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Climate Change and Rise of Green Buildings

Sachin Deshmukh

Climate Change
Climate change is no longer just a scientific curiosity. We all are experiencing it as it is going from bad to worse. Shifting weather patterns are threatening food production. Rising sea levels are contaminating coastal freshwater reserves. Major ecosystems are changing irreversibly. Biodiversity is in danger. Ozone layer is depleting. The cold and heavy snowfall has killed hundreds of people across Europe. The temperature in some eastern countries has plummeted to nearly minus 40 deg Celsius. This is the worst February cold spell Europe has seen in decades. It is real threat to human existence on Earth.

Role of buildings in climate change


Construction is a human activity which has major negative environmental impact. Buildings account for 24% of global green house gas and CO2 emissions. Buildings contribute to 40% of all the waste generated. Buildings use 40% of energy consumption. Buildings use 15% of water.

Definition of Green Building


Several terms are being used such as Sustainable buildings, Sustainable architecture, Green construction & so on. Green Building refers to a structure using process that is environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a buildings life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and demolition. The common objective of is that green buildings are designed to reduce overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water and other resources. Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity. Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.

Assessment Methods
BREEAM. BREs Environmental Assessment Method is created by BRE (Building Research Establishment) in UK. BREEAM was first launched in 1990 and is currently updated annually to keep ahead of UK Building Regulations and to stay in line with current best practice. BRE has 90-year history. The BRE Trust is a registered charity, with a mission to support built environment research for the public benefit. LEED. LEED was first launched in 1998. It was set up by the USGBC (US Green Building Council) to improve the way that the construction industry addresses sustainability by providing a simple easy to use label. It focuses on market transformation. GREEN STAR. The first version of Green Star was developed in 2003 in a partnership between Sinclair Knight Merz and BRE. BREEAM was used as basis of Green Star methodology. CASBEE. CASBEE was first launched in 2004 by the Japan Sustainable Building Consortium. The methodology used to calculate the score is called BEE (Building Environmental Efficiency).

What these programs evaluate ?


It is essentially a measure of a buildings efficiency for the following environmental categories: Sustainable Sites/ Land-use and Ecology Water Energy Transport Materials Pollution Health and Wellbeing

LEED and Green Building Councils


LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN COUNCILS USGBC U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL IGBC - INDIAN GREEN BULDING COUNCIL (2001) EGBC - EMIRATES GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL AND SO ON ALL COME UNDER WGBC WORLD GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL

IGBC
WAS ESTABLISHED IN 2001 BY CII (CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES). FIRST GREEN BUILDING IN INDIA IS CII-SOHRABJI GODREJ GREEN BUSINESS CENTER IN HYDERABAD. IGBC HAS ITS OFFICE IN THIS BUILDING. VISION IS TO USHER IN GREEN BUILDING MOVEMENT IN INDIA AND FACICLITATE INDIA TO BECOME ONE OF THE GLOBAL LELADERS IN GREEN BUILDINGS BY 2015. THE COUNCIL IS COMMITTEE-BASED, MEMBER DRIVEN AND CONSENSUS FOCUSSED. ALL THE STAKEHOLDERS OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPRISING OF ARCHITECTS, DEVELOPERS, PRODUCT MANUFACTURERS, AS WELL AS CORPORATE, GOVERNMENT, ACADEMIC AND NODAL AGENCIES PARTICIPATE IN COUNCILS ACTIVITIES THROUGH LOCAL CHAPTERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.

IGBCs Approach - Carrot & Not Stick


Green building is a voluntary initiative. Not compulsory by law as against NBC which is enforced by law. Carrot & not stick policy
Aim to encourage people for making their buildings green by offering incentives for green buildings will enhance pride.

IGBC GREEN HOMES RATING PROGRAM


WAS LAUCHED IN 2008 TO ADDRESS THE NATIONAL PRPORITIES. CURRENT RATING SYSTEM IN USE IS LEED 2011 FOR INDIA SCOPE INCLUDES: INDIVIDUAL HOMES, HIGH RISE RESIDENTAL PROJECTS, EXISTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS RETROFITTED TO MEET THE GREEN HOMES CRITERIA, GATED COMMUNIITES WHICH INCLUDE VILLAS AND APARTMENTS. BENEFITS: ENERGY SAVINGS TO THE TUNE OF 20-30% WATER SAVINGS TO THE TUNE OF 30-50% EXCELLENT USE OF DAYLIGHTING ENHANCED VENTILATION WATER EFFICIENT GREEN COVER CONSERVATION OF SCARCE NATIONAL RESOURCES EFFECTIVE WASTER MANAGEMENT HEALTH AND WELL BEING OF OCUUPANTS ENHANCED MARKETABILITY OF THE PROJECT

Terminology
Sustainability: Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Biodiversity: It is uncounted variety of living things on planet. VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds. Are group of organic (carbon containing) compounds which evaporate (volatilize) readily at room temperature. Some familiar substances containing VOCS are paints, adhesives, thinner, solvents, gasoline, and nail polish remover. Halons : Substances used in fire suppression systems and fire extinguishers. These substances deplete the stratospheric ozone layer.

Terminology
Heat Island Effect (HIE) : Heat Island Effect occurs when warmer temperatures are experienced in urban/developed areas compared to adjacent undeveloped areas due to solar energy retention on constructed surfaces. Some of the surfaces that contribute to the Heat Island Effect are paved streets, sidewalks, parking lots and buildings. Lighting Power Density (LPD): The maximum lighting power per unit area. Light Reflective Value (LRV). A measure of the total quantity of useable and visible light reflected by a surface in all directions on a scale from 0% to 100%. Zero percent is assumed to be an absolute black and 100% represents an assumed perfectly reflective white. The blackest achievable wall finish has a LRV of approximately 5% and the whitest available finish approximately 85%.

Terminology

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP): Expresses contribution to the deterioration of the stratospheric ozone layer. Refrigerants: Working fluids of refrigeration cycles, which absorb heat at low temperatures & reject heat at higher temperatures. Shading Coefficient (SC): A measure of the amount of heat passing through glazing compared with the heat passing through a single clear glass. It is the ratio of solar heat gain at normal incidence through glazing to that occurring through an approximately 3 millimeter (1/8th inch) thick clear, double-strength glass. Urea formaldehyde: Combination of urea & formaldehyde, used in some glues. Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring VOC that is irritating to most people when found in high concentrations, &is also carcinogenic. Urea-formaldehyde may emit formaldehyde at room temperature.

Terminology
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI): The SRI is an index that combines reflectivity and emissivity, measuring a materials ability to reject solar heat. SRI is defined so that a standard black (reflectance 0.05 and emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white (reflectance 0.80 and emittance 0.90) is 100. Materials with higher SRI absorb less heat and can reduce the heat island effect. U-value: Thermal transmittance. Also known as U-value is the rate of transfer of heat (in watts) through one square meter of a structure divided by the difference in temperature across the structure. It is expressed in watts per square meter per degree kelvin, or W/m2K. Wellinsulated parts of a building have a low thermal transmittance whereas poorly-insulated parts of a building have a high thermal transmittance.

Terminology
Hydroclorofluoro-carbons (HCFC): Refrigerants used in building equipment that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, but to a lesser extent than CFCs. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): Refrigerants that do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. However, some HFCs have a high Global Warming Potential. Clorofluorocarbons (CFCs): CFCs are odorless, colorless, nonflammable non-toxic chemicals. They vaporize easily at low temperatures making them ideal coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners. CFCs are also used in foam for seat padding and insulation. Until recently, they were used extensively in aerosol spray cans. CFCs cause stratospheric ozone depletion.

LEED AP EXAMINATION
LEED AP is LEED ACCREDIATED PROFESSIONAL. In US, LEED AP exam is conducted by USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) through GBCI which was founded by the USGBC in 2008. In India, LEED AP exam is conducted by IGBC. In Chennai center , it is held two times in a month. LEED AP from USGBC and LEED AP from IGBC is not the same.

BENEFITS OF LEED ACCREDITATION


Individual Benefits
Provides a marketable credential to an employer, prospective employer or client Listing on website directory of LEED Accredited Professionals LEED Accredited Professional certificate Eligible for projects mandating the participation of a LEED AP Strengthens qualifications when responding to RFPs requiring a LEED AP Encourages the growth of knowledge and understanding of the LEED Certification process Encourages and promotes a higher understanding of LEED Supports and facilitates transformation of the built environment

Employer Benefits

Industry Benefits

CII Godrej GBC, Hyderabad

ITC Green Centre, Gurgaon

Hiranandani B G House, Powai

Green Building Movement in India

26 Oct 2010
Spectral Services, Noida Spectral Services, Noida
Wipro, Kochi RMBP, Chennai

Building Sector in India - Present Scenario


Building sector
Major growth in the past 3-5 years Annual growth at a rate of 8%

Next 20 years
20 billion sq. ft 100 billion sq. ft

Growing resource intensity


National economic Growth Affordability
Change in life style Comfort levels
Resource demand will continuously grow

Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)


Vision of IGBC
To usher in a green building movement in India India to become one of the world leaders in green buildings by 2015

The best way to demonstrate the potential and possible solutions for green building design & construction is by concrete examples . . .
www.igbc.in

Green Building Movement in India

In 2001, 1 Green Building 20,000 sq.ft.

In 2011, 1,002 Green Buildings 627 Million sq.ft.

Green Building Movement in India


S No 1

Criteria
CEOs & senior people involved

2001
50

Till date
8,500

2 3 4 5 6

No. of professionals trained on Green Building concepts No. of registered Green Buildings Built in Area (sq.ft) Green Building products & equipment IGBC Membership

10 1 0 5 0 0

13,500 1,002 627 Million 118 1,162

(Founding Members)
IGBC Local Chapters

(95)
10

IGBC Accredited Professional

417

Green Building Movement - Growth


1200 1,002

1000

884

800

600

Registered

Certified

465

400 322

134 200 63 30 1 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0 2 1 10 2 17 5 40 80 10 15

137

All types of buildings, all over the country :


IT Parks, Offices, Residential, Banks, Airport, Convention Centre, Institutions, Hospitals, Hotels, Factories, SEZs, Townships . . .

National by Choice Global in Performance

Green Building Rating System Focus areas


IGBC, a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas
Sustainable Sites

Water efficiency
Energy & Atmosphere Material & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality

Rediscovery of the Indian ethos


5 elements of Nature (Panchabhutas)
Prithvi (Earth) Jal (Water) Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency

Agni (Fire)
Vayu (Air) Akash (Sky)

Energy & Atmosphere


Indoor Environmental Quality Daylight, Night Sky Pollution

Rating programmes to suit different building types


One single rating cannot be applied to suit all building types

IGBC Green Home Rating


IGBC Green Factory Rating IGBC Green SEZs IGBC Green Townships LEED India NC (New Construction) LEED India CS (Core and Shell)

Rating systems applicable for all 5 climatic zones in the country

IGBC Rated projects in India


IGBC Rating tested in India:
All climatic zones Different types of buildings
IT Parks, Corporate Offices, Government Buildings, Banks, Airport, Convention Centre, Educational institutions, Hotels, Residential, etc.,
HITEM, Hyderabad HUDA, Hyderabad

Mechanically & Naturally Ventilated buildings Sizes


2,000 sq. ft to 6.0 Million sq. ft.
Olympia Tech Park, Chennai

IGP, Gulbarga

HIAL Airport, Hyderabad

IGBC Green Townships


Integrated Approach to design Green Townships Launch of pilot rating
Municipalika, 27 Jan 2011

Holistic in Approach

LEED 2011 for India


Launch of LEED 2011 for India
ACREX 2011, New Delhi

National by Choice Global in Performance

LEED 2011 for India Certification Levels


Rating Certified Silver Gold Platinum New Construction (NC) 40-49 50-59 60-79 80 and above

LEED 2011 for India Points for Individual Credits


Credits Prerequisites Sustainable sites Water efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental quality Innovation and Design Regional Priority Total Possible Points 8 26 10 35 14 15 6 4 110

Sustainable sites
Credit Title Point (s)

Prereq 1 Credit 1
Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7 Credit 8

Construction activity pollution prevention Site selection


Development density and Community Connectivity Brownfield redevelopment Alternative Transportation Site development Storm water Design Heat Island Effect Light Pollution Reduction

Required 1
5 1 1-12 1-2 1-2 1-2 1

Total 26

Water efficiency
Credit Title Point (s)

Prereq 1 Credit 1
Credit 2 Credit 3

Water Use Reduction, 20% Water Efficient Landscaping


Innovative Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Water Use Reduction, 30 % to 40%

Required 2-4
2 2-4 Total 10

Energy and Atmosphere


Credit Title Point (s)

Prereq 1 Prereq 2
Prereq 3 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6

Fundamental building Systems Commissioning Minimum Energy Performance


Fundamental Refrigerant Management Optimize Energy Performance On-site renewable energy Enhanced commissioning Enhanced refrigerant management Measurement and Verification Green Power

Required Required
Required 1-19 1-7 2 2 3 2 Total 35

Materials and Resources


Credit Title Point (s)

Prereq 1 Credit 1.1


Credit 1.2 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7

Storage and collection of recyclables Building reuse-Walls, Roof and Floor


Building reuse-Interior Construction waste management Material reuse Recycled content Regional materials Rapidly renewable materials Certified wood

Required 1-3
1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1 1 Total 14

Indoor Environmental Quality


Credit Title Point (s)

Prereq 1 Prereq 2
Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7 Credit 8

Min IAQ performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control


Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increased ventilation Construction IAQ management plan Low-emitting materials Indoor chemical and pollutant source control Controllability of systems Thermal comfort Daylight and views

Required Required
1 1 1-2 1-4 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 Total 15

Major Changes in LEED 2011 For India


Extensively promotes local regulations Adopts the latest versions of standards & codes Recognizes many types of eco-friendly local conveyances
Accommodates wider options for public transportation, such as vans and locally approved human-powered conveyances

Major Changes in LEED 2011 For India


Enhances energy and water efficiency baselines
Water efficiency improvement of 20% over baseline now becomes mandatory

Encourages passive cooled buildings by adopting comfort temperature range to Indian conditions
The desired comfort temperature range is now 26+2 oC, to suit Indian climatic conditions.

Reduces the radius of Regional materials to 400 Km

Major Changes in LEED 2011 For India


Promotes IEQ standards to benchmark naturally ventilated buildings Extends the low VOC requirement to a wider variety of flooring systems, adhesives & sealants etc., for better IAQ standards

Successful Case Studies IGBC Certified Green Buildings

1. Solar Air-conditioning
90 TR hot water fired VAM system
26,000 sq. ft.

Reduction in HVAC electrical load


117 kW

Turbo Energy Limited, Chennai

2. Earth Air Tunnels & Wind Towers


Passive Cooling Geothermal
India offers huge potential
Aqua mall, Dehradun

Earth Tunnel Cooling

Police Bhavan - IGP Office, Gulbarga

3. Thermal Storage
Reduces peak load during daytime Major savings for projects having dual tariff
Grundfos Pumps, Chennai

TCS Technopark, Chennai

4. District Cooling System


Centralized chilled

water based HVAC


System

High COP > 6.3

RMZ Ecospace, Kolkata

5. High Performance Envelope


Cavity Walls & Double Glazed Units

Reduced heat gain by design Significant energy savings

6. Green & High SRI - Roof


Reduces heat gain Mitigates local microclimate temperature

CII Godrej GBC, Hyderabad Hiranandani BG House, Mumbai

7. Renewable Energy Systems


Onsite & offsite systems
Wind Solar Hybrid
Turbo Energy, Suzlon One Earth,

Building Integrated Photovoltaics


Delta Power

Suzlon One Earth Pune

Turbo Energy Limited Delta Power, Rudrapur

8. Lighting Controls Occulux sensors, Daylight sensors


Enhanced utilization of daylighting Efficient Luminaires & controls
RMZ Millenia Business Park, Chennai

Lighting Power Density (0.65 0.8)Watts/ sq. ft.

9. High performance HVAC Equipment, Controls & Monitoring System


Energy Efficient Equipment & Systems
Meet & exceed ECBC or ASHRAE 90.1

Past: 100 sq.ft. / TR

Airconditioned space: (400 600) Sq. ft. / TR

Integrated design approach Optimised specifications

10. Energy Modeling & Daylight Simulation


Envelope, Roof, HVAC Equipment & Systems

Light Shelves

What Green Buildings did differently


Green buildings
Integrates traditional wisdom and modern equipment & systems

Results in substantial reduction in energy consumption

Conventional Building

Green Building

Electrical Demand (1 Mn sq. ft)


Conditioned space (sq. ft. /TR) Lighting Power Density watts/ sq. ft Equipment Power Density watts/ sq. ft

8-10 MW

6 - 7 MW
400 700 0.6 0.8 2.0

150 - 200 1.5 - 2.0 3.0

Benefits in 135 Certified Buildings, India


Environmental Benefit Category Co2 reduction Average Benefits /Million Sq.ft 12,000 Tons Benefits Per year 576,000 Tons

Energy savings
Water savings Construction waste diverted from landfills

15,000 MWh
45,000 KL 450 Tons

720,000 MWh
2,160,000 KL 21,600 Tons

Renewable energy, installed capacity

2,200 kW

Appropriate Application of High Performance Glass in Building Design

Approach
1. Orientation 2. Envelope measures
Glazing, Fenestration, Shading, Skylig hting, Roof, Wall Chiller, VFD, Lighting BMS, Temperature, Humidity

3. Equipment & systems


4. Controls 5. Commissioning
Additional commissioning ,M & V

High performance glazing


Green Buildings

Better orientation
Balance
Enhanced Daylight & Views Vs Airconditioning

Faster erection Multiple aesthetic options


Colors & Shades

Intelligent usage

Envelop Measures
Glass & glazing
How much glazing ?

High glazing
Tremendous daylighting Heat ingress
Need to balance

High performance glass & glazing


Low U-value Low Shading Coefficient High VLT (Visual Light Transmittance)

Heat Transfer
The three modes of heat transfer

Heat Flows Through Windows

U-value
U value (W/m2.deg K) Heat transfer due to temperature difference (conduction) Typical U values
Single glazed glass (6mm) : 5-6 Double glazed glass : 1.7 3.0 (6mm+airgap+6mm) Triple glazed glass : 0.3 2.2
High Performance Glass = A Transparent Wall

Shading coefficient

Shading coefficient

Heat gain thru a given glazing (SHGC) --------------------------------------------Heat gain thru 3 mm clear glass (0.87)

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC)


Also called as Solar factor by manufacturers Indicates direct heat gain

Typical values
Single glazed 6mm glass High performance glass : 0.5 0.8 : 0.1 0.4

Significance of Glazing Properties


Which one is more important ? U-value ? Shading coefficient ? Both ?

Triple Glazing

Relative heat gain


RHG=Direct heat gain+Conductive heat gain =SC (630) + U (35-24) Direct heat gain : 90 % Conductive heat gain : 10 %

High Performance Glazing - A Case Study


Built-up Area : 1,12,000 sq.m

Window-Wall Ratio
Glazing Area Double Glazing U-Value : 4 W/m2 deg K Shading Coefficient : 0.30

: 36%
: 2788 sq.m High Performance Glazing U-Value: 2.32 W/m2 deg K Shading Coefficient : 0.20

Energy Savings : Rs. 8.20 lakhs Incremental Cost : Rs. 43 lakhs Pay-back Period : 5 years

Intelligent Use of Glass in Green Buildings

Building No.3, Microsoft Office Building LEED Gold Rated - NC

Green Boulevard, Noida LEED Platinum Rated - CS

TCS Technopark, Chennai LEED Gold Rated - NC

Odyssey GE India Technology Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore LEED Gold Rated - NC

A green building should


ITC Green Centre, Gurgaon

create delight when entered,


serenity and health when occupied and regret when departed - Natural Capitalism

Go Green . . .

What did we Learn ?


Open for new Green ideas
Need to be customer-centric

Demonstrate & showcase the benefits


Incremental cost aspects Carrot and not stick

# 1. Open for New Green Ideas


Open for ideas
Not to stick to run-of-the mill designs

Incorporate green by design


Can make green buildings economical

Loss of Convenience

# 2. Need to be Customer - Centric


Problem : More faithful to design than the user requirements

Need : Customer-centric solutions


Different customers ; different drivers

Owner : Functionality, Savings


Developer : Viability, Image Architect Occupant : Pride : Comfort

# 3. Demonstrate Benefits

Demonstrate and showcase benefits


Validate tangible savings
Energy & water

Key to advance green buildings

# 4. Incremental Cost
Can make or kill a green building idea Typical culture
Cost over run

Green Building
Vulnerable Scapegoat

How do we fix incremental cost ? Each building - Unique