunami. The ETESP is support ed by
t he Asian Tsunami Fund.
B. Conduct i ng Trai ni ng and Bui l di ng Capaci t y
1. Developing ADBs Capacit y f or CSO
Cooperat ion
St af f Gui de t o Consul t at i on and Par t i ci pat i on
In April 2006, NGOC published t he St af f
Guide t o Consult at ion and Part icipat ion (C&P) t o
provide updat ed guidance on w hat const it ut es ad-
equat e consult at ion, and t o assist st af f in applying
consult at ive and part icipat ory t echniques in ADB-as-
sist ed act ivit ies. The Guide provides pract ical t ools
and t ips t o make C&P more accessible and ef f ect ive
in improving t he perf ormance of ADB operat ions.
Lat er in t he year, ADB launched t he Part icipa-
t ion Websit e (hw w w.abd.org./Part icipat ion), w hich
includes t he St af f Guide and t he C&P Tool Kit . The
Tool Kit complement s t he St af f Guide and provides
t emplat es t o assist st af f in conduct ing st akeholder
analysis, recording st akeholder input , f acilit at ing
meet ings, and engaging consult ant s t o assist w it h
C&P in project s.
Thi rd Wat er Suppl y and Sani t at i on Sect or Proj ect i n Sr i Lanka
This project w as designed t o be demand driven by benef iciaries, w hich include some of t he poor-
est people in t he count ry. Benef iciaries w ere int ended t o be direct ly involved in:
choosing t he t ype of w at er supply and sanit at ion t echnology t hey w ant ed and needed t o be
implement ed,
communicat ing t he level of service t hey w ere w illing and able t o pay f or,
assist ing in t he very planning and design of t he project ,
cont ribut ing t ime and labor and even mat erials t o const ruct it ,
t aking over t he management of t he syst em once t he project is complet ed so t here is cont inu-
ing operat ion and maint enance t o ensure sust ainabilit y f or t heir f ut ure w ell-being.
ADBs St af f Guide f or C&P out lines f our levels of consult at ion and part icipat ion. The f ollow ing
t able summarizes t he levels of C&P on w hich t his project has operat ed.
Level s of C&P i n Thi rd Wat er Suppl y and Sani t at i on
Level Descr i pt i on of act i vi t y
Inf or mat i on shar i ng Est ablishing communit y-based organizat ions
(CBOs) w as one of t he f irst act ivit ies under t he
project s. In rural areas, t he CBOs provided t he
plat f orm f or quickly disseminat ing inf ormat ion
and get t ing f eedback.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil11 11 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
12
Consul t at i on CBOs consult ed w it h st akeholders t o get t heir in-
put on t he project s object ives, including t he kind
of t echnology t o be implement ed and t o w hat
degree t o keep it af f ordable.
Col l aborat i ve deci si on maki ng CBOs f acilit at ed t his among af f ect ed groups t o
help t hem deal w it h t he development act ivit ies
and resources t hat af f ect ed t hem; NGOs, w ork-
ing independent ly of t he gover nment and ADB,
are t apped t o help guide communit ies in making
sound t echnical choices.
Empower ment Was draw n f rom t he part icipant benef iciaries
w hen t hey init iat ed act ivit ies and t ook cont rol over
development decisions and resources.
St ages i n Consul t at i on and Par t i ci pat i on
During f easibilit y st udy and appraisal missions f or t his proposed project , discussions w ere held
w it h st akeholders, especially t he pot ent ial rural benef iciaries, CBOs, and NGOs t o conf irm t heir needs
and choices, and t heir w illingness t o part icipat e comprehensively.
By t he t ime loan processing st art ed, f eedbacks had been received. This w as f ollow ed by f urt her
consult at ions w it h NGOs, pot ent ial benef iciaries, and ext er nal f inancing agencies concer ned w it h t he
project . Fundament al t o t he project implement at ion w as t o make sure t hat t he CBOs w ere involved right
f rom t he project planning st age so t hat t hey could assume responsibilit y f or t he choices t hey made. The
ext ent and level of public consult at ion and part icipat ion t ook place over f our phases:
Communi t y educat i on and awareness: The communit y is educat ed on it s ow n role in t he project ,
w hat it s responsibilit ies are in t erms of payment f or service of higher qualit y and in keeping t he syst em
in good order, and w hat t he benef it s are. At t he operat ional level, t he communit ies are organized. Upon
it s est ablishment , t he CBO t akes responsibilit y f or t he major component s of t he design, implement at ion,
and management of t he subproject .

Mobi l i zat i on: Benef iciaries are t rained in part icipat ory planning t o lear n t he nut s and bolt s of
project preparat ion, like dat a collect ion, preparat ion of plans, collect ion of capit al cost cont ribut ion, and
t raining and recruit ment of st af f .

Const r uct i on and management : The communit y is expect ed t o cont ribut e 20% of t he subproject
cost s t hrough cash or in-kind cont ribut ions, and is made responsible f or f ull management of t he w at er
supply syst em.

Sust ai nabi l i t y t rai ni ng: Training w ill cont inue t o ensure t hat t he operat ion and maint enance ar-
rangement s become f ully operat ional. The project realized t hat communit y management reinf orces t heir
sense of ow nership of t he project .
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil12 12 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
1J
In April, ADB organized a general t raining
course on C&P f or project of f icers, and in Oct ober
delivered a course on consult ing st akeholders in t he
preparat ion of t he CPS.
St rengt heni ng Par t nershi ps f or Devel opment
Resul t s
Over t he past decade, ADB has made great
progress in it s engagement w it h development CSOs.
The NGOC is mandat ed t o encourage and support
such engagement , in past by st af f capacit y building.
In 2006, t he NGOC conduct ed a series of
t raining programs on w orking w it h civil societ y. The
programs w ere designed t o provide an opport unit y
f or ADB operat ional st af f t o acquire know ledge on
t he benef it s and challenges of w orking w it h CSOs;
and t o int roduce skills required in engaging CSOs
in consult at ive and part icipat ory processes required
during t he project cycle; and apply crit eria f or suc-
cessf ul collaborat ion w it h CSOs in project design,
implement at ion, and monit oring and evaluat ion.
The f irst t raining w as held at t he ADB head-
quart ers in M anila in July 2006, and covered t op-
ics on t he evolut ion of ADB ef f ort s t o engage w it h
CSOs, t he development of civil societ y ADB experi-
ence of w orking w it h CSOs, and pract ical st rat egies
f or engaging CSOs. The program highlight ed ADB-
specif ic case st udies of f ering insight s int o pract ical
problems f aced, and solut ions of f ered, by ADB st af f
in t heir w ork w it h CSOs. Experient ial lear ning met h-
odologies allow ed part icipant s an opport unit y t o
pract ice and develop pract ical skills usef ul t o engag-
ing NGOs, such as negot iat ion, communicat ions,
f acilit at ion of mult ist akeholder meet ings, value of
inf ormal consult at ions, and conf lict management .
A similar t raining program w as organized
1415 November 2006 in Jakart a f or st af f of ADBs
Indonesia Resident M ission, gover nment of f icials,
and CSO represent at ives involved in ADB-assist ed
project s. The t raining built on exist ing IRM ef f ort s t o
engage bot h civil societ y and Gover nment in a t ripar-
t it e cooperat ive relat ionship. It also highlight ed roles
and responsibilit ies f or t he dif f erent part ners, and
show cased pract ical t ools and mechanisms t o involve
st akeholders in consult at ions and ot her part icipa-
t ory processes. Furt her, it st rengt hened t he t echnical
capacit y of part icipant s t o address at t it udes, behav-
iors, and skills required f or successf ul consult at ion,
negot iat ion, consensus building, and joint decision
making. The t raining concluded w it h a commit -
ment by IRM t o set a schedule f or regular dialogue
bet w een ADB, Gover nment , and CSOs t o address
project implement at ion quest ions, and enhance col-
laborat ion.
Int egrat i ng Ci vi l Soci et y Knowl edge i nt o ADB
Operat i ons
The NGOC cont inues t o provide opport unit ies
t o improve t he know ledge of ADB st af f on civil so-
ciet y and t heir areas of w ork in Asia and t he Pacif ic.
A t raining program f or ext er nal relat ions of f icers
f rom ADBs resident mission of f ices w as organized in
August 2006 and included a module on NGOs and
civil societ y.
In 2006, t he NGOC published 12 edit ions of
CSO Web Review, a mont hly elect ronic st af f bullet in
f eat uring policy posit ions and act ivit ies of a select ion
of CSOs act ive in t he Asia and Pacif ic region.
The NGOC regularly organizes discussions and
brow n bag seminars on t imely development issues
t hat f eat ure resource persons f rom CSOs like Plan
Int er nat ional, Christ ian Childrens Fund, and M ercy-
Corps. During 2006, CSO present at ions addressed
t opics such as assist ance t o eart hquake-af f ect ed
communit ies in Indonesia and relief assist ance in
Timor-Lest e f ollow ing civil unrest ; and communit y-
based conf lict management pract ice f or develop-
ment in M aluku, East er n Sri Lanka, and t he Ferghana
Valley.
Not ed social act ivist and Ramon M agsaysay
Aw ard w inner, Senat or M echai Viravaidya of Thai-
land, visit ed ADB in Sept ember t o share his insight s
on innovat ive st rat egies t o bring t oget her businesses
and poor communit ies t o f ight povert y. Arvind
Kejriw al, f ounder of t he Indian ant icorrupt ion NGO
Parivart an, and 2006 Ramon M agsaysay Aw ardee
f or Emergent Leadership, gave a present at ion on
mobilizing communit ies t o demand public access t o
inf ormat ion in India.
2. Building NGO Capacit y and Providing
Inst it ut ional Support
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil13 13 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
14
St rengt heni ng Ci vi l Soci et y Par t i ci pat i on i n t he
Paci f i c
Civil societ y groups in t he Pacif ic are w orking
t o address t he grow ing needs of marginalized people
t hrough direct service delivery and t hrough promo-
t ion of t heir w elf are. How ever, due t o t heir limit ed
size and resource base, most Pacif ic CSOs do t heir
w ork w it h minimal t echnical preparat ion. A t echnical
assist ance project approved in 2006Pilot St rengt h-
ening of Civil Societ y Part icipat ion in Development
in t he Pacif icf ocuses on legit imizing and main-
st reaming civil societ y part icipat ion in development
processes and st rengt hening relat ions bet w een civil
societ y, gover nment s, t he privat e sect or, and f unding
agencies t hrough t raining and direct engagement in
t he ADB development assist ance cycle. The project
f urt her aims t o enhance t he compet ence and capac-
it y of CSOs t o be ef f ect ive in it s part icipat ion in ADB
operat ions.
Suppor t t o Ci vi l Soci et y t hrough t he Pover t y
and Envi ronment Program
ADBs Povert y and Environment Program (PEP)
is a regional init iat ive f inanced by t he Povert y and
Environment Fund, a mult idonor t rust f und admin-
ist ered by ADB. The PEP aims t o accelerat e lear ning
about povert y-environment linkages and ef f ect ive
approaches f or povert y reduct ion.
Through t he PEP, ADB is implement ing t he
f ollow ing project in t he Peoples Republic of China
(PRC): Development of Sust ainable Alt er nat ive Liveli-
hoods and Communit y Part icipat ion in Sust ainable
Wet land M anagement in t he Sanjiang Plains. The
project seeks t o develop and pilot -t est innovat ive
sust ainable livelihood opt ions f or t he poor villages in
Raohe dist rict t hat are adjacent t o t he Naolihe Na-
t ure Reserve t hrough part icipat ory and communit y-
based approaches and use of environment -f riendly
t echnologies and pract ices
NGOs, CBOs, f armers associat ions, and ot her
st akeholders part icipat ed in t he communit y assess-
ment process t hat covered t he f ollow ing: consensus
of t he resources and asset s t hat t he communit y
possesses, priorit izat ion of communit y needs and
concer ns; and discussion on t he import ance of sus-
t ainable management of nat ural resources. Through
a part icipat ory approach, st akeholders select ed alt er-
nat ive on-f arm and of f -f arm livelihood opt ions t hat
har ness local indigenous know ledge on w ildlif e and
plant species and w hich ensure sust ainable use and
management of t he agrof orest ecosyst em.
Civil societ y groups w ere involved in t he
evaluat ion and approval livelihood opt ions, and
developed t he implement at ion and monit oring plan
f or livelihood act ivit ies. In t he process, communit y
associat ions set up and operat e t he revolving f und
t o f inance part s of t he livelihood act ivit ies of t he
benef iciaries, est ablished project implement at ion
and supervision groups at t he communit y levels, and
f ormulat ed an exit st rat egy t o ensure sust ainabilit y
of livelihood schemes and t he communit y-based
management of nat ural resources.
Suppor t i ng Communi t y-Based NGOs i n Tonl e
Sap
Through a grant made under t he Tonle Sap
Rural Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion Sect or Project in
Cambodia, ADB engages local CSOs t o implement
communit y mobilizat ion and skills in f ive provinces.
In part icular, CSOs develop a communit y part icipa-
t ion st rat egy t o ensure meaningf ul part icipat ion by
various social groups. The local groups are engaged
t o help carry out aw areness campaigns in t he com-
munes and villages, implement rapid appraisal of
village w at er and sanit at ion needs, and undert ake
baseline survey of t he village f or f ut ure benchmark-
ing and evaluat ion. CSOs ut ilize communit y-based
met hodologies by involving local villages in select ing
appropriat e w at er syst ems and sanit at ion f acilit ies.
Recogni zi ng Innovat i ve Proj ect s by NGOs i n
t he PRC
The World Bank sought support f rom ADB
and ot her int er nat ional agencies t o launch t he China
Development M arket place (CDM ). The CDM com-
pet it ion support ed innovat ive project s principally
t hose implement ed by NGOs t hat ext end beyond
est ablished channels f or support t o t he poor, build-
ing sust ainable new approaches t o address t he needs
of t he poor. The CDM f urt her emphasized building/
st rengt hening part nerships and net w orks, including
t hose linking NGOs t o businesses, donors, nat ional
and local gover nment s, and ot her NGOs.

12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil14 14 4/27/2007 2:16:00 PM
1
Prior t o and f ollow ing t he f ormal launch in
June 2005, ADB has been a key int er nat ional part ner
f or t he CDM , including sit t ing on t he Project M an-
agement Commit t ee (PM C), w hich w as t asked w it h
compet it ion design, overall coordinat ion, and guid-
ance t o t he implement ing agency, t he China Founda-
t ion f or Povert y Alleviat ion (CFPA). In addit ion, ADB
f unded an ADB Aw ard f or educat ion as a t ool f or
f ight ing povert y.
On 24 February 2006, Qingshen Count y
Womens Federat ion (QCWF, a count y-level NGO in
Sichuan Province) w as select ed f or t he ADB Aw ard,
f or an innovat ive pilot t est on educat ion and care
f or children in poor areas w ho w ere lef t behind
by migrant parent s. ADBs Resident M ission in t he
PRC (PRCM ) subsequent ly assist ed QCWF in project
design ref inement and implement at ion. Overall, t he
ADB Aw ard links t o ot her ef f ort s at promot ing and
f ormulat ing mechanisms f or NGOgover nment
communit y part nerships, w hich is emerging as an
import ant niche f or ADB in t he PRC.
Promot i ng NGOBusi ness Col l aborat i on
ADB cont inues t o provide advisory support
t o t he Net w ork f or NGOBusiness Part nerships f or
Sust ainable Development in Asia and t he Pacif ic (The
NETWORK). The NETWORK provides a f orum f or
NGOs and t he privat e sect or t o search f or pot ent ial
collaborat ors; exchange case st udies and good prac-
t ice; and share inf ormat ion, opinions, and concer ns.
The NETWORK is largely virt ual , but meet s once or
t w ice a year, usually as part of int er nat ional con-
f erences on corporat e social responsibilit y or CSO
resource mobilizat ion. The Bangkok-based Kenan
Inst it ut e Asia, a nonprof it organizat ion, serves as The
NETWORKs secret ariat .
In 2006, The NETWORK relaunched it s w eb-
sit e (w w w.net w ork-ngo-ps.org) by creat ing a new
look and a more int eract ive f eel. The new f ormat
provides new s w it h analysis, current event s, opinion
polls, and video cases. The NETWORK w ebsit e pro-
vides essent ial inf ormat ion f or improving coopera-
t ion bet w een NGOs and corporat ions. To enrich t he
w ebsit e, ADB cont ribut ed a paper t it led, A Young
Net w ork Brings Toget her NGOs and Businesses in t he
Worlds M ost Populous Region, w hich discusses t he
corporat e social responsibilit y movement and NGO-
business collaborat ion in Asia.
In Sept ember, about 40 members assembled
in t he Philippines t o discuss pot ent ial part nerships
during t he 4t h meet ing of t he NETWORK. The meet -
ing show cased a successf ul part nership bet w een t he
Philippine NGO Council on Populat ion, Healt h and
Welf are, Inc. and GSK, Philippines.
Improvi ng Ci vi l Soci et y Underst andi ng of ADB
Operat i ons
To increase underst anding among CSOs
and ot her st akeholders of ADBs operat ions and
w ork in part icular sect oral and t hemat ic areas, ADB
published several succinct f act sheet s. These 2-
page document s praide basic inf ormat ion on ADBs
Account abilit y M echanism, ADB and Civil Societ y,
Environment Policy, M illennium Development Goals,
Clean Energy, ADB saf eguard policies (general), Pov-
ert y Reduct ion St rat egy, Cooperat ion w it h NGOs in
India, ADB and Core Labor St andards, and Part icipa-
t ion/Communit y Engagement .
3. St rengt hening Gover nment Civil Societ y
Cooperat ion and Collaborat ion
Inst i t ut i onal i zi ng Ci vi l Soci et y Par t i ci pat i on i n
Local Budget s
The Pilot Project on Inst it ut ionalizing Civil-So-
ciet y Part icipat ion t o Creat e Local Pro-Poor Project s
aims t o creat e an enabling environment f or part icipa-
t ory budget ing in local gover nment by building on
global best pract ices of civil societ y w ork. Part icipa-
t ory budget ing provides cit izens w it h t he opport unit y
t o inf luence budget decisions. The project engages
poor communit ies in preparing budget s t hat w ill
provide ef f icient , ef f ect ive, and responsive pro-poor
service delivery by local gover nment s. Through civic,
inf ormed, and const ruct ive engagement , public ser-
vice delivery w ill be more responsive t o t he poor.
The project is being implement ed in Indonesia,
Pakist an, and Sri Lanka. Local gover nment and de-
volut ion allow f or st ronger civil societ y involvement
in local gover nance. By engaging in local budget ing
processes, civil societ y w ill improve it s underst anding
of allocat ion possibilit ies and encourages account -
able and pro-poor gover nance.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil15 15 4/27/2007 2:16:01 PM
1o
Count r y Conf erence on Inst i t ut i onal i zi ng Ci vi l
Soci et y Par t i ci pat i on
i n Local Budget s i n Paki st an
In part nership w it h t he Asia Foundat ion,
ADB organized a conf erence on Inst it ut ionalizing
Civil Societ y Part icipat ion in Local Budget s in
Islamabad on 18 July 2006. The Asia Foundat ion
not ed t hat w hile civil societ y part icipat ion in t he
local budget ing process has been put in place
t hrough t he Local Gover nment Ordinance (LGO)
2001, it had not ef f ect ively used t hese provi-
sions t o ensure f air and ef f icient ut ilizat ion of
resources. The meet ing st ressed t he urgent need
f or civil societ y groups t o develop t he required
capacit y t o ef f ect ively cooperat e w it h local gov-
er nment s.
Part of t he project is a t raining pro-
gram f or CSOs and local council members t o
build t heir capacit y in t he budget process and
enhance t heir part icipat ion on local gover n-
ment budget s. Part icipant s not ed t hat w hile
t he concept of bot t om-up planning or public
part icipat ion in development project s w as not
new f or Pakist an, it is f or t he f irst t ime t hat
such concept s have been t ur ned int o st at ut ory
requirement s under t he LGO. ADB underscored
t he import ance of developing t he capacit y of
civil societ y groups and councils and highlight ed
t he need f or scaling up such act ivit y. Represent a-
t ives of civil societ y groups, w ho had come f rom
Kasur and Jehlum, also made a number of com-
mit ment s t o promot e civil societ y part icipat ion in
t he budget ary processes. They part icularly com-
mit t ed t o creat e public aw areness campaigns,
hold pre-budget seminars, ident if y t o t he local
gover nment s gaps in implement at ion, and cre-
at e monit oring mechanisms t o ensure ef f i ci en t
use of public f unds.
C. Generat i ng and Shar i ng Knowl edge
1. Engaging NGOs/CSOs in Cont inuing Dialogue
Ci vi l Soci et y Consul t at i ons at t he 39t h Annual
Meet i ng
The Thirt y-Nint h Annual M eet ing of ADBs
Board of Gover nors w as held in Hyderabad Int er na-
t ional Convent ion Cent re (HICC) in Hyderabad, India
f rom 3-6 M ay 2006. M ore t han 170 CSO represent a-
t ives f rom 30 count ries part icipat ed in t he various
event s t hat included a series of consult at ions on
issues of mut ual concer n t o civil societ y and ADB.
The subst ant ial t ur nout of represent at ives of bot h
advocacy and operat ional CSOs, especially f rom
sout h Asian count ries, led t o a record number of
CSO delegat es at an annual meet ing.
The NGOC organized a series of meet ings t o NGOC organized a series of meet ings t o
f acilit at e CSO int eract ion w it h ADBs M anagement
and senior st af f . In addit ion, many CSO represent a-
t ives arranged smaller meet ings w it h gover nment
represent at ives on ADBs Board of Direct ors or Board
of Gover nors, and in part icipat ing gover nment del-
egat ions.
Among t he act ivit ies organized as part of
t he NGO/Civil Societ y Program of t he Annual M eet -
ing w as a general f orum on cooperat ion bet w een
ADB and CSOs. The t heme of t his years meet ing is
Healt h Invest ment s f or Economic Grow t h: Building
Blocks of Pro-Poor Development . An expert panel,
including represent at ives of civil societ y, academe,
and t he World Healt h Organizat ion, explored t he
links bet w een healt h invest ment and economic
grow t h, and w hy view ing development f rom t his
angle mat t ers t o decision makers in t he public sect or,
organized civil societ y, and int er nat ional donor com-
munit y. In cooperat ion w it h t he Glaxo-Smit hkline
Biologicals, a summary of proceedings w as published
and an accompanying CD-ROM produced t hat pres-
ent s t he empirical f indings and shared experiences
and lessons in Hyderabad
On t he f irst day of t he Annual M eet ing, ADB
President Haruhiko Kuroda addressed more t han
120 CSO represent at ives and reit erat ed ADBs com-
mit ment t o w orking w it h civil societ y part ners t o
promot e economic grow t h t hat is pro-poor, socially
inclusive, and environment ally sust ainable. President
Kuroda also announced t hat ADB w ill make available
more f unds f or NGO-led init iat ives against HIV/AIDS
t o complement it s w ork in t he healt h sect or, and is
w orking w it h t he Part nership f or Transparency Fund
t o provide grant s t o NGOs f or ant icorrupt ion act ivi-
t ies.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil16 16 4/27/2007 2:16:01 PM
1/
During t he open f orum sect ion of t he meet -
ing, CSO represent at ives raised various issues w it h
t he ADB President f rom t he risk of corrupt ion in
ADB-assist ed project s t o w orkers right s, privat iza-
t ion, clean energy, and f ut ure w ork in t he area of
inf ormat ion and communicat ion t echnology.
ADB meet ings w it h CSO represent at ives int er-
est ed in operat ional collaborat ion w it h ADB yielded
concret e ideas f or pot ent ial cooperat ion in areas
such as HIV/AIDS prevent ion, disast er management ,
and int egrat ing core labor st andards (CLS) in ADB
operat ions.
Di al ogue wi t h Labor Organi zat i ons and Labor
Uni ons
ADB maint ains regular int eract ion w it h various
t rade unions and f ederat ions in t he region. In 2006,
ADB held regular meet ings w it h t rade unions and
f ederat ions such as t he Public Services Int er nat ional
(PSI) and t he Asian Labor Net w ork on IFIs (ALNI).
During t he 39t h ADB Annual M eet ing in Hyderabad,
India in M ay 2006, PSI campaigned against priva-
t izat ion of public services, and advocat ed f or int e-
grat ion of CLS in ADB act ivit ies. PSI w orks globally
w it h unions and communit ies t o ensure t hat public
services are w ell resourced, accessible, and in t une
w it h communit y needs.
In August , ADB met w it h t he represent at ive of
t he Building and Wood Workers Int er nat ional (BWI),
a global f ederat ion w it h members in t he building,
building mat erials, w ood, f orest ry, and allied sect ors
and w it h project of f ices in Asian count ries like India
and M alaysia. ADB t ook t his opport unit y t o explain
opport unit ies f or w orkers part icipat ion in ADBs op-
erat ions as w ell as it s init iat ives t o ensure compliance
t o CLS, part icularly in it s procurement syst em.
In Sept ember, t he Gender, Social Development
and Civil Societ y (RSGS) Division met w it h represen-
t at ives of t he Asian Labor Net w ork on IFIs (ALNI)/Phil-
ippines Chapt er. ALNI Philippines is part of an int er-
nat ional net w ork t hat aims t o unit e and st rengt hen
t he labor movement and f ocuses on issues and
concer ns t hat w orkers have w it h IFIs. The discussions
f ocused on how ADB and ALNI could collaborat e
t ow ard a proact ive st rat egy of moving f orw ard social
prot ect ion programs in ADBs programs and policies.
In t he last quart er of 2006, ADB launched
t he CLS Handbook t o guide ADB st af f on CLS and
it s appropriat e applicat ion t o ADB operat ions. The
Handbook is a result of joint collaborat ion bet w een
ADB and t he Int er nat ional Labour Organizat ion (ILO).
The launch also present ed an opport unit y f or ADB,
ILO, and ot her development part ners t o dialogue on
mat t ers relat ed t o CLS.
On 11 Oct ober 2006, senior members of
t he PSI held a dialogue w it h select ed ADB st af f at
t he headquart ers of f ice in M anila. The f ocus of t his
years consult at ions included labor issues and impact
on public services of ADBs pow er and w at er sect or
ref orms. Labor unions likew ise raised issues concer n-
ing privat izat ion of public service such as healt h and
educat ion. The meet ings w ere part of a cont inuing
dialogue bet w een ADB and labor groups on issues
of mut ual concer n. The exchange of ideas result ed
in improved underst anding of ADB programs and
policies f rom t he perspect ive of labor groups. While
perspect ives on t he privat izat ion of services dif f er,
ADB and labor organizat ions can cont inue t o discuss
w ays t o help improve delivery of t hese services.
Ci vi l Soci et y i n Pol i cy Devel opment
ADB celebrat ed t he Clean Energy Week on
2022 June, a know ledge-sharing event among
pract it ioners and policy makers engaged on crosscut -
t ing issues of clean energy development and f inanc-
ing, climat e change, energy access and securit y, and
gover nance in t he energy sect or. Clean Energy Week
provided an opport unit y f or DM Cs, donor gover n-
ment s, and NGOs t o int eract and exchange lessons
lear ned across t he region. NGOs like Greenpeace
Int er nat ional shared t heir view s on creat ing opport u-
nit ies f or clean energy in ADBs DM Cs.
ADB has embarked on a saf eguard policy
updat e (SPU) t o enhance t he ef f ect iveness of it s
saf eguard policies, and ensure t heir relevance t o
changing client needs and new lending modalit ies
and inst rument s. ADB has t hree saf eguard policies
t hat seek t o avoid, minimize, or mit igat e adverse
environment al impact s, social cost s t o t hird part ies,
or marginalizat ion of vulnerable groups t hat may
result f rom development project s. These policies are:
Involunt ary Reset t lement (1995), Indigenous Peoples
(1998), and Environment (2002).
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil17 17 4/27/2007 2:16:01 PM
18
The SPU is being conduct ed in a manner t hat
ensures broad st akeholder part icipat ion, t ransparent
proceedings and report ing, and w ide disseminat ion
of draf t policy document s produced t o inf orm t he
updat e process and t he f inal policy paper, slat ed
f or submission t o ADBs Board of Direct ors and f or
public release in November 2007. ADB is consult ing
w it h a broad range of st akeholders including CSOs
and ot her development part ners.
ADB int eract s w it h advocacy groups t hat aim
t o express t heir posit ion on it s programs and poli-
cies. On December, Greenpeace represent at ives held
a peacef ul demonst rat ion t o call upon ADB t o st op
support ing energy project s t hat make use of f ossil
f uel and t hus cont ribut e t o climat e change. ADB met
w it h t he group t o hear t heir view s and agreed t o
respond t o t he issues raised.
Count r y Level Di al ogue and Par t nershi ps wi t h
Ci vi l Soci et y
Consult at ion w it h civil societ y has been an im-
port ant component in ADB operat ions. Follow ing are
examples of ADBs consult at ion act ivit ies involving a
broad range of CSOs in Asia and t he Pacif ic.
In Bangladesh, consult at ions and regular quar-
t erly meet ings w ere organized w it h represent at ives
of key NGOs and apex organizat ions as w ell as t he
privat e sect or t o exchange view s on ADBs opera-
t ions and policies, and ident if y opt ions f or pot ent ial
collaborat ion. Discussions likew ise covered providing
t echnical advice t o NGOs on designing gender-sensi-
t ive project s and w omen empow erment programs.
In t he Philippines, t he Japan Red Cross Societ y
(JRC), t hrough it s local count erpart , t he Philippine
Nat ional Red Cross, part icipat ed in t he st akeholder
consult at ion undert aken by ADB and t he gover n-
ment of Sout her n Leyt e in response t o t he mudslides
disast er t hat hit t he province in February 2006. The
series of mudslides caused w idespread damage and
loss of lif e t hat occurred f ollow ing a 10-day period
of heavy rains and a minor eart hquake.
Toget her w it h Plan Int er nat ional and t he
Philippine Business f or Social Progress, t he JRC w as
involved in t he preparat ion of a needs assessment
report t hat paved t he w ay f or JFPR grant assist ance
9102: Sout her n Leyt e Landslide Disast er Assist ance
Project . The JRC had indicat ed t hat t hey w ill under-
t ake a parallel project t hat w ill complement and not
duplicat e w hat ADB has designed w it h t he key local
st akeholdersassist ance t o t he af f ect ed communi-
t ies.
In preparing t he 2006 Count ry Perf ormance
Assessment of t he Kyrgyz Republic, ADBs resident
mission in Bishkek sought and incorporat ed t he
view s of a represent at ive cross-sect ion of CSOs on
t he Gover nment s perf ormance in t he areas of social
development , gender equit y, gover nance, and st ruc-
t ural economic policies. The Kyrgyz Republic Resi-
dent M ission is commit t ed t o achieve great er t rans-
parency and est ablish bet t er links w it h local CSOs
t hrough special project sit e t ours f or NGOs t hat
demonst rat e ADBs input int o t he development pro-
cess in t he count ry. The resident mission organized
a f ield t rip f or human right s and environment al CSO
represent at ives t o ADB-f inanced BishkekOsh road.
The represent at ives visit ed t he rehabilit at ed part s of
t he road and discussed t he const ruct ion process and
maint enance aspect s w it h represent at ives of China
Road, Project Implement at ion Unit st af f , and t he
Deput y M inist er of Transport . CSO represent at ives
w ere provided w it h t he opport unit y t o ask ques-
t ionsand did soon t opics such as labor right s
and environment al and social impact s.
The Of f ice of t he Special Project Facilit at or
conduct s regular out reach act ivit ies t o civil societ y
groups. A t raining course on Complaint Handling
f or NGOs under t he Eart hquake and Tsunami Emer-
gency Support Project (ETESP) Housing Component
w as held in ADB Ext ended M ission in Sumat era,
Banda Aceh. This w as f ollow ed by a pilot t raining on
complaint handling f or Bina Sw adaya Village M o-
bilizat ion Facilit at ors and Communit y M obilizat ion
Specialist s, also in Banda Aceh.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil18 18 4/27/2007 2:16:01 PM
1'
Ear t hquake and Tsunami Emergency Suppor t Proj ect i n Indonesi a
The overall goal of t he Eart hquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP) is t o help
rebuild t he af f ect ed regions and support t heir economic revival t o meet t he M illennium Development
Goals. The immediat e purpose of ETESP is t o provide disast er management rehabilit at ion and reconst ruc-
t ion support t o f acilit at e economic revival in t he af f ect ed regions, t hrough rest orat ion of livelihoods; and
t o rest ore essent ial public services and rebuild inf rast ruct ure, w it h t he aim of alleviat ing const raint s f aced
by t he lack of adequat e public goods and f acilit ies.
In cooperat ion w it h Bina Sw adaya, ADB put s communit y empow erment as a cent ral approach t o
help enable t he people of Aceh and Nias at t ain sust ainable sources of livelihood especially in t he agri-
cult ure, f isheries, and irrigat ion sect ors. Est ablished in 1958, Bina Sw adaya is one of t he largest NGOs in
Indonesia. Bina Sw adaya is an acronym of Badan Pengembangan Sw adaya M asyarakat , w hich means
Communit y Self -Reliance Development Agency. It is a people-cent ered development agency managing a
number of services orient ed t ow ard developing self -reliant communit ies. The NGO has ext ensive experi-
ence w orking w it h poor f armers.
Bina Sw adaya mobilizes expert s in 14 dist rict s on part icipat ory development and communit y
mobilizat ion, t raining, microf inance, and livelihoods. The t eam is support ed by 31 subdist rict mobilizat ion
f acilit at ors and over 400 village mobilizat ion f acilit at ors w ho are select ed by t he local communit ies. Bina
Sw adaya provides communit y f acilit at ion services in t hree subcomponent s, namely: agricult ure, f isher-
ies, and irrigat ion, t o support t he communit y-driven development st rat egy of BRR, t he Execut ing Agency.
Bina Sw adaya helps f armers, f ishermen, and w at er users associat ions in t sunami- and eart hquake-af -
f ect ed dist rict s t o improve t heir organizat ional skills and management capacit ies. The NGO implement s
st rat egic f acilit at ion and coaching on alt er nat ive income-generat ing skills, microf inance, and small busi-
ness development t o enable communit y associat ions become sust ainable self -help groups. By developing
st rong net w orks w it h ot her st akeholders, t he self -help groups could t hen be equipped w it h t he capacit y
t o help rebuild t he f ut ure Acehnese economy.
On 10 November, ADB t hrough t he Azerbai-
jan Resident M ission, organized a present at ion on
act ivit ies in Azerbaijan and it s programs on HIV/AIDS.
Part icipant s included t he count rys leading represen-
t at ives in civil societ y and t he gover nment sect or. The
discussions underscored t he need t o w ork t oget her
t o address HIV/AIDS in a rapidly grow ing oil-rich
count ry of Azerbaijan.
In 2006, a count ry programming mission
met w it h Honiara-based NGOs t o discuss priorit y
development issues and ADBs count ry program-
ming st rat egy in Solomon Islands. The meet ing w as
organized w it h ADBs Pacif ic Liaison and Coordina-
t ion Of f ice.
ADB cont inues t o exchange view s w it h civil
societ y groups and explore pot ent ial part nerships
and help move f orw ard it s goal of reducing povert y
in Asia and t he Pacif ic. A number of int er nat ional
and local CSOs f rom across t he regionw hich
include groups like t he Habit at f or Humanit y, Int er-
nat ional Council on Social Welf are, One World Trust ,
Vrit e, Oil Workers Right s Prot ect ion Organizat ion
(Azerbaijan), and Visayan Forum Foundat ion Philip-
pines)visit ed ADB in 2006. ADB act ively part ici-
pat ed in conf erences and act ed as resource persons
in event s organized by NGOs like t he M alaysia-based
Int er nat ional Council on M anagement of Popula-
t ion Programmes, and t he Asia-Pacif ic Region of t he
World Organizat ion of t he Scout M ovement .
2. Enhancing Transparency and Int eract ion
t hrough Access t o Inf ormat ion
Impl ement i ng t he Publ i c Communi cat i ons
Pol i cy
Through enhanced communicat ions, ADB can
build st rong and product ive part nerships w it h key
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil19 19 4/27/2007 2:16:01 PM
20
const it uencies, including civil societ y part ners. To
achieve t his goal, ADB approved in April 2005 t he
Public Communicat ions Policy (PCP) t hat became
ef f ect ive on 1 Sept ember 2005. Since it s approval,
ADB has pursued new st rat egic direct ions on ext er-
nal relat ions. The public inf ormat ion and disclosure
unit (Inf oUnit ) w as creat ed as part of t he Depart ment
of Ext er nal Relat ions and became operat ional in July
2005.
On inf ormat ion disclosure, t he PCP mandat es
all project -relat ed document s prepared during t he
project cycle t o be post ed on t he w eb. In part icular,
document s addressing social or environment al issues,
and t hose summarizing t he proposed project design,
are disclosed bef ore decisions have been made so
t hat af f ect ed people can have a chance t o inf luence
project design. While t he policy is not ret roact ive,
ADB w as able t o declassif y older document s t hat
w ould have been publicly available had t hey been
creat ed w hen t he PCP w as in ef f ect .
Af t er just a year of t he PCPs implement at ion,
ADB has signif icant ly improved access t o operat ional
inf ormat ion on it s w ebsit e. Web users can now
search ADBs project s dat abase and f ind all t he docu-
ment s relat ed t o a project in a single view. Recent
f eedback f rom st akeholders including CSOs indicat es
t hat t hey can access more inf ormat ion f rom ADB as
a result of PCP implement at ion.
ADB has successf ully implement ed a presump-
t ion in f avor of disclosure. When ADB receives re-
quest s f or inf ormat ion and document s, it review s t he
inf ormat ion t hat it holds and w hat can be disclosed.
This has result ed in ADB clearing more operat ional
document s f or public release, many of w hich could
not be disclosed under ADBs 1994 disclosure policy.
ADB has organized st af f capacit y building and
put int o place mechanisms t o f acilit at e disclosure of
operat ional inf ormat ion. It has since organized st af f
capacit y-building and t raining sessions, developed
a disclosure management syst em, and conduct ed
aw areness-raising missions among gover nment and
CSOs in member count ries.
Communi cat i on wi t h Ci vi l Soci et y
In 2006, ADB published six issues of t he Part -
nership New slet t er, an elect ronic bullet in developed
t o keep CSOs inf ormed of act ivit ies in and around
ADB. The bimont hly bullet in provides recipient s w it h
inf ormat ion about ADB policy development s, proj-
ect s, conf erences, document at ion, and educat ional
and t raining opport unit ies in Asia and t he Pacif ic.
The Part nership New slet t er also cit es t he lat est ADB
document s available t o t he public. By t he end of t he
year, it s subscriber base had t opped 1,100.
The NGOC maint ains a w ebsit e (w w w.adb.
org/ngos) dedicat ed t o ADBs collaborat ion w it h
CSOs. The regularly updat ed sit e explains how CSOs
can collaborat e w it h ADB, and cont ains minut es of
consult at ions, annual report s of cooperat ion w it h
NGOs, st udies, art icles, policies, speeches, and ot her
document s. Among t he addit ions t o t he sit e w as an
ext ensive sect ion on sources of f unding f or CSOs.
At t he end of t he year, t he CSO w ebsit e emerged as
one of t he busiest f irst -level f olders of ADBs w eb sit e
as it ranked t op 19 among t he most -accessed f irst -
level direct ories.
The NGOC f acilit at es CSO access t o ADB
t hrough a dedicat ed e-mail account , ngocoordina-
t or@adb.org. The NGOC regularly checks t he ac-
count and prompt ly answ ers most queries. It receives
an average of 1,600 elect ronic messages per year.
3. Part nership w it h Leading Conservat ion
Organizat ions
Impl ement at i on of a Memorandum of
Underst andi ng wi t h t he Wor l d Wi de Fund f or
Nat ure
Through a memorandum of underst anding
(M OU), ADB and t he World Wide Fund f or Nat ure
(WWF) cont inue t o develop and collaborat ively
implement vent ures t o address povert y and envi-
ronment al challenges. Part nership act ivit ies during
2006 included t he cont inuat ion of exist ing programs
in some count ries and t he init iat ion of collaborat ion
in some new areas. The WWF provided support in
review ing ADB policies/st rat egies; t here w as consid-
erable and inf ormat ion and know ledge exchange.
Since t he last ADBWWF consult at ion meet -
ing in Oct ober 2005, collaborat ion bet w een t he
t w o organizat ions in t he Great er M ekong Subregion
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil20 20 4/27/2007 2:16:02 PM
21
(GM S)primarily on t he Biodiversit y Conservat ion
Corridors Init iat ive under t he GM S Core Environment
Programsubst ant ially accelerat ed. This program
provides t he enabling f ramew ork f or broadening
and deepening at t ent ion t o environment al concer ns
w it hin t he GM S Economic Cooperat ion Program.
WWF w orked w it h ADB, Gover nment of Pap-
ua New Guinea (PNG), and t he privat e sect or propo-
nent s of t he PNG Gas Project t o evaluat e risks t o bio-
diversit y in t he Lake Kut ubu Basin. Cooperat ion w it h
WWF cont ribut ed t o development of loan condit ions
relat ing t o rout ing of t he proposed pipeline and road
const ruct ion, t aking int o considerat ion areas of high
biodiversit y and cult ural import ance and proposed
prot ect ed areas. Guidance w as also provided on t he
st ruct uring of a cat chment management program
as a biodiversit y of f set and communit y assist ance in
prot ect ing t heir land against invasive species.
The Sulu Sulaw esi Seas subregion is t he f ocus
of a WWF init iat ive in cooperat ion w it h ADB, in
part icular because of t he import ance of f isheries t o
t he nat ional economies of Indonesia, M alaysia, and
t he Philippines. M ore t han 30 million people living in
t hose t hree count ries depend on f isheries product ion
f or t heir livelihoods, and many more benef it f rom
commerce relat ed t o t hose resources. The objec-
t ives of t his project are t o f ind w ays t o mainst ream
marine conservat ion and sust ainable f isheries in
nat ional development st rat egies. The part icular f ocus
is on povert y and environment linkages, i.e., w ays in
w hich marine f isheries st rat egies could cont ribut e t o
povert y alleviat ion and conservat ion. The project is
support ed by ADB t hrough it s Povert y and Environ-
ment Program w it h cont ribut ions f rom t he Packard
Foundat ion t hrough WWF-Unit ed St at es.
WWF cont inues t o be involved in ADBs ongo-
ing SPU, cont inued inf ormat ion and know ledge
exchange, and a look ahead at possible areas f or
f ut ure collaborat ion under t he part nership. Consid-
erable progress has been achieved during 2006 in
st rengt hening w orking relat ions f or bet t er environ-
ment al management in t he region consist ent w it h
t he object ives of t he ADB-WWF M OU.
Impl ement at i on of MOU wi t h t he Int er nat i onal
Conser vat i on Uni on
At t he World Conservat ion Union Congress
held in Bangkok in November 2004, t he President of
ADB and t he Direct or General of t he Int er nat ional
Conservat ion Union (IUCN) signed an M OU t o shape
t heir f ut ure cooperat ion. M ore t han t hree quart ers
of IUCNs mult ist akeholder membership are CSOs,
and t he Unit ed Nat ions Economic and Social Coun-
cil (ECOSOC) has accredit ed t he organizat ion as an
NGO.
ADB cont inues t o recognize IUCN as an ADB
part ner of long st anding and acknow ledges t he
valuable prof essional advice and support ADB has
long received f rom IUCN environment and nat ural
resources management . The engagement bet w een
IUCN and ADB has been st rat egic because IUCN
sees it self as a st rat egic part ner t hat can assist w it h
know ledge generat ion and convening of st akehold-
ers. In part icular, IUCNs special int erest in it s part ner-
ship w it h t he ADB includes regional issues such as
t rans-boundary environment al management , biodi-
versit y conservat ion, w at er, air, t rade, and environ-
ment .
Pover t y, Heal t h, and Conser vat i on: An ADBIUCN Par t nershi p
To underst and t he complex synergies bet w een povert y, healt h, and conservat ion, ADB and IUCN
are joint ly undert aking a project f ocusing on povert y as it relat es t o:
Livelihoods and nat ural resources;
Conservat ion and sust ainable use of biodiversit y;
Healt h and ecosyst ems; and
Relat ed polit ical, inst it ut ional, and policy challenges.
By bet t er underst anding t hese key issues, ADB and IUCN can help support t he count ries of t he
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil21 21 4/27/2007 2:16:02 PM
22
Asia and Pacif ic region in addressing t hese challenges and achieving t he M illennium Development Goals.
Ult imat ely, improving conservat ion and sust ainable use of biodiversit y resources can f urt her st rengt hen
povert y reduct ion ef f ort s in t he region.
The collaborat ion involves sharing of experiences and know ledge building on t he discussions and
lessons lear ned f rom t he World Conservat ion Congress in Bangkok in November 2004. These w ill help
ADB, IUCN, and ot her development part ners ref ine t heir st rat egies f or incorporat ing povert y and healt h
considerat ions int o biodiversit y conservat ion ef f ort s. The st udies also propose w ays t o overcome polit ical,
inst it ut ional, and policy challenges t o reverse t he loss of environment al resources and reduce povert y by
creat ing mult ist akeholder coalit ions and alliances, prot ect ing right s t o resources, and promot ing gender
equit y.
ADB and IUCN aim t o expand collabora-
t ion t hrough t he Clean Air Init iat ive f or Asian Cit ies
(CAI-Asia) in Karachi, Pakist an. ADB w ill rely on IUCN
f or it s convening pow er t o f acilit at e t his process.
ADB also hopes t o draw upon IUCN in carrying out
environment al sit uat ion analysis in t he cont ext of t he
count ry part nership st rat egy (CPS) process in dif f er-
ent count ries.
4. Lessons Lear ned in Civil Societ y Cooperat ion
In June 2006, t he Operat ions Evaluat ion De-
part ment published a special evaluat ion st udy on t he
Involvement of Civil Societ y Organizat ions in Asian
Development Bank Operat ions. The paper aims t o
review progress and ident if y lessons f rom t he imple-
ment at ion of ADB business pract ice t o ensure broad
st akeholder part icipat ion; analyze t he involvement of
count ry CSOs in ADB operat ions; and cont ribut e t o
t he current review and f ormulat ion of new opera-
t ional policies and st rat egies.
Key f indings of t he st udy include t he f ollow ing:
ADBs capacit y t o engage CSOs ef f ect ively in
t he count ry st rat egy and programming (now called
count ry part nership st rat egy or CPS) process has
been st rengt hened in recent years. In general, CSO
involvement is rest rict ed largely t o consult at ion at
t he f ormulat ion st age. Despit e t he increased consul-
t at ions, t he concer ns of grassroot s organizat ions and
benef iciaries might not alw ays be ref lect ed ef f ec-
t ively in CPS f ormulat ion.
The proport ion and volume of loan, TA, and
grant operat ions w it h CSO involvement have in-
creased in t he past decade. The t ypology of CSO in-
volvement in ADB operat ions is increasingly diverse.
How ever, CSO involvement in st rat egically import ant
areas, such as policy advocacy and monit oring and
evaluat ion, is comparat ively rare.
ADB has allocat ed more resources on CSO
capacit y building part icularly on organizat ional
development of grassroot s CSOs, such as WUAs and
f armers groups. How ever, st rat egies t hat st rengt hen
CSO capacit y in inst it ut ional and net w ork develop-
ment need t o be developed. The paper f ound t hat
grant s under t he JFPR, PRF, and nat ional povert y
reduct ion st rat egy allow a more syst emat ic and sus-
t ained approach t o st rengt hening CSO capacit y as a
signif icant part ner in ADB operat ions.

The st udy f ound out t hat st rat egies f or involv-
ing civil societ y as part ners in implement ing ADB
gover nance and ant icorrupt ion polices are w eak. The
paper suggest s t hat ADB has not w orked syst emat i-
cally t o har ness CSOs in f ight ing corrupt ion.
On t he ot her hand, t he paper cit ed t hat ADBs
st rat egy f or involving CSOs in implement ing gender
and development (GAD) policies has been ef f ect ive,
part icularly in it s long-t erm approach and early f ocus
on inst it ut ional capacit y building by put t ing in place
appropriat e legislat ion and regulat ions in DM Cs.
ADB has made progress in developing t he
processes f or know ledge creat ion and capt ure
regarding CSO involvement in ADB operat ions. The
NGOC has enhanced ADBs capacit y f or know ledge
creat ion f rom addit ional sources, w it hin and out side
ADB. M uch of t his know ledge, how ever, is based
on qualit at ive, rat her t han quant it at ive, dat a and
inf ormat ion.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil22 22 4/27/2007 2:16:02 PM
2J
The st udy recommends t hat ADB:
St rengt hen qualit y-at -ent ry processes f or
CSO involvement in ADB operat ions based
on a syst emic analysis of previous good
pract ices, and allocat ing t he resources f or
CSO involvement in t he design of project s
t hat envision t his involvement .
Enhance CSO involvement in CPS f ormula-
t ion and review w henever appropriat e in
t he count ry cont ext and t he design of t he
program.
Improve CSO part nership capacit y in
t hemat ic and sect oral policy f ormulat ion
and implement at ion by making a great er
ef f ort t o har ness t he skills and capabilit ies
of CSOs in t he f ight against corrupt ion.
St rengt hen ADB know ledge management
syst ems f or CSO involvement t hrough (a)
f ormulat ing crit eria and cat egories f or
good pract ice of CSO involvement , and (b)
improved cat egorizat ion of ADB resident
mission inf ormat ion syst ems on CSOs and
improved know ledge ret rieval by ADB
headquart ers.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil23 23 4/27/2007 2:16:02 PM
24
IAI1 III: IIII\1IC!' I! AII-\IVII 'C\II1Y
COOPEIA1IC!
ADBs cooperat ion w it h CSOs can be expect ed t o re-
main at a high level in 2007. Numerous loan project s
under preparat ion during 2006 had involved CSOs,
part icularly t hrough consult at ions and as consult ant s
under project preparat ory t echnical assist ance.
As part of t he broader ef f ort t o st rengt hen
and syst emat ize t he applicat ion of part icipat ory
met hods in ADB programming, CSOs w ill be en-
gaged in t he consult at ion processes f or CPS develop-
ment in count ries like t he PRC, India, and Pakist an,
as w ell as f or t he Saf eguard Policy Updat e and
elaborat ion of t he Energy St rat egy. ADB w ill cont inue
w orking t o improve t he qualit y and consist ency of
applying C&P in it s operat ions. For example, t he
NGOC is w orking on a pilot project w it h t he Sri
Lanka Resident M ission t o make t hat f ield of f ice a
model w it hin t he inst it ut ion f or t he use of C&P.
In M arch 2007, ADB headquart ers also ex-
pect s t o host represent at ives of about 20 advocacy
groups associat ed w it h t he NGO Forum on ADB f or a
day of meet ings w it h ADB st af f on issues of concer n
and int erest . In addit ion, at least 100 represent at ives
of accredit ed CSOs are expect ed t o part icipat e in
ADBs 40
t h
Annual M eet ing, t o be held in M ay 2007
in Kyot o, Japan. Panel discussions w ill be organized
in t he cont ext of t he NGO/Civil Societ y Program t o
address t opics such as ADBs support t o expand-
ing Asias energy capacit y and use of clean energy,
improving t he ef f ect iveness and relevance of t he
saf eguard policies, and upholding t he core labor
st andards.
In t he area of capacit y building among ADB
st af f , ADB w ill cont inue t o implement t raining
programs aimed at st rengt hening civil societ y en-
gagement in t he cont ext of t he t ripart it e part nership
involving ADB, gover nment , and civil societ y. One
such course, scheduled f or t he second quart er of
2007, w ill t arget st af f of ADBs resident missions in
Beijing and Ulan Bat aar. In addit ion, ADB w ill orga-
nize a st af f t raining course f or resident mission st af f
and t eam leaders on f ulf illing ADBs social analysis
requirement s, w hich among ot her t hings cover
part icipat ion involving st akeholders such as civil
societ y groups. Int er nal t raining on how t o use t he
St af f Guide t o C&P w ill be organized on at least t w o
t opics, including C&P in t he inf rast ruct ure sect or, and
C&P in CPS preparat ion and implement at ion.
Finally, implement at ion of numerous CSO-run
project s t hat seek t o prevent and curb HIV/AIDS and
corrupt ion w ill cont inue w it h ADB f inancing.
12399 ADB Cooperation with Civil24 24 4/27/2007 2:16:02 PM